US History Chapter 7 Vocab

Flashcard maker : Dennis Jennings
Eli Whitney
United States inventor of the mechanical cotton gin (1765-1825)
Interchangeable Parts
identical components that can be used in place of one another in manufactoring
Mass Production
the production of large quantities of a standardized article (often using assembly line techniques)
Industrial Revolution
The change from an agricultural to an industrial society and from home manufacturing to factory production, especially the one that took place in England from about 1750 to about 1850.
Cotton Gin
a machine that separates the seeds from raw cotton fibers
Henry Clay
United States politician responsible for the Missouri Compromise between free and slave states (1777-1852)
American System
Economic program advanced by Henry Clay that included support for a national bank, high tariffs, and internal improvements; emphasized strong role for federal government in the economy.
National Road
First national road building project funded by Congress. It made travel and transportation of goods much easier because it was one continuous road that was in good condition.
Erie Canal
an artificial waterway connecting the Hudson river at Albany with Lake Erie at Buffalo
Tariff of 1816
This protective tariff helped American industry by raising the prices of British manufactured goods, which were often cheaper and of higher quality than those produced in the U.S.
McCulloch v. Maryland
Supreme Court case which validated the constitutionality of the Bank of the United States, denying states’ rights to tax it
John Quincy Adams
Sixth president of the United States He was in favor of funding national research and he appointed Henry Clay as his Secretary of State. During his presidency the National Republicans were formed in support of him.
Nationalism
the doctrine that nations should act independently (rather than collectively) to attain their goals
Adams-Onis Treaty
an 1819 agreement in which Spain gave over control of the territory of Florida to the United States
Monroe Doctrine
an American foreign policy opposing interference in the Western hemisphere from outside powers
Missouri Compromise
an agreement in 1820 between pro-slavery and anti-slavery factions in the United States concerning the extension of slavery into new territories
Andrew Jackson
The seventh President of the United States (1829-1837), who as a general in the War of 1812 defeated the British at New Orleans (1815). As president he opposed the Bank of America, objected to the right of individual states to nullify disagreeable federal laws, and increased the presidential powers.
Democratic-Republican Party
a political party founded in the 1790s by Thomas Jefferson, James Madison, and other leaders who wanted to preserve the power of the state governments and promote agriculture
Spoils System
the system of employing and promoting civil servants who are friends and supporters of the group in power
Indian Removal Act
law passed in 1830 that forced many Native American nations to move west of the Mississippi River
Trail of Tears
Forced journey of the Cherokee Indians from Georgia to a region west of the Mississippi during which thousands of cherokees died
Daniel Webster
Famous American politician and orator. he advocated renewal and opposed the financial policy of Jackson. Many of the principles of finance he spoke about were later incorporated in the Federal Reserve System. Would later push for a strong union.
John C. Calhoun
South Carolina Senator – advocate for state’s rights, limited government, and nullification
Tariff of Abominations
Tariff passed by Congress in 1828 that favored manufacturing in the North and was hated by the South
Bank of the United States
Hamilton’s plan to solve Revolutionary debt, Assumption highly controversial, pushed his plan through Congress, based on loose interpretation of Constitution
Whig Party
An American political party formed in the 1830s to oppose President Andrew Jackson and the Democrats, stood for protective tariffs, national banking, and federal aid for internal improvements
Martin Van Buren
He was the eighth president of the United States who was experienced in legislative and administrative life. He passed the Divorce Bill which placed the federal surplus in vaults located in large cities and denied the backing system.
Panic of 1837
Ecnomic downturn caused by loose lending practices of stat banks’ and overspeculation. Martin Van Buren spent most of his time in office attempting to stablize and lessen the economic situation
William Henry Harrison
9th president. Hero of the Battle of Tippecanoe. Nominated as the Whig’s presidential candidate for 1840. Proven vote getter. Military hero who expressed few opinions on national issues and had not political record to defend.
John Tyler
elected Vice President and became the 10th President of the United States when Harrison died 1841-1845, President responsible for annexation of Mexico after receiving mandate from Polk, opposed many parts of the Whig program for economic recovery

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