US History Chapter 1-2 Terms

Flashcard maker : Patricia Smith
Henry the Navigator
A Portuguese explorer who, in 1418, started a school of navigation to train people in navigation, map-making, and science for them to be able to sail down Western Africa.
Vasco de Balboa
A Spanish conquistador and explorer known for crossing the Isthmus of Panama, and the first to see the eastern part of the Pacific Ocean.
Ferdinand Magellan
A Portuguese explorer who first sailed all the way around the earth, and he also is credited for naming the Pacific Ocean.
Juan Ponce de Leon
A Spanish explorer of the 16th century, who was in search for the fountain of youth, who in the process, first set foot in Florida.
Hernando Cortes
A Spanish explorer who defeated the Aztecs in search of gold and lots more treasures, and at the same time claimed Mexico for the Spanish.
Conquistador
Soldiers, explorers, or adventurers of the Spanish and Portuguese empires who came to the new world so they could conquer new lands and get money and materials.
Reconquista
The reconquest of the Iberian Peninsula.
Encomienda
A legal system created by the Spanish to manage the Natives labor. It consisted of a grant by the crown of a conquistador, official, or others of a specified number of Indians living in a particular area. The one who has received the grant could extract tribute from the natives in gold, labor, or other things, and had to protect them.
Reformation
the religious revolution led by Martin Luther and John Calvin in the 16th century
John Calvin
The leading French Protestant Reformer and one of the most important figures of the Protestant Reformation.
Mayans
Mesoamerican Indians who occupied parts of southern Mexico and Guatemala. One of the greatest civilizations of the Western Hemisphere, before the Spanish conquests. Known for their knowledge of astronomy and canals.
Incas
South American Indians who ruled an empire throughout the Pacific coast and Andes Mountains from Ecuador to Chile.
Puritans
group of English reformers in the 16th and 17th centuries who wanted to purify the church in England and eventually left to the new world.
Sir Humphrey Gilbert
English explorer who started English settlements in Ireland, then came to America and founded another English settlement in Newfoundland
Martin Frobisher
English explorer who sailed to North America looking for a Northwest Passage.
Black Death
A pandemic in Europe in the 14th century that took a proportionally greater toll of life than any other known pandemic or war up to that time.
Hispaniola
Area where Columbus landed when he first found America.
Mercantilism
economic theory and practice common in Europe from the 16th to the 18th century promoting governmental regulation of a nation’s economy for the purpose of augmenting state power at the expense of rival national powers.
Fransisco Vasquez de Coronado
Spanish explorer who was the first to explore North America’s Southwest
Vasco de Gama
A Portuguese explorer who discovered a way to get from Portugal to Asia, by going around the Southern tip of Africa
Marco Polo
Traveled to the Mongol area with his father and then into China, and wrote a book called The Marvels of the World.
Zheng He
Chinese explorer who led several expeditions exploring the Indian Ocean.
Christopher Columbus
An Italian explorer who, in 1492, sailed across the Atlantic to find a route to India, and discovered America
John Cabot
An Italian-born English explorer who also came to America to search for a Northwest passage
St. John’s Newfoundland
The area where John Cabot in Canada and the vikings found much earlier.
Hernando de Soto
A Spanish explorer who was the first European to explore Florida and the southwestern US
Pizarro
Spanish conquistador who conquered the Incan Empire
Tenochtitlan
Ancient capital of the Aztec Empire
Amerigo Vespucci
Italian explorer who realized America was separate from Asia. America is named after him
Bering Land Bridge
land bridge that connects Siberia and Alaska
Martin Luther
German religious reformer who led the Protestant Reformation in the 16th century
Aztecs
Large Indian empire located in central and southern Mexico. Well known capital city Tenochtitlan now Mexico City
Henry VIII
King of England in the 16th century, who presided over the beginnings of the Renaissance and the English reformation
Church of Enlgnad
The original church of the Anglican Communion since the Protestant Reformation
Walter Raleigh
British explorer who led expeditions to the Americas to find gold, and increase trade in the New World
Roanoke
The first attempted settlement in North America, the lost colony that randomly disappeared.
Pueblo Indians
Western Indians who lived in clay and dirt huts.
Croatoan
The only words carved into a post at the lost colony of Roanoke.
Jamestown
The first successful settlement in the New World by Europeans.
Richard Haklukt
English geographer who was known for his political influence, and his writings
Bartoleme de Las Casas
Spanish historian who was the first to expose the oppression of the Indian by the European and to call for the abolition of Indian slavery.
Bartholomew Dias
Portuguese navigator who was the first to sail around the Cape of Good Hope
Lief Erikson
A Viking explorer who was possibly the first to find America, sailing from Greenland
Powhatan
Indian Chief of group of Indians in Virginia in the 17th century
Proprietary Colony
Any of certain early North American colonies, such as Carolina and Pennsylvania, organized in the 17th century in territories granted by the English Crown to one or more proprietors who had full governing rights.
Bacon’s Rebellion
an armed rebellion led by Nathan Bacon in Virginia against the Governor William Berkeley
William Berkeley
colonial governor of Virginia in the 17th century, one of the Lords Proprietors of the Colony of Carolina
Virginia Company
a pair of joint stock companies chartered by King James, established settlements in New England
John Rolfe
an early English settler in the 17th century who was credited with the first successful cultivation of tobacco as an export crop in the Virginia Colony
Tobacco
a cash crop in the early settlements of America
Indentured Servants
a person who signs and is bound by indentures to work for another for a specified time especially in return for payment in colonial times
Royal Colony
a colony, as New York, administered by a royal governor and council appointed by the British crown
St. Mary’s
a city in Maryland founded by 300 English settlers, led by the Calvert Family
Charles I
monarch of England in the 17th century, who struggled for power in England
Navigation Acts
a series of laws that restricted the use of foreign shipping for trade between England and its colonies
Sugar
a luxury cash crop in the Americas and Europe in the 17th and 18th century
Yamasee War
a conflict in the 18th century between the settlers of South Carolina and various native tribes
Cherokee
Native american people historically settled in the Southeastern United States
General James Oglethorpe
a British general, Member of Parliament, philanthropist, and founder of the colony of Georgia
Rice
a cash crop in the southeastern US in the 17th century
Pamunkeys
an Indian tribe located near Virginia in the early 17th century
English Civil War
a series of armed conflicts and political problems between Parliamentarians and Royalists
Coode’s Rebellion
when Puritans, by then a substantial majority in the colony, revolted against the proprietary government, led by the Roman Catholic Charles Calvert
James I
king of England in the 16th century, Jamestown named after him
Atlantic Slave Trade
a trade between Europe and the Americas concerning African slaves
Triangular Trade
a trade carrying slaves, cash crops, and manufactured goods between West Africa, Caribbean or American colonies and the European colonial powers, with the northern colonies of British North America, especially New England
Headrights
50 acres of land for every new settler, plus 50 acres per family member or servant
Stock Company
a business entity which is owned by shareholders, including the Virginia Company
Calvert Family
a Catholic family loyal to the king, who led the Puritans against the proprietary government
Opechancanough
a tribal chief of the Powhatan Confederacy of what is now Virginia
Oliver Cromwell
an English military and political leader and later Lord Protector of the Commonwealth of England
Royal Africa Company
a mercantile company set up by the Stuart family and London merchants to trade along the west coast of Africa, led by James, Duke of York, Charles II’s brother
Sir Anthony Ashley Cooper
an English proprietor of the Carolinas in the 17th century
Catawba
an Indian tribe located in southeastern US
West Indies Settlement
the islands and mainland colonies in and around the Caribbean that were part of the British Empire
George II
king of Great Britain in the 18th century

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