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Vocab Chapter 7

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Enuresis
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(age 3-5) Repeated urination in clothing or bed.
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Gross Motor Skills
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Physical skills that involve the large muscles.
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Fine Motor Skills
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Physical skills that involve the small muscles and eye-hand coordination.
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Handedness
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Preference for using a particular hand.
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Preoperational Stage
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In Piagets theory, the second major stage of cognitive development, in which symbolic thought expends but children can to yet use logic.
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Symbolic function
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Piaget’s term for ability to use mental representations (words, numbers, or images) to which a child has attached meaning.
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Pretend play
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Play involving imaginary people and situations; also called fantasy play, dramatic play, or imaginative play.
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Transduction
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Piaget’s term for preoperational child’s tendency to mentally link particular phenomena, whether or not there is logically a casual relationship.
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Animism
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Tendency to attribute life to object that are not alive.
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Centration
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The tendency to focus on one aspect of a situation and neglect others.
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Decenter
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To think simultaneously about several aspects of a situation.
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Egocentrism
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Inability to consider another persons point of view; a characteristic of young children’s thought.
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Conservation
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The fact that two things that are equal remain so if their appearance is altered, as long as nothing is added or taken away.
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Irreversibility
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A preoperational child’s failure to understand that an operation can go in two or more directions.
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Encoding
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Process by which information is prepared for long term storage and later retrieval.
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Storage
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Retention of information in memory for future use.
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Retrieval
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Process by which information is accessed or recalled from memory storage.
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Sensory Memory
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Initial, brief, temporary storage of sensory actively processed.
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Working Memory
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Short-term storage of information being actively processed.
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Executive Function
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Conscious control of thoughts, emotions, and actions to accomplish goals or solve problems.
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Central Executive
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In Baddeley’s model, element of working memory that controls the processing of information.
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Long-term Memory
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Storage of virtually unlimited capacity that holds information for long periods.
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Recognition
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Ability to identify a previously encountered stimulus.
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Recall
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Ability to reproduce material from memory.
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Generic Memory
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Memory that produces scripts of familiar routines to guide behavior.
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Autobiographical Memory
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Memory of specific events in ones life.
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Fast Mapping
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Process by which a child absorbs the meaning of a new word after hearing it once or twice in conversation.
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Pragmatics
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The practical knowledge needed to use language for communicative purposes.
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Social Speech
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Speech intended to be understood by a listener.
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Private Speech
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Talking aloud to oneself with no intent to communicate with others.