Visual Anatomy & Physiology, Chapter 1 Answers Flashcard

Anatomy
Means “a cutting open”. Is the study of internal and external structures of the body and the physical relationships among body parts.
Gross anatomy
Also known as macroscopic anatomy. Involves the examination of relatively large structures and features usually visible with the unaided eye.
Microscopic anatomy
Type of anatomy that deals with structures that cannot be seen without magnification.
Physiology
The study of function. Considers the function of the human body.
Are form and function interrelated?
Yes. An example is that your elbow joint functions like a hinge. It lets your forearm move toward or away from your shoulder; but it does not allow twisting at the joint. These functional limits are imposed by the internal structure of the joint.
Organism
The highest level of organization. All organ systems in the body must work together to maintain life and health.
Cells
These are the smallest independent organisms and the smallest units of life.
Micrometer
The unit used to measure cell size (one millionth of a meter)
Histology
The study of tissues.
Epithelial tissue
Covers and protects exposed surfaces, lines internal passageways and chambers, and produces glandular secretions.
Connective tissue
Fills internal spaces, provides structural support, and stores energy.
Muscle tissue
Contracts to produce active movement.
Organ
A functional unit composed of more than one tissue type.
Organ system
Consists of organs that interact to perform a specific range of functions, often in a coordinated fashion.
Integumentary system
Major functions are protection from environmental hazards; temperature control.
Skeletal system
Major function is support, protection of soft tissues; mineral storage; blood formation.
Muscular system
Major function is locomotion, support, heat production.
Nervous system
Major function is directing immediate responses to stimuli, usually by coordinating the activities of other organ systems.
Endocrine system
Major function is directing long-term changes in the activities of other organ systems.
Cardiovascular system
Function is internal transport of cells and dissolved materials, including nutrients, wastes, and gases.
Lymphatic system
Major function is defense against infection and disease.
Respiratory system
Function is the delivery of air to sites where gas exchange can occur between the air and circulating blood.
Digestive system
Function is processing of food and absorption of organic nutrients, minerals, vitamins, and water.
Urinary system
Function is the elimination of excess water, salts, and waste products; control of pH.
Reproductive system
Function is the production of sex cells and hormones.
Homeostasis
The presence of a stable internal environment. This is absolutely vital to an organism’s survival.
Homeostatic regulation
The adjustment of physiological systems to preserve homeostasis in environments that are often inconsistent, unpredictable, and potentially dangerous.
Receptor
sensor
Control center
integration center. Receives and processes information supplied by the receptor, and sends out commands.
Effector
Responds to the commands of the control center by opposing the stimulus.
Set point
Desired value
Feedback
Occurs when receptor stimulation triggers a response that changes the environment at the receptor.
Negative Feedback
This method of homeostatic regulation is called _______ _______ because an effector activated by the control center opposes, or negates, the original stimulus. It tends to minimize change, keeping variation in key body systems within limits compatible with our long-term survival.
Positive Feedback
An initial stimulus produces a response that exaggerates or enhances the change on the original conditions, rather than opposing it. You seldom encounter this feedback type in your daily life, simply because it tends to produce extreme responses.
Positive Feedback loop
An escalating cycle. Example would be continued clotting, each step releases chemicals that further accelerate the clotting process.
Anatomical position
Position in which hands are at the sides with the palms facing forward, and the feet together.
Supine
A person lying down in the anatomical position is said to be ________ when face is up.
Prone
A person lying down in the anatomical position is said to be ________ when face is down.
Hallux
Great toe
Digits or phalanges
Toes or fingers
Tarsal
Ankle
Crural
front of lower leg
Patellar
Kneecap
Pollex
Thumb
Palmar
Palm
Carpal
Wrist
Antebrachial
Forearm
Antecubital
Front of elbow
Brachial
Arm
Axillary
Armpit
Mental
Chin
Cervical
Neck
Buccal
Cheek
Otic
Ear
Frontal
Forehead
Nasal
Nose
Ocular or Orbital
Eye
Cranial
Skull
Facial
Face
Oral
Mouth
Thoracic
Chest
Mammary
Breast
Umbilical
Navel
Manual
Hand
Inguinal
Groin
Femoral
Thigh
Pedal
Foot
Cephalic
Head
Dorsal
Back
Olecranal
Back of elbow
Lumbar
Loin
Gluteal
Buttock
Popliteal
Back of knee
Sural
Calf
Calcaneal
Heel of foot
Acromial
Shoulder
Plantar
Sole of foot
Spinal
Vertebral
Anterior
The front surface
Posterior
The back side. Also known as Dorsal.
Superior
Above
Caudal
The tail. Coccyx in a human.
Inferior
Below
Medial
Toward the body’s longitudinal axis, toward the midsagittal plane.
Lateral
Away from the body’s longitudinal axis, away from the midsagittal plane.
Proximal
Toward an attached base.
Distal
Away from an attached base.
Superficial
At, near, or relatively close to the body surface.
Deep
Farther from the body surface.
Transverse or horizontal section
Separates superior and inferior portions of the body. A cut in this plane is called a cross section.
Sagittal section
Separates right and left portions.
Midsagittal section or median section
The plane passes through the midline, dividing the body into right and left halves.
Frontal or coronal section
Separates the anterior and posterior portions of the body.
Thoracic Cavity
Everything deep to the chest wall is considered to be within the _______ ________. (Heart and Lungs)
Abdominopelvic Cavity
All of the structures deep to the abdominal and pelvic walls are said to be within the _________ ________.
Body cavities
Fluid-filled chambers holding internal organs. They protect delicate organs from shocks and impacts as well as permit significant changes in the size and shape of internal organs.
Viscera
The internal organs that are partially or completely enclosed by body cavities.
Pericardial cavity
Surrounds the heart.
Pericardium
A delicate membrane, called a serous membrane, lining the pericardial cavity.
Diaphragm
A muscular sheet that separates the thoracic cavity from the abdominopelvic cavity.
Peritoneal cavity
A chamber lined by a serous membrane known as the peritoneum. A few organs, such as the kidneys and pancreas, lie between the peritoneal lining and the muscular wall of the abdominal cavity.
Mediastinum
A mass of connective tissue that separates the two plural pleural cavities and stabilizes the positions of embedded organs and blood vessels.
Pleural Cavity
Each lung is enclosed within a ________ ___________, lined by a shiny, slippery serous membrane.
Pleural membrane
A shiny, slippery serous membrane that lines the Pleural cavities.
Peritoneum
A serous membrane that lines the Peritoneal cavity.
Peritoneal Cavity
A cavity within the abdominopelvic cavity which is lined by the peritoneum.
Retroperitoneal
A few organs, such as the kidneys and pancreas, lie between the peritoneal lining and the muscular wall of the abdominal cavity. These organs are said to be ________________.
Abdominopelvic Quadrants
Formed by imaginary perpendicular lines that intersect at the umbilical (navel).
Four types of tissues
nervous, epithelial, connective and muscular

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