Week 4 Chap 7 (3)

“Older children group such items into ________, based on common properties— clothing, body parts, food, animals. Placing more items in a few categories permits more efficient organization, dramatically improving memory ”
(Berk 292)

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taxonomic categories

“Their most frequent type of media multitasking is”
(Berk 293)

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music and homework

“Research confirms that media multitasking greatly”
(Berk 293)

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reduces learning

“oth groups learned to pre- dict the weather in the two-city situation, but the multitaskers were unable to apply their learning to”
(Berk 293)

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new weather problems

“MRI evidence revealed that the participants working only on the weather task activated the ”
(Berk 293)

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HIppocampus

__ “which plays a vital role in explicit memory—conscious, strategic recall, which enables new informa- tion to be used flexibly and adap- tively in contexts outside the original learning situation”
(Berk 293)

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the hippocampus

“In contrast, the multi- taskers activated _________involved in implicit memory—a shallower, automatic form of learning that takes place unconsciously.”
(Berk 293)

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subcortical areas

“As early as 1980, studies linked heavy media use with”
(Berk 293)

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executive function difficulties

“Beyond superficial preparation for her biology test, Ashley is likely to have trouble concentrating and strategically processing _______ after turning off her computer and MP3 player. ”
(Berk 293)

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new information

“experienced teachers often com- plain that compared to students of a generation ago, today’s teenagers are more”
(Berk 293)

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easily distracted

“Furthermore, older children are more likely to apply several memory strategies at once, rehearsing, organizing, and stating category names. The more strategies they use,”
(Berk 293)

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they better they remember

“By the end of middle childhood, children start to use a third memory strategy,”
(Berk 293)

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elaboration

Children use elaboration when? (“It involves creating a relationship, or shared meaning, between two or more pieces of information that do not belong to the same category.”
)
End of middle childhood

“It involves creating a relationship, or shared meaning, between two or more pieces of information that do not belong to the same category.”
(Berk 293)

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Elaboration

“y the end of middle childhood, children start to use a third memory strategy, elaboration. It involves creating a relationship, or shared meaning, between two or more pieces of information that do not belong to the same category. For example, to learn the words fish and pipe, you might generate the verbal statement or mental image, “The fish is smoking a ”
(Berk 293) – Elaboration

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PIPE (elaboration)

ELABORATION: ” This highly effective memory technique becomes more common during”
(Berk 293)

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Adolescence

“n sum, older-school-age children and adolescents have become adept at strategic memorizing. But while doing schoolwork, they frequently engage in other ”
(Berk 293)

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pursuits

“The ______ produced far better recall than remembering because the children engaged in many spontaneous organizations.”
(Berk 294)

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Play condition

“. Tasks that require children to remember isolated bits of information, which are common in school, strongly motivate use of”
(Berk 294)

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memory strategies

“For example, Guatemalan Mayan 9-year-olds do slightly better than their U.S. agemates when told to remember the ”
(Berk 294)

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placement of objects

“The develop- ment of memory strategies, then, is not just a matter of a more competent information- processing system. It is also a product of ”
(Berk 294)

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task demands and cultural circumstances

“We retrieve information in three ways: through”
(Berk 294)

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recall, recognition or reconstruction

” It is the simplest form of retrieval, since the material to be remembered is fully present during testing to serve as its own retrieval cue.”
(Berk 294)

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recognition

“As the habituation research discussed in Chapters 4 and 6 reveals, even young infants are good at”
(Berk 294)

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recognition

” Now keep the items out of view, and ask the child to name the ones she saw. This more challenging task requires _______—generating a mental representation of an absent stimulus.”
(Berk 294)

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recall

“Improvement in recall over the preschool years is strongly associated with ”
(Berk 295)

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language development

“They said less about the experience than when they had been asked the same question as kindergartners, six weeks after the museum trip. But in response to specific retrieval cues, including photos of the event, sixth graders remembered a”
(Berk 295)

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great deal

_________ “shows far greater improvement because older chil- dren make use of a wider range of retrieval cues.”
(Berk 295)

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recall

“When we must remember complex, meaningful material, we do not merely copy material into the system at storage and faithfully reproduce it at retrieval. Instead, we select and interpret information we encounter in our everyday lives in terms of our existing knowledge. Once we have transformed the material, we often have difficulty distinguishing it from the original (Bartlett, 1932). Constructive processing can take place during any phase of information processing. It can occur during storage. In fact, the memory strategies of organization and elaboration are within the province of constructive memory because both involve generating relationships between stimuli.”
(Berk 295)

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Reconstruction

“Constructive processing can also involve ________ of information, or recoding it while it is in the system or being retrieved.”
(Berk 295)

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Reconstruction

“Do children reconstruct stored information? Clearly, they do. When asked to recall and retell a story, children, like adults, condense, integrate, and add information. By age 5 or 6, children recall important features of a story while forgetting unimportant ones, combine infor- mation into more tightly knit units, reorder the sequence of events in more logical fashion, and even include _______ that fits with a passage’s meaning”
(Berk 295)

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new information

“urthermore, when children receive new information related to a story they previ- ously recalled, they reconstruct the story further. In one study, before telling each of three stories, an adult gave kindergartners information about a main character that was positive (“a nice” child), negative (“not a nice” child), or neutral. Children reconstructed the main character’s behaviors to fit with prior information
” Com- pared with those in the neutral condition, those in the positive condition offered a more positive account, those in the negative condition a more negative account. Seven to ten days later, a fourth story gave children additional information about the main character. In some conditions, the new information was consis- tent with the original information; in others, it conflicted—for example, the “nice” child was now described as a “mean” child. Children again revised their recollections of the main character’s behavior “
behaviour

________________, which support the organization and complexity of children’s recollections, predict the extent to which 9- to 11-year-olds reframe their story recall in response to new information—overriding previously acquired events and viewpoints, elaborating on and integrating old and new details into a coherent picture”
(Berk 296)

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Gains in working memory capacity and language skills

“According to C. J. _______ (1993, 2001) fuzzy-trace theory, when we first encode information, we reconstruct it automatically, creating a vague, fuzzy version called a gist, which preserves essential meaning without details and is especially useful for reasoning.”
(Berk 296)

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Brainerd and Valier Reyna

“According to C. J. Brainerd and Valerie Reyna’s (1993, 2001) _____, when we first encode information, we reconstruct it automatically, creating a vague, fuzzy version called a gist, which preserves essential meaning without details and is especially useful for reasoning.”
fuzzy trace theory

“According to C. J. Brainerd and Valerie Reyna’s (1993, 2001) fuzzy-trace theory, when we first encode information, we reconstruct it automatically, creating a vague, fuzzy version called a ___, which preserves essential meaning without details and is especially useful for reasoning.”
gist

” Although we can also retain a literal, verbatim version, we have a bias toward gist because it requires less space in working memory, freeing attention for the steps involved in thinking. ”

“”According to C. J. Brainerd and Valerie Reyna’s (1993, 2001) fuzzy-trace theory, when we first encode information, we reconstruct it automatically, creating a vague, fuzzy version called a ___, which preserves essential meaning without details and is especially useful for reasoning.””
(Berk 296)

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GIST

“Fuzzy-trace theorists take issue with the assumption that all reconstructions are trans- formations of verbatim memory. Instead, they believe that both verbatim and gist memories are present but are stored ”
(Berk 296)

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separately

“Fuzzy-trace theory adds to our understanding of reconstruction by indicat- ing that it can occur immediately, as soon as information is encoded. Fuzzy-trace research reveals that although memory is vital for reasoning, getting bogged down in details (as young children tend to do) can interfere with”
(Berk 296)

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problem solving

Which memories are more likely to be remembered? Fuzzy trace or verbatim?
Fuzzy trace

Which memories are more likely to be remembered? Fuzzy trace or verbatim
FUZZY TRACE MORE LIKELY TO BE REMEMBERED

“, gists can serve as enduring retrieval cues, contributing to improved recall of details with age ” FOr
(Berk 296)

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fuzzy trace memories

“In such recall, however, gists heighten the chances of reporting false items consistent with the fuzzy meaning of an experience. After studying a list con- taining the words bed, rest, wake, tired, dream, blanket, nap, and snooze, adoles- cents and adults—who are more skilled gist thinkers—not only recall more items correctly than children but also mention more gist-related words not in the list, such as ”
(Berk 296)

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sleep

“. Fuzzy-trace theory helps explain why some memory inaccuracies”
(Berk 296)

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decrease and increase with age

“Our vast, taxonomically organized and hierarchically structured general knowledge system, consisting of concepts, language meanings, facts, and rules (such as memory strategies and arithmetic procedures) is often referred to as”
(Berk 296)

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semantic memory

“This greater organization at retrieval suggests that highly knowledgeable children apply memory strategies in their area of expertise with little or no effort—by rapidly associating new items with the large number they already know. Such ________ recall lets experts devote more working-memory resources to using recalled information to reason and solve problems ”
(Berk 297)

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automatic

“n contrast, academically unsuccessful children fail to ask how previously stored information can clarify”
(Berk 297)

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new information

“The knowledge that makes up semantic memory does not require storage of when or where the information was acquired. In this way, it differs from _______, recollections of personally experienced events that occurred at a specific time and place”
“for example, what you did after you got up this morning or how you celebrated your high school graduatio”
(Berk 297)

Berk, Laura E.. Child Development, 9th Edition. Pearson/Australia, Feb-13. VitalBook file.

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episodic memory

“Researchers agree that ____ develops earlier than episodic memory.”
(Berk 297)

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semantic memory

Which develops earlier? Semantic or episodic?
Semantic

Which develops later? semantic or episodic?
Episodic

“The capacity to bind together information supports the development of _________ in early childhood.”
(Berk 298)

Berk, Laura E.. Child Development, 9th Edition. Pearson/Australia, Feb-13. VitalBook file.

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episodic memory

“Furthermore, young children’s sense of self must be sufficiently developed to support episodic memory. To recall events, children must link_____-specific information to the self—to their own inner sense of “mental time travel””
(Berk 298)

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Time and place

“In the following sections, we trace the development of two types of episodic memory: (1) memory for ______—ones that children experience repeatedly in the course of their everyday lives; and (2) memory for significant_____that children integrate into their personal life stories.”
Recurring events, one time events

“Like adults, preschoolers remember repeated events—what you do when you go to child care or get ready for bed—in terms of ______, general descriptions of what occurs and when it occurs in a particular situation. ”
(Berk 298)

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scripts

“Like adults, preschoolers remember repeated events—what you do when you go to child care or get ready for bed—in terms of scripts, general descriptions of what occurs and when it occurs in a particular situation. ”
(Berk 298)

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reconstructive memory

” Try recalling what you had for dinner two or three days ago. Unless it was out of the ordinary, you probably cannot remember. The same is true for young children. In this way, scripts help prevent ”
(Berk 298)

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long term memory from being cluttered

“Some researchers believe that the general event structures of scripts provide a founda- tion for organizing memory for”
(Berk 298)

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unique events

“Each of us has a unique ________, made up of representations of one-time events that are long-lasting because they are imbued with personal meaning”
(Berk 298)

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autobiographical memory

“How does memory for autobiographical events—the day a sibling was born or the first time you took an airplane—arise and persist for a lifetime? At least two developments make this possible. ”
(Berk 298)

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clear self image for events and encoding events as something with them

A”dults use two styles to elicit children’s autobiographical narratives. In the ________style, they follow the child’s lead, discussing topics of interest to the child, asking varied questions, adding information to the child’s statements, and volunteering their own recollections and evaluations of events.”
“In contrast, adults who use the _____ style keep repeating the same ques- tions regardless of the child’s interest, providing little additional information: “Do you remember the zoo? What did we do at the zoo? What did we do there?”
(Berk 299)

Berk, Laura E.. Child Development, 9th Edition. Pearson/Australia, Feb-13. VitalBook file.

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elaborative, repetetive

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