# Waves, Energy in atoms, Quantum Numbers, Periodic Trends

Flashcard maker : Joel Boykin
 Transverse Waves
 amplitude/crest is perpendicular to the origin  most common type of wave like at the ocean
 Frequency
 “Nu” HERTZ how many waves go through a point in one second frequency is like standing on a road and seeing how many cars pass by. ex. the frequency of cars on Rt. 8 is greater than the frequency of cars on McCully Rd.
 Wavelength
 “lambda” METERS distance from trough to trough, or from crest to crest, etc.
 Trough
 Bottom of the wave
 Crest
 top of the wave
 Amplitude
 distance from the origin to the trough distance from the origin to the crest
 Democritus
 came up with the atom
 J.J. Thompson
 he says atoms have a charge tests this with the cathode ray (beam of light is attracted to a positive charge and repelled by a negative charge) becomes the plum pudding model with a big positively charged core and electrons around it
 Robert Millikan
 determines the charge of an electron atoms have mass his oil drop experiment able to measure the charge to mass ratio of the electron
 Ernest Rutherford
 discovers atoms have a lot of empty space gold foil experiment- puts alpha particles through gold foil. Although the vast majority of particles passed right through the foil in approximately 1 in 8000 were deflected; therefore, most of the atom was made up of empty space
 Compression Wave
 the crest is parallel to the origin like shock waves in earthquakes
 Electromagnetic Spectrum (Light)
 order from low wavelength to high wavelength: Cosmic – Gamma – X Rays – Ultra Violet Rays – Visible Light (vib g yor) – Infra Red – Microwaves – T.V. waves – Radio waves (FM then AM)
 Energy, Frequency, Wavelength
 Directly Proportional: Energy and Frequency Inversely Proportional: Frequency and Wavelength ***constant = amplitude, speed***
 Gamma Rays
 used to treat cancer go straight through any part of the body and can change and mutate cells they kill the cells, good and bad, and that’s why they’re used to treat cancer
 X-Rays
 negative images lower frequency = organs higher frequency = bones
 Ultra Violet Rays
 like the sun cause skin cancer x-rays actually cause cancer EASIER because of their higher frequency
 Visible Light
 From high frequency to low, goes ROY G BIV backwards, or VIB G YOR
 Infrared
 picks up heat can see thermal temperatures (heat)
 Microwaves
 heats up your food by seeing H2O vibrations, heating the H2O up, creating friction, and heating the food many other types of microwaves, not just the normal food-heater-upper kind
 T.V. Waves
 self explanatory. used to use bunny ears, and you could get different channels by changing the distance between the wires
 picks up stations, changes frequency FM = higher frequency. MHz AM = lower frequency. KHz AM has less clarity; we listen to FM because it has a higher frequency, higher [ ], better clarity  FM don’t travel as far, so we’re closer to them and can therefore hear them really well
 Reflection
 bounce of light angle of incidence = angle of reflection
 Refraction
 bending of light
 Black Light
 on the border of UV rays/visible light glow in the dark things: store the energy from light then slowly release
 Phosphorescence
 energy that was stored is released slowly over a period of time glow sticks
 Fluorescence
 once the light source is gone, energy is gone and the object will not glow anymore
 Quantanization of Electron (how energy comes in)
 as light, heat, electricity
 Quantanization of Electron (how the energy goes through the process)
 The atom is hit with energy, the energy moves to outer rings with the electron. The electron is not stable. If the electron goes back down the rings to fill a ring, energy is released IN THE FORM OF LIGHT!
 Quantanization of Electron (energy differences between rings)
 going from the 1st to the 4th ring is harder and takes more energy than going from the 1st to the 2nd or 3rd ring
 Quantanization of Elecrton (excited/ground state)
 excited state is when the electron is in an unstable outer ring and the rings below it are not filled up ground state is when the electron is in a completely filled up ring
 Light
 white: all of the colors black: absence of color red: only red
 Pigment
 white: no pigments black: all pigments red: all but red pigment ex. chlorophyll has all of the colors except for green
 Continuous Spectrum  vs Line Spectrum
 continuous: multiple wavelengths and frequencies  of light for a specific section  line: contains only one frequency and wavelength of a specific section *different lights give off different line spectrums*
 Wavelength/Frequency equation
 λ*ν=c wavelength*frequency=constant constant is the speed of light, 3.00×108 m/s
 Energy Equation
 E=hν   energy=Plank’s constant*frequency energy is measured in joules Plank’s constant is 6.634×10-34 energy and frequency are directly proportionate
 Bohr Model
 [image]
 Energy at a Given Ring Equation
 E= -RH / n2 energy=-RH constant divided by (the ring electron is in)2 RH constant= 2.179×10-18 Joules
 Energy Transformation Between Rings
 ΔE=hν EI-EF take your energy in the initial ring minus your energy in the final ring, applying the E=-RH / n2 to both rings
 Lyman Series
 U.V. rays from n=7 to n=1
 Balmer Series
 visible light from n=7 to n=2
 Paschen Series
 Infra Red rays from n=7 to n=3
 Highest Probable Place to Find an Electron
 on the rings but since the electron moves in waves, the electron could be closer to the crest or trough
 De Broglie’s Relation
 ; ;=h/mv ; wavelength=Plank’s constant / mass x velocity      calculates the wavelength of any moving object      wavelength = meters      velocity = m/s      mass = kg
 How many electrons can be in a single orbital?
 2 electrons can be in every orbital if they are spinning in opposite directions
 Wave Function
 Ψ gives us information about the particle at given energy levels
 Quantum Mechanics
 branch of physics that describes wave properties of subatomic particles
 Heisenberg’s Uncertainty Principle
 ; there is an uncertainty between the position and momentum of an electron if you know where an electron is, you don’t know where it is going if you know where an electron is going, you don’t know where it is at ;
 ;2
 gives the highest probable place of finding an electron
 Atomic Orbitals
 place with the highest probability of finding an electron different shapes: s, p, d, f there are 2 electrons per lobe
 Atomic Orbitals (picture)
 [image]
 Number of Lobes in the Orbitals
 s = 1 lobe p = 2 lobes d = 4 lobes f = 8 lobes
 Number of Electrons in the Orbitals
 s = 2 electrons p = 6 electrons d = 10 electrons f = 14 electrons
 How would you diagram [image]
 protons = 54 neutrons = 131-54= 77 electrons = 54 it’s in the P section of periodic table, 5th row down so you put in 5 rings to diagram do orbital diagram to know how many electrons are in each ring
 Quantum Numbers Principle Quantum Number
 symbol = n represents what energy level (ring) the electron is in possibilities: n=1,2,3,4…
 Quantum Numbers Angular Quantum Number (Azimuthal)
 symbol = l represents what orbital the electrons is in possibilities: l= 0(s), 1(p), 2(d), 3(f)
 Quantum Number Magnetic Quantum Number
 symbol = mL represents what orientation the electron is in around the nucleus or what box the electron is in possibilities: 0 for s… -1,0,1 for p… -2,-1,0,1,2 for d… -3,-2,-1,0,1,2,3 for f
 Quantum Number Spin Quantum Number
 symbol = ms represents which direction the electron is spinning possibilities: ↑ or ↓
 Pauli Exclusion Principle
 No two electrons can have the same four quantum numbers (only way 2 electrons are in the same orbital is if they have different spins)
 Aufbau Principle
 aka the build-up principle electrons must fill up the lowest energy positions first “follow the yellow brick road”
 Hund’s Rule
 lowest energy arrangement of electrons in a sub shell is done by putting electrons into separate orbitals with the same spin before pairing electrons basically, you put all of the up spinning electrons in before going back and adding the down spinning electrons
 Magnetic Properties
 Paramagnetic= substance is weakly attracted to a magnetic field due to unpaired electrons Diamagnetic= substance is not attracted to a magnetic field or is slightly repelled due to having all of its electrons paired up
 LOOK OVER PERIODIC TRENDS!!! remember: 1. #of rings (more rings is bigger) 2. #of protons (more protons is SMALLER) 3. # of electrons (more electrons is bigger)
 ; Atomic Radius: bigger bottom left, smaller top right Ionic Radius: cations and anions= bigger bottom left, smaller top right Ionization Energy: lower/smaller in bottom left, higher in top right Electron Affinity and Negativity: lower bottom left, higher top right Metallic Character: higher bottom left, lower top right Reactivity: highest in bottom left and top right
 Oxides of the Elements
 metal oxides in H20 are BASIC non-metal oxides in H20 are ACIDIC