Vocabulary Flashcard

Double Displacement Reaction
Cations and anions of two different compounds switch places.

AD + BC → AC + BD

Dissociation
The process by which the action of a solvent or a change in physical condition, as in pressure or temperature, causes a molecule to split into simpler groups of atoms, single atoms, or ions.
Single Displacement Reaction
An element or ion moves out of one compound and into another.

A + BC → AC + B

Electrolysis
Chemical change, especially decomposition, produced in an electrolyte by an electric current.
Hydrocarbon
Any of a class of organic compounds composed only of carbon and hydrogen.
Insoluble
A substance incapable of being dissolved.
Ionization
The process by which an electron is removed from an atom, molecule, or ion.
Net Ionic Equation
Chemical equation for a reaction which lists only those substances participating in the reaction.
Percent Yield
(Actual Yield / Theoretical Yield) x 100
Precipitate
A solid material that is formed in a solution by chemical reactions and settles to the bottom of the container in which the reaction takes place.
Reactant
A substance participating in a chemical reaction, especially a directly reacting substance present at the initiation of the reaction.
Product
A substance that forms as a result of a chemical reaction.
Soluble
A substance capable of being dissolved.
Subscript
Represents the number of atoms of each element in the molecule.
Synthesis
Formation of a compound from simpler compounds or elements.

A + B → AB

Avogadro’s Number
6.02 x 10^23
Excess Reagent
A substance in a reaction that doesn’t limit the product that is produced.
Limiting Reactant
Substance that determines how far the reaction will go before the chemical in question gets used up, causing the reaction to stop.
Molar Mass
Mass of one mole of a substance (chemical element or chemical compound)
Mole
The SI base unit that measures an amount of substance.

6.02 x 10^23

Mole Ratio
A portion of a chemical from a known portion of another.
Percent Composition
(Mass Of Compound) / (Molar Mass of Compund) x 100
Alpha Particles
Two protons and two neutrons bound together into a particle identical to a helium nucleus.
Anion
A negatively charged ion.
Atom
The smallest unit of an element.
Average Atomic Mass
The average of the atomic masses of all the chemical element’s isotopes, weighted by isotopic abundance
Atomic Number
Represents the number of protons in an element.
Bohr
Scientist depicted the atom as a small, positively charged nucleus surrounded by electrons that travel in circular orbits around the nucleus.
Cation
A positively charged ion.
Charge
Positive, Negative or Neutral Charge of an Ion.
Electron
A negatively charged subatomic particle.
Electron Configuration
The orbital and spin arrangement of an atom’s electrons, specifying the quantum numbers of the atom’s electrons in a given state.
Energy Level
Level of orbital that an electron is located.
Excited State
Electrons moving to a higher energy that results in formation of light.
Ground State
The state of least possible energy in a physical system.
Ion
Atoms that either gained or lost electrons.
Isotope
Atoms that have the same number of protons but different number of neutrons.
Neutron
An atom that has no charge and is located in the nucleus.
Nucleus
The positively charged central region of an atom, composed of protons and neutrons.
Orbital
The wave function of an electron in an atom or molecule, indicating the electron’s probable location.
Percent Abundance
The abundance of the weight of the isotopes in an element.
Proton
A positively charged subatomic particle that is located in the nucleus.
Valence Electrons
Electrons that are located in the oouter most energy level.
Actinide Series
A series of radioactive metallic elements in Group 3.
Atomic Radius
Half the distance between the nuclei of two like atoms.
Alkali Metals
Elements that are located in Group 1.
Alkali Earth Metals
Elements are are located in group 2
Electronegativity
The ability of an atom in a molecule to attract electrons toward itself.
Family
A group of elements with similar chemical properties.
Period
Elements forming one of the horizontal rows in the periodic table.
Halogen
Elements located in Group 17 of the periodic table.
Ionization Energy
The amount of energy needed to remove an electron from a given kind of atom or molecule.
Lanthanide Series
The set of chemically related elements with properties similar to those of lanthanum.
Melting Point
The temperature at which a solid becomes a liquid at standard atmospheric pressure.
Metallic Character
Chemical properties associated with metals. Shiny, Conductor, Malleable.
Noble Gas
Elements located in Group 18 of the periodic table.
Oxidation Number
Numerical charge on the ions of an element.
Group
Vertical Elements in the periodic table that share the same elemental properties.
Periodic Law
The principle that the properties of the elements recur periodically as their atomic numbers increase.
Precipitate
Solid substance that is seperated in a solution.
Thermal Conductivity
The ability of a material to transfer heat.
Transition Metal
Metals that are located in the middle of the periodic table.
Trend
The general direction in which a characteristic of an element goes.

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