Waves, Energy in atoms, Quantum Numbers, Periodic Trends

Flashcard maker : Joel Boykin
Transverse Waves

  • amplitude/crest is perpendicular to the origin 
  • most common type of wave like at the ocean 



  • “Nu”
  • how many waves go through a point in one second
  • frequency is like standing on a road and seeing how many cars pass by.
  • ex. the frequency of cars on Rt. 8 is greater than the frequency of cars on McCully Rd.



  • “lambda”
  • distance from trough to trough, or from crest to crest, etc.


  • Bottom of the wave


  • top of the wave


  • distance from the origin to the trough
  • distance from the origin to the crest



  • came up with the atom


J.J. Thompson


  • he says atoms have a charge
  • tests this with the cathode ray (beam of light is attracted to a positive charge and repelled by a negative charge)
  • becomes the plum pudding model with a big positively charged core and electrons around it

Robert Millikan


  • determines the charge of an electron
  • atoms have mass
  • his oil drop experiment
  • able to measure the charge to mass ratio of the electron


Ernest Rutherford


  • discovers atoms have a lot of empty space
  • gold foil experiment- puts alpha particles through gold foil. Although the vast majority of particles passed right through the foil in approximately 1 in 8000 were deflected; therefore, most of the atom was made up of empty space


Compression Wave

  • the crest is parallel to the origin
  • like shock waves in earthquakes

Electromagnetic Spectrum (Light)

order from low wavelength to high wavelength:

  • Cosmic – Gamma – X Rays – Ultra Violet Rays – Visible Light (vib g yor) – Infra Red – Microwaves – T.V. waves – Radio waves (FM then AM)

Energy, Frequency, Wavelength

  • Directly Proportional: Energy and Frequency
  • Inversely Proportional: Frequency and Wavelength
  • ***constant = amplitude, speed***

Gamma Rays

  • used to treat cancer
  • go straight through any part of the body and can change and mutate cells
  • they kill the cells, good and bad, and that’s why they’re used to treat cancer


  • negative images
  • lower frequency = organs
  • higher frequency = bones

Ultra Violet Rays


  • like the sun
  • cause skin cancer
  • x-rays actually cause cancer EASIER because of their higher frequency

Visible Light

  • From high frequency to low, goes ROY G BIV backwards, or VIB G YOR 



  • picks up heat
  • can see thermal temperatures (heat)



  • heats up your food by seeing H2O vibrations, heating the H2O up, creating friction, and heating the food
  • many other types of microwaves, not just the normal food-heater-upper kind

T.V. Waves

  • self explanatory.
  • used to use bunny ears, and you could get different channels by changing the distance between the wires

Radio Waves

  • picks up stations, changes frequency
  • FM = higher frequency. MHz
  • AM = lower frequency. KHz
  • AM has less clarity; we listen to FM because it has a higher frequency, higher [ ], better clarity 
  • FM don’t travel as far, so we’re closer to them and can therefore hear them really well


  • bounce of light
  • angle of incidence = angle of reflection


  • bending of light


Black Light

  • on the border of UV rays/visible light
  • glow in the dark things: store the energy from light then slowly release


  • energy that was stored is released slowly over a period of time
  • glow sticks


  • once the light source is gone, energy is gone and the object will not glow anymore

Quantanization of Electron

(how energy comes in)

  • as light, heat, electricity

Quantanization of Electron

(how the energy goes through the process)

  • The atom is hit with energy, the energy moves to outer rings with the electron. The electron is not stable. If the electron goes back down the rings to fill a ring, energy is released IN THE FORM OF LIGHT!

Quantanization of Electron

(energy differences between rings)

  • going from the 1st to the 4th ring is harder and takes more energy than going from the 1st to the 2nd or 3rd ring

Quantanization of Elecrton

(excited/ground state)

  • excited state is when the electron is in an unstable outer ring and the rings below it are not filled up
  • ground state is when the electron is in a completely filled up ring


  • white: all of the colors
  • black: absence of color
  • red: only red


  • white: no pigments
  • black: all pigments
  • red: all but red pigment
  • ex. chlorophyll has all of the colors except for green

Continuous Spectrum 


Line Spectrum

  • continuous: multiple wavelengths and frequencies  of light for a specific section 
  • line: contains only one frequency and wavelength of a specific section
  • *different lights give off different line spectrums* 

Wavelength/Frequency equation


  • wavelength*frequency=constant
  • constant is the speed of light, 3.00×108 m/s

Energy Equation



  • energy=Plank’s constant*frequency
  • energy is measured in joules
  • Plank’s constant is 6.634×10-34
  • energy and frequency are directly proportionate


Bohr Model
Energy at a Given Ring Equation

E= -RH / n2

  • energy=-RH constant divided by (the ring electron is in)2
  • RH constant= 2.179×10-18 Joules 

Energy Transformation Between Rings



  • take your energy in the initial ring minus your energy in the final ring, applying the E=-RH / n2 to both rings

Lyman Series


  • U.V. rays
  • from n=7 to n=1


Balmer Series


  • visible light
  • from n=7 to n=2


Paschen Series

  • Infra Red rays
  • from n=7 to n=3

Highest Probable Place to Find an Electron

  • on the rings
  • but since the electron moves in waves, the electron could be closer to the crest or trough

De Broglie’s Relation




  • wavelength=Plank’s constant / mass x velocity
  •      calculates the wavelength of any moving object
  •      wavelength = meters
  •      velocity = m/s
  •      mass = kg


How many electrons can be in a single orbital?

  • 2 electrons can be in every orbital if they are spinning in opposite directions

Wave Function


  • gives us information about the particle at given energy levels

Quantum Mechanics

  • branch of physics that describes wave properties of subatomic particles

Heisenberg’s Uncertainty Principle


  • there is an uncertainty between the position and momentum of an electron
  • if you know where an electron is, you don’t know where it is going
  • if you know where an electron is going, you don’t know where it is at



  • gives the highest probable place of finding an electron

Atomic Orbitals

  • place with the highest probability of finding an electron
  • different shapes: s, p, d, f
  • there are 2 electrons per lobe

Atomic Orbitals (picture)
Number of Lobes in the Orbitals

  • s = 1 lobe
  • p = 2 lobes
  • d = 4 lobes
  • f = 8 lobes

Number of Electrons in the Orbitals

  • s = 2 electrons
  • p = 6 electrons
  • d = 10 electrons
  • f = 14 electrons

How would you diagram


  • protons = 54
  • neutrons = 131-54= 77
  • electrons = 54
  • it’s in the P section of periodic table, 5th row down so you put in 5 rings to diagram
  • do orbital diagram to know how many electrons are in each ring

Quantum Numbers

Principle Quantum Number

  • symbol = n
  • represents what energy level (ring) the electron is in
  • possibilities: n=1,2,3,4…

Quantum Numbers

Angular Quantum Number (Azimuthal)

  • symbol = l
  • represents what orbital the electrons is in
  • possibilities: l= 0(s), 1(p), 2(d), 3(f)

Quantum Number

Magnetic Quantum Number

  • symbol = mL
  • represents what orientation the electron is in around the nucleus or what box the electron is in
  • possibilities: 0 for s… -1,0,1 for p… -2,-1,0,1,2 for d… -3,-2,-1,0,1,2,3 for f

Quantum Number

Spin Quantum Number

  • symbol = ms
  • represents which direction the electron is spinning
  • possibilities: ↑ or ↓

Pauli Exclusion Principle

  • No two electrons can have the same four quantum numbers (only way 2 electrons are in the same orbital is if they have different spins)

Aufbau Principle

  • aka the build-up principle
  • electrons must fill up the lowest energy positions first
  • “follow the yellow brick road”

Hund’s Rule

  • lowest energy arrangement of electrons in a sub shell is done by putting electrons into separate orbitals with the same spin before pairing electrons
  • basically, you put all of the up spinning electrons in before going back and adding the down spinning electrons

Magnetic Properties

  • Paramagnetic= substance is weakly attracted to a magnetic field due to unpaired electrons
  • Diamagnetic= substance is not attracted to a magnetic field or is slightly repelled due to having all of its electrons paired up



1. #of rings (more rings is bigger)

2. #of protons (more protons is SMALLER)

3. # of electrons (more electrons is bigger)


  • Atomic Radius: bigger bottom left, smaller top right
  • Ionic Radius: cations and anions= bigger bottom left, smaller top right
  • Ionization Energy: lower/smaller in bottom left, higher in top right
  • Electron Affinity and Negativity: lower bottom left, higher top right
  • Metallic Character: higher bottom left, lower top right
  • Reactivity: highest in bottom left and top right

Oxides of the Elements

  • metal oxides in H20 are BASIC
  • non-metal oxides in H20 are ACIDIC

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