Virtual Public Speaking Quiz 2

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Public Speeches
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Public speeches typically address one of three general purposes: to inform, to persuade, or to mark a special occasion.
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General Speech Purpose
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For any speech answers the question, ” Why am I speaking on this topic to this particular audience on this occasion?” The speech occasion often determines the general speech purpose, or at least suggests what might be most appropriate. For example, a town activist, invited to address a civic group about installing solar panels in town buildings, may choose a persuasive purpose to encourage the group to get behind the effort. If invited to describe the initiative to the town finance committee, the activist may choose an informative purpose, in which the main goal is to help the finance members understand project costs. Addressing the same topic, the speaker selects a different general speech purpose to suit the audience and occasion.
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Informative Speech
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Your purpose in an informative speech is to share your knowledge or point of view about a subject with others by defining, describing, explaining, or demonstrating this knowledge. general purpose: is to increase the audience’s understanding and awareness of a topic.
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General categories of Informative topics
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objects people events concepts processes issuses
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objects
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Their origin, construction, function, symbolic, or concrete meaning. For example, how wind turbines work; what’s behind Native American cliff dwellings.
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people
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Their biographies, noteworthy achievements, anecdotes about them. For example, Barack Obama’s childhood; Facebook founder Mark Zuckerberg
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events
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Noteworthy or unusual occurrences, both past and present. For example, rebuilding of New Orleans; criminality in professional sports.
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concepts
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Abstract and difficult ideas or theories. For example, the nature of love; the definition of peace; the theory of intelligent design
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processes
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A series of steps leading to an end result. For example, how one becomes an astronaut; how to succeed in a college internship
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issues
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Problems or matters of dispute. For example, U. S. border security; whether reality television is really real.
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Sample informative Speech Topics
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• The Effectiveness of Nutritional Supplements • Service Vacations • Violence on College Campuses • The Booming Business of Wine • Careers We Didn’t Have Ten Years Ago • Community Service Options for Busy College Students • Lesser Known Uses of the iPhone and Droid • The Increasing Prevalence of Autism
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Persuasive Speech
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general purpose: is to effect some degree of change in the audience’s attitudes, beliefs, or even specific behaviors ( e. g., ” Only eat wild salmon”).
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Sample Persuasive Speech Topics
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• Take Nutritional Supplements for Better Health • Use Spring Break for a Service Vacation • Attend Campus Emergency Preparedness Workshops • Consider a Career in the Wine Industry • Use Your Major to Develop a New Career Area • Spend One Weekend Each Quarter in Community Service • Admit and Break Your iPhone Addiction • Assist in the Care of a Special Needs Child
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Special Occasion Speech
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entertain, celebrate, commemorate, inspire, or set a social agenda and include speeches of introduction, speeches of acceptance, speeches of presentation, roasts and toasts, eulogies, and after- dinner speeches, among others. Special occasion speeches sometimes have secondary specific purposes to inform or to persuade. For example, a speech to mark the occasion of Veterans Day might include a message to devote more time to volunteering with the local Veterans Hospital.
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Brainstorming
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is a problem- solving process that involves the spontaneous generation of ideas through word association, topic mapping, or Internet browsing using search engines and Web ( subject) directories. It is a structured and effective way to identify topic ideas in a relatively brief period of time.
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Word Association
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To brainstorm by word association, write down one topic that might interest you and your listeners. Then jot down the first thing that comes to mind related to it. Repeat the process until you have a list of fifteen to twenty items. Narrow the list to two or three, and then select a final topic.
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Topic Map
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is a brainstorming technique in which you lay out words in dia-gram form to show categorical relationships among them ( see Figure 7.1). Put a potential topic in the middle of a piece of paper and draw a circle around it. As related ideas come to you, write them down as shown in Figure 7.1. Keep going until you hit upon an idea that appeals most to you.
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Specific Speech purpose
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lays out precisely what you want the audience to get from the speech. To determine the specific purpose, ask yourself, ” What is it about my topic that I want the audience to learn/ do/ reconsider/ agree with?” Be specific about your aim, and then state this aim in action form
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Thesis Statement
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is the theme or central idea of the speech stated in the form of a single declarative sentence. It concisely expresses what the speech will attempt to support from the speaker’s point of view. It is a single line that serves to connect all the parts of the speech, much like a backbone. The main points, the supporting material, and the conclusion all emanate from and relate to the thesis. The thesis statement and the specific purpose are closely linked. Both state the speech topic, but in different forms. The specific purpose describes in action form what outcome you want to achieve with the speech. The thesis statement concisely declares, in a single idea, what the speech is about. By clearly stating what your speech is about, you set in your mind exactly what outcome you want to accomplish.
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Outlining
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is the physical process of plotting those speech points on the page in hierarchical order of importance. An outline is an essential tool that lets you check for logical inconsistencies in the placement of speech points and pinpoint weaknesses in the amount and kind of support for them. Rather than making the job of drafting a speech harder, outlining your speech provides a vivid snapshot of its strengths and weaknesses and clearly points to how you can fix the flaws. Although a few famous speakers have managed to deliver successful speeches without first arranging and outlining them, for the vast majority of us, the success or failure of a speech will depend on doing so.
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Arrangement
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Organizing the speech ( also called arrangement by classical rhetoricians) is the strategic process of deciding how to order speech points into a coherent and convincing pattern for your topic and audience.
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Introduction
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establishes the purpose of the speech and shows its relevance to the audience. It lets listeners know where the speaker is taking them.
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body
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The body of the speech presents main points that are intended to fulfill the speech purpose. Main points are developed with various kinds of supporting material to fulfill this purpose.
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Conclusion
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ties the purpose and the main points together. It brings closure to the speech by restating the purpose and reiterating why it is relevant to the audience, and by leaving audience members with something to think about. In essence, the introduction tells listeners where they are going, the body takes them there, and the conclusion lets them know that they have arrived.
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Main points
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express the key ideas and major themes of the speech. Their function is to represent each of the main elements or claims being made in support of the speech thesis. The first step in creating main points is to identify the central ideas and themes of the speech.
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declarative sentence
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one that states a fact or argument). This emphasizes the point and alerts audience members to the main thrusts of your speech. For example, if one of your main points is that children need more vitamin D, you should clearly state, ” According to the nation’s leading pediatricians, children from infants to teens should double the recommended amount of vitamin D.”
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parallel form
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that is, in similar grammatical form and style. This helps listeners understand and retain the points ( by providing consistency) and lends power and elegance to your words
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primary effect
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Listeners have a better recall of the main points made at the beginning of a speech, a phenomenon termed the primacy effect,
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recency effect
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at the end of a speech ( the recency effect) than of those made in between ( unless the ideas made in between are far more striking than the others). 6 Thus, if it is especially important that listeners remember certain ideas, introduce those ideas near the beginning of the speech and reiterate them at the conclusion.
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supporting points
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represent the supporting material or evidence you have gathered to explain ( in an informative speech) or justify ( in a persuasive speech) the main points. It is here that you substantiate or prove your thesis with examples, narratives, testimony, and facts and statistics.
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Principles of Coordination and Subordination
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• Assign ideas that are coordinate equal weight. • Assign ideas that are subordinate relatively less weight. • Indicate coordinate points by their parallel alignment. • Indicate subordinate points by their indentation below the more important points. • Every point must be supported by at least two points or none at all ( consider how to address one ” dangling” point in the point above it).
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Outlines are based on the principles of
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coordination and subordination.

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