US History Unit 7, Big Stick Diplomacy

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Big Stick Diplomacy
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Theodore Roosevelt’s imperialist policy promoting the US as a world power. i.e.: treaty that ended the Russo-Japanese War; Open Door Policy with China; Panama Canal; world tour of the Great White Fleet; all of which gave rise to world-power status. An extension to the Monroe Doctrine whereby the US could intervene in disputes between North and South America and other world powers.
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Open Door Policy
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A policy proposed by the US in 1899, under which ALL nations would have equal opportunities to trade in China.
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Theodore Roosevelt
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1858-1919. 26th President (1901-1909 Republican). Increased size of Navy, “Great White Fleet”. Added Roosevelt Corollary to Monroe Doctrine. “Big Stick” policy. Received Nobel Peace Prize for mediation of end of Russo-Japanese war. Later arbitrated split of Morocco between Germany and France.
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Speak softly and carry a big stick
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(slogan) Teddy Roosevelt’s big stick diplomacy which meant that you could negotiate first, but you had to back it up with force
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Panama Canal
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A 10-mile strip of land across Panama, purchased for $10 million and an annual rent of $250,000. As one of the great engineering feats of the time, it reduced shipping costs by cutting more than 7,000 miles and helped extend U.S. naval power by allowing the fleets to move between the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. Opened in 1914.
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Hay-Herran Treaty
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Treaty that opened the door for the building of the Panama Canal; in return for a Canal Zone six miles wide, the United States agreed to pay Colombia Dollar 10 million in cash and a rental fee of $250,000 a year; the United States Senate ratified the Hay-Herran Treaty in 1903 but the Colombian Senate held out for $25 million in cash.
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Roosevelt Corollary the Monroe Doctrine
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This was established in 1904 after the Dominican Republic and other Latin American nations were at risk of defaulting on loans which left them open to European intervention. It set the United States’ role as a police power in Central and South America. The U.S. was justified in intervening first to forestall involvement by outsiders in the Western Hemisphere.
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Russo-Japanese War
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(1904-1905) War between Russia and Japan over imperial possessions. Japan emerges victorious.
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Treaty of Portsmouth
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(1905) ended the Russo-Japanese War (1904-1905). It was signed in Portsmouth, New Hampshire, after negotiations brokered by Theodore Roosevelt (for which he won the Nobel Peace Prize). Japan had dominated the war and received an indemnity, the Liaodong Peninsula in Manchuria, and half of Sakhalin Island, but the treaty was widely condemned in Japan because the public had expected more.
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Gentlemen’s Agreement of 1907
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Agreement between US and Japn that halted the influx of Japanese immigrants coming to the US and brought some respite to the racial agitation in California.
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Act of Algeciras
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Meeting between the US, France, Britain, and Germany which made Morocco free and also opened up trading in that country. Theodore Roosevelt won the Nobel Peace Prize for this agreement. It was signed in 1906, affirmed the independence of Morocco and guaranteed an open door for trade there but provided for the training and control of Moroccan police by France and Spain
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Great White Fleet
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16 American battleships, painted white, sent around the world to display American naval power 1907-1909 – Roosevelt sent the Navy on a world tour to show the world the U.S. naval power. Also to pressure Japan into the “Gentlemen’s Agreement.”

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