Visual Anatomy & Physiology, Chapter 1 Answers Flashcard
Means “a cutting open”. Is the study of internal and external structures of the body and the physical relationships among body parts.
Also known as macroscopic anatomy. Involves the examination of relatively large structures and features usually visible with the unaided eye.
Type of anatomy that deals with structures that cannot be seen without magnification.
The study of function. Considers the function of the human body.
Are form and function interrelated?
Yes. An example is that your elbow joint functions like a hinge. It lets your forearm move toward or away from your shoulder; but it does not allow twisting at the joint. These functional limits are imposed by the internal structure of the joint.
The highest level of organization. All organ systems in the body must work together to maintain life and health.
These are the smallest independent organisms and the smallest units of life.
The unit used to measure cell size (one millionth of a meter)
The study of tissues.
Covers and protects exposed surfaces, lines internal passageways and chambers, and produces glandular secretions.
Fills internal spaces, provides structural support, and stores energy.
Contracts to produce active movement.
A functional unit composed of more than one tissue type.
Consists of organs that interact to perform a specific range of functions, often in a coordinated fashion.
Major functions are protection from environmental hazards; temperature control.
Major function is support, protection of soft tissues; mineral storage; blood formation.
Major function is locomotion, support, heat production.
Major function is directing immediate responses to stimuli, usually by coordinating the activities of other organ systems.
Major function is directing long-term changes in the activities of other organ systems.
Function is internal transport of cells and dissolved materials, including nutrients, wastes, and gases.
Major function is defense against infection and disease.
Function is the delivery of air to sites where gas exchange can occur between the air and circulating blood.
Function is processing of food and absorption of organic nutrients, minerals, vitamins, and water.
Function is the elimination of excess water, salts, and waste products; control of pH.
Function is the production of sex cells and hormones.
The presence of a stable internal environment. This is absolutely vital to an organism’s survival.
The adjustment of physiological systems to preserve homeostasis in environments that are often inconsistent, unpredictable, and potentially dangerous.
integration center. Receives and processes information supplied by the receptor, and sends out commands.
Responds to the commands of the control center by opposing the stimulus.
Occurs when receptor stimulation triggers a response that changes the environment at the receptor.
This method of homeostatic regulation is called _______ _______ because an effector activated by the control center opposes, or negates, the original stimulus. It tends to minimize change, keeping variation in key body systems within limits compatible with our long-term survival.
An initial stimulus produces a response that exaggerates or enhances the change on the original conditions, rather than opposing it. You seldom encounter this feedback type in your daily life, simply because it tends to produce extreme responses.
Positive Feedback loop
An escalating cycle. Example would be continued clotting, each step releases chemicals that further accelerate the clotting process.
Position in which hands are at the sides with the palms facing forward, and the feet together.
A person lying down in the anatomical position is said to be ________ when face is up.
A person lying down in the anatomical position is said to be ________ when face is down.
Digits or phalanges
Toes or fingers
front of lower leg
Front of elbow
Ocular or Orbital
Back of elbow
Back of knee
Heel of foot
Sole of foot
The front surface
The back side. Also known as Dorsal.
The tail. Coccyx in a human.
Toward the body’s longitudinal axis, toward the midsagittal plane.
Away from the body’s longitudinal axis, away from the midsagittal plane.
Toward an attached base.
Away from an attached base.
At, near, or relatively close to the body surface.
Farther from the body surface.
Transverse or horizontal section
Separates superior and inferior portions of the body. A cut in this plane is called a cross section.
Separates right and left portions.
Midsagittal section or median section
The plane passes through the midline, dividing the body into right and left halves.
Frontal or coronal section
Separates the anterior and posterior portions of the body.
Everything deep to the chest wall is considered to be within the _______ ________. (Heart and Lungs)
All of the structures deep to the abdominal and pelvic walls are said to be within the _________ ________.
Fluid-filled chambers holding internal organs. They protect delicate organs from shocks and impacts as well as permit significant changes in the size and shape of internal organs.
The internal organs that are partially or completely enclosed by body cavities.
Surrounds the heart.
A delicate membrane, called a serous membrane, lining the pericardial cavity.
A muscular sheet that separates the thoracic cavity from the abdominopelvic cavity.
A chamber lined by a serous membrane known as the peritoneum. A few organs, such as the kidneys and pancreas, lie between the peritoneal lining and the muscular wall of the abdominal cavity.
A mass of connective tissue that separates the two plural pleural cavities and stabilizes the positions of embedded organs and blood vessels.
Each lung is enclosed within a ________ ___________, lined by a shiny, slippery serous membrane.
A shiny, slippery serous membrane that lines the Pleural cavities.
A serous membrane that lines the Peritoneal cavity.
A cavity within the abdominopelvic cavity which is lined by the peritoneum.
A few organs, such as the kidneys and pancreas, lie between the peritoneal lining and the muscular wall of the abdominal cavity. These organs are said to be ________________.
Formed by imaginary perpendicular lines that intersect at the umbilical (navel).
Four types of tissues
nervous, epithelial, connective and muscular