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major characteristic of Christianity
belief in a single just and all powerful-god

how did the jewish view of God differ from the beliefs of most people in the ancient world?
Jews believed in only one God

The church limited what
where and when Christians could fight

describe the role of the roman catholic church in western Europe during the middle ages
the church provided a sense of stability, unity, and order

in the byzantine empire, one important feature of life was the development of:
eastern orthodox christianity

a major goal of the catholic church during the crusades was to
capture the holy land from Islamic rulers

what did the caste system in india and the feudal system in Europe have in common?
a division of society into hereditary social classes

feudalism evolved in response to a need for

what was the primary characteristic of feudal society in medieval Europe?
an exchange of land for services

in western Europe, feudalism developed after the
turmoil of repeated invasions

one characteristic of the Golden age of muslim culture was the
toleration of several other religons

the black death spread to Europe as a result of contact with
traders coming from asia

what was an important effect of the hundred years war?
a greater reliance on new weapons reduced the importance of knights

which statement best expresses Ibn Battutas point of view in this passage
the ruler of mali is both rich and powerful

which goods were traded in timbuktu
salt and gold

which conclusion can best be drawn about this region
the sahara desert acted as a barrier to trade

one way in which the African kingdoms of Ghana, Maili, and Songhai were similar is that they:
benefitted from the gold and salt trade

one important way in which the silk road and west African trade routes were similar was that along these routes
ideas were exchanged as merchants interacted with each other

how did hernan and Montezuma differ in their points of view of their encounter, as expressed in these accounts
cortes marveled at Aztec wealth, while Montezuma focused on the tragic events of the encounter

a study of the Aztec, maya, and inca agricultural systems would show that these civilization
adapted to their environments with creative farming techniques

which of the following statements about incan civilizations is true?
it depended upon a system of roads to connect the empire

pre Columbian inca civilization
cooperation and planning in agriculture

what accomplishments are most closely associated with the gupta empire
use of the sanskirt language and development of the concept of zero

what characteristic did the Persian empire share with the roman and incan empire
widespread road system

how did han emperors select officials to run the government
they set up a system of civil service exams open to all

what was an important difference between the ancient city states of Sparta and athens
Sparta placed more emphasis on military service

represent the view of a citizen of ancient Athens visiting sparta
the government and society of Sparta are too strict. The people have little voice in government

what mathematical innovations were developed under the gupta dynasty
“Arabic” numerals and the decimal system

the main effect of the events on this timeline was the
formation of the empire

Constantinople became the center of the byzantine empire because
a roman emperor had moved the capital of the empire eastwards

the Neolithic revolution occurred when people discovered how to
grow food and domesticate animals

what led to complex civilizations, surplus of food and division of labor
domestication of plants and animals

one difference between classical civilizations and river valley civilizations was that in the classical civilizations
political organizations were more elaborate

what was one similarity between the ancient civilizations of Egypt and china
they both had written forms of communication

what supports the conclusion that the indus valley civilization had a centralized government
the cities had an organized pattern of streets

the Aryans divided people into classes by

where would an archeologist discover a mummy, hieroglyphics written on stone walls, embalmed pharaoh

the river valleys of the tigris Euphrates, the nile, the indus, and the yellow river were cneters of civilization because they
had fertile soil, fresh water, and warm climates

best describes what government was like under the shang
feudal clans controlled most of the land

the mandate of heaven is the idea behind what
the dynastic cycle in china

western Europe went into a long deep sleep. learning was found only in the religious orders. fear and chaos reigned. what period in history does this statement by a historian best describe?
western Europe after the fall of rome

two immediate results of the fall of the roman empire were
a period of economic disorder and weak central government

in western Europe, which development was the cause of the other three
warfare disrupted trade throughout europe

the fall of rome was
not a single event, but a long process of change

how were the collapses of the roman empire and the han dynasty similar
both societies faced pressure from outside invaders

the han dynasty and the roman empire were similar in that both
developed extensive trade networks

one reason Spanish conquistadors were able to conquer the Aztecs was that
Spanish soldiers possessed superior military technology

most accurate based on the map?
rome traded extensively throughout the Mediterranean region

the rocky islands and isolated valleys of Greece contributed to
individual city states

the map supports the theory that the roman empire untied the Mediterranean region under its control because
rome was centrally located

geographic factors that influenced the creation of greek city states
isolated valleys and islands

which number marks the location of the Islamic defeat at the battle of tours

a famous example of “cultural diffusion” in early Chinese history was
the introduction and spread of Buddhism from india

Sikhism blended the beliefs of islam with those of

legalism in china stressed the importance of
strong governmnet

hindus and Buddhists hold different beliefs concerning
the caste system

the split between sunni and Shiite muslims began with a disagreement over
the choice of a leader

Buddha taught that a person could achieve enlightenment through

hindus believed that caste could be changed by
the law of karma

the diagram above shows the relationship between individuals in a society based on the ideas of

which religion is most closely associated with self-denial, meditation, the “four noble truths, and nirvana

which is an important duty for followers of islam
fast in daytime during the month of ramadan

what brought to india by the aryans
the caste system

what is the most valid generalization about the impact of the crusades?
they increased trade between europe and asia

the history of the crusades..
remains a subject of modern debate and interpretation

which culture created marble temples such as the parthenon with ideal proportions and the first works of drama and history
ancient greece

citizens of Athens had the right to openly discuss issues and vote in the assembly. this is an example of

which feature of western democratic government reflects aristotles views
the requirement that government actions must adhere to the law

ancient athenian democracy differed from modern american democracy in
urging that all citizens participate directly in lawmaking

what is a concept from classical Athens that is central to Western political thought today?
individual achievement, dignity, and worth are of great importance

a direct democracy lets
citizens make decisions

in what way were the babylonian Code of hammurabi and the roman twelve tables similar?
they established a written set of laws

which principle of babylonian society does this excerpt from the code of hammurabi illustrate?
divisions existed between social classes

the code of hammurabi was a major contribution to the development of civilization because it
established written laws

the roman system of justice is considered a milestone because it
served as a model for many later european legal systems

the aztec calendar and the maya use of zero both illustrate that pre columbian cultures in the americas
made advances in math and science

these two structures indicate that ancient pre columbian civilizations:
had the engineering skill to build complex structures

the importance ancient athenians placed on individual participation in the:
political involvement of the city state

the lincoln memorial was influenced by what piece of greek architecture?

what are three forms of government referred to by aristotle
monarchy, aristocracy, democracy

development of the alphabet: what can best be drawn from the chart of it
the alphabet spread the phoenicia to greece and later to rome

romain art and their emphasis on preciseness or exactness is what type of art

the accomplishment of roman engineering is an example of?

what geographic characteristics of greece provided a link to the outside world?

what society was the first to practice direct democracy?
city states of athens

one way in which the actions of cyrus the great and alexander the great were similar was that each:
conquered neighboring peoples to build vast empire

what was not practiced in china?

what about constantinople is accurate?
constantinople was an important trading center

brahmins, kshatriyas, vaisyas, sudras is what
the caste system

which emperor was most influential in spreading buddhism and peace in india?

confucius taught the chinese people that their most important duty was
respect for elders

these architectural achievements indicate that
advanced building techniques existed in ancient civilizations

what marked the beginning of civilization?
the development of cities

alexander the greats most lasting achievement was
the spread of greek culture

greeces mountainous terrain and its series of small islands encouraged the ancient greeks to develop
a political system based on independent city states

what phrase best completes the byzantine empire map
orthodox christianity

a major feature of the golden age of muslim culture was the
development of the foundations of modern science and mathematics

mansa muas journey to mecca in the 1300’s is evidence that
islam had a major influence on the mali empire

one similarity between the ancient african kingdoms of egypt, ghana, mali and songhai is that all these kingdoms were located
on major trading routes

one reason the ancient kingdoms in western africa prospered was that they
developed extensive trade in gold, ivory and salt

the contributions of the ancient civilizations of ghana, axum, kush, and mali demonstrate that
advanced societies developed in africa before europeans colonized this region

a similarity between the ancient western african kingdoms of mali, ghana, and songhai is that these kindgdoms
established economies based on trade

“western europe owed a debt of gratitude to the empire that for almost a thousand years ensured the survival of christianity during a time when europe was too weak to accomplish the task”
what empire is referred to in this quote?

an influence that spread from the byzantine empire to early russia was the
orthodox christian religion

which empire introduced the eastern orthodox church and cyrillic alphabet to russia

in latin america, the maya and the aztec civilizations were similar in that they
developed complex mathematical and calendar systems

a study of the maya, aztec and inca civilizations of latin america would show that these civilizations
developed advanced and complex societies before the arrival of the europeans

the native american population of mexico in 1492 has been estimated at 25 million; the population in 1608 was estimated at 1.7 million. this decrease in population was mainly a result of
diseases introduced by the spanish

one reason the spanish conquistadors were able to conquer the aztec and inca empires rapid is that
the spanish had better weapons than the aztecs and incas did

judaism, islam and christianity share a belief in
monotheism and ethical conduct

“when i go to the office, i put on my shirt and take off my caste; when i come home, i take off my shirt and i put on my caste”
what is the main idea of this quote?
the caste system continues to influence indian society

in traditional chinese culture, which philosophy had the greatest influence on the development of social order and political organization

the teachings of confucius encouraged people to
follow a code of moral conduct

one similarity between the five pillars of islam and the ten commandments is that both
provide a guide to proper ethical and moral behavior

one way in which eastern orthodoxy, roman catholicism, and the protestantism are similar is that each
is a branch of christianity

the koran, jihad and the hegira are most closely associated with the practice of

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