US History 201, Beginning to 1877

Flashcard maker : Jason Westley
The origins of the majority of human existence in North America began
with migrations from Eurasia over the Bering Strait.
Incas, Maya, and Aztecs did NOT have
the use of wheeled vehicles
Prior to European contact, the eastern third of what is today the United States
had the most abundant food resources of any region of the continent.
Cahokia was a large trading center located near what present-day city?
St. Louis
Native American religions were closely linked to
the natural world
The first permanent Spanish settlement in what is now the United States was
St. Augustine
What factor is believed to have dramatically reduced New World native populations after contact with Europeans?
Disease
The first permanent English settlement in the New World was established in
Jamestown
The cause for failure of the Roanoke colony
is historically inconclusive.
What was NOT introduced by Europeans to the New World?
Corn
The cultivation of tobacco around Jamestown did NOT result in
Improved relations with the Indians
During its first year in North America, the Plymouth colony survived in large part due to
assistance from Indians.
The Puritan founders in Massachusetts who described their colony as a \”shining city upon a hill\” felt they were creating a holy community that would be a
model for the world.
When it was established in 1644, the colony of Rhode Island was most notable for its
Religious toleration
The development of the Carolina colony was notable in that the northern and southern regions were
economically and socially distinct from each other.
The New York colony emerged after a struggle between
the English and Dutch
William Penn was a man of great wealth who converted to
Quakerism
Georgia was founded to create
a military barrier against the Spanish
In colonial times, what region sported unusually high life expectancy rates?
New England
Enslaved Africans were moved from Africa to the New World via
The Middle Passage
The most enduring and distinctive feature of colonial America was
diversity
In the \”triangular trade,\” the North American colonies primarily contributed
raw materials
Saw slaves in South Carolina attempt to escape from the colony.
The Stono Rebellion
The story of the witchcraft trials in Salem saw the original accusers
recant their charges
The Great Awakening of the 1730s and 1740s had particular appeal with
women and young men
A leading figure of the Great Awakening, Jonathan Edwards preached
highly orthodox Puritan ideas.
The Enlightenment was based on the belief in
the power of human reason and natural laws.
The first American college was
Harvard
During the eighteenth century in North America, the most powerful Indian nation was the
Iroquois.
The French and Indian War (Seven Years’ War) resulted in
Britain dominating North America.
Enlarging Britain’s debt.
Increasing British resentment toward the American colonies.
The American colonies to act in concert against a common foe.
Throughout the French and Indian War, American colonists sold and traded food and other goods with
The French.
The Sugar Act of 1764 was designed to
Damage the market for sugar grown in the colonies.
Eliminate the illegal sugar trade between the colonies, the French, and the West Indies.
Establish new vice-admiralty courts in America to try accused smugglers.
Lower the colonial duty on molasses.
The Stamp Act of 1765 helped to unite the colonies in opposition to
The English government.
Was transformed by some colonists into a symbol of British oppression.
The Boston Massacre
The emerging ideology that would come to support the Revolution was based on John Locke’s political theory
of a limited government.
In December 1773 what event triggered acts of resistance in other colonial cities.
The Boston Tea Party
At the time of the Battles of Lexington and Concord, General Thomas Gage, the commander of the British garrison in Boston, considered his army
too small to act without reinforcements.
Published in January 1776, Common Sense was written by
Thomas Paine.
This document borrowed heavily from previously published colonial documents.
The Declaration of Independence
At the start of the Revolution, American advantages over the British included a greater commitment to
the war.
When George Washington crossed the Delaware River on Christmas night, 1776, he was intent on surprising
Hessians
In the final phase (1778-81) of the American Revolution, the British badly overestimated the support of
American Loyalists.
The battle that involved a combined French and American army and navy.
Battle at Yorktown
The United States gained formal British recognition of American independence under the terms of the
Treaty of Paris of 1783
For most Revolutionary American political thinkers, the concept of equality meant there should be
equality of opportunity.
Under the Articles of Confederation each state had
one vote in Congress
Created a single territory out of the lands north of Ohio.
The Northwest Ordinance of 1787
At the start of the Constitutional Convention of 1787, the majority of delegates agreed that
the country needed a stronger central government.
At the Philadelphia convention, the Virginia Plan argued that the ultimate authority of the federal government came from the
People
The Pinckney Plan is unique because it allowed for the executive office to select
a group advisors.
The Whiskey Rebellion of 1794 saw President Washington accompany
thousands of troops into the field.
This treaty avoided a likely war with England.
Jay’s Treaty
A Federalist president and a Republican vice-president take office after which election?
1796
Led to an undeclared war between the United States and France.
The XYZ Affair
Gave the federal government effective authority to stifle any public criticism.
The Alien and Sedition Acts (1798)
In the Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions, it was asserted that
States had the right to nullify federal laws.
Was notable for the sensational personal slandering of both candidates.
The presidential campaign in 1800
The writer Washington Irving is best remembered for his works on
Ichabod Crane and Rip Van Winkle.
Began as an effort by church establishments to revitalize their organizations.
The Second Great Awakening
Eli Whitney is a major figure in American technology for introducing
the concept of interchangeable parts.
Sought to convey the public image of a plain, ordinary citizen.
Thomas Jefferson
Was assisted by the guide, Sacajawea.
The Lewis and Clark expedition
Stated that the Supreme Court had no authority to expand the power of the Supreme Court, and that the Supreme Court had the power to nullify an act of Congress.
Marbury v. Madison (1803)
Created a serious economic depression in the nation.
The Embargo of 1807
The Non-Intercourse Act reopened American trade with
all nations except Great Britain and France.
During the War of 1812, the Hartford Convention was made irrelevant by
the Battle of New Orleans.
The treaty that ended the War of 1812 and began an improvement in relations between England and the United States.
The Treaty of Ghent
The experience of American banking during the War of 1812 revealed the need for
another national bank.
After the War of 1812, it was clear that the United States needed an improved
internal transportation system.
The \”era of good feelings\” following the War of 1812 reflected
rising nationalism and optimism in the United States.
Shortly after becoming president, James Monroe undertook a
goodwill tour of the country.
The Panic of 1819 resulted in a depression that lasted
six years.
Maintained the nation’s equal number of slave and free states.
The Missouri Compromise of 1819
European powers should not engage in new colonization of the American continents.
The Monroe Doctrine
The so-called \”corrupt bargain\” was negotiated between
Henry Clay and John Quincy Adams.
Was noted for its inability to carry out its policies effectively.
The presidential administration of John Quincy Adams
Andrew Jackson’s presidential victory in 1828 was
decisive but sectional.
By 1828, in all but one state, presidential electors were chosen by
popular vote.
According to Andrew Jackson’s theory of democracy,
all white male citizens should be treated equally.
In the 1820s, John C. Calhoun proposed his doctrine of nullification
as an alternative to possible secession.
The \”Trail of Tears\” taken by the Cherokees led them to the area that later became
Oklahoma.
Of the \”Five Civilized Tribes,\” the tribe that best resisted the pressures of removal was the
Seminole.
Favored expanding the power of the federal government.
Whigs
In 1836, President Andrew Jackson’s \”specie circular\”
resulted in a severe financial panic.
What President was part of a wealthy, large land-owning, frontier elite.
William Henry Harrison
What President was a Whig who had once been a Democrat.
John Tyler
Between 1800 and 1830, immigration to the United States was or was not a significant contributor to the national population.
Was NOT
Between 1840 and 1860, the overwhelming majority of immigrants who arrived in the United States came from
Ireland and Germany.
Reform movements emerged in America in the mid-nineteenth century in part because of a
desire for social stability and discipline in the face of change.
The nineteenth-century reformer Horace Mann believed that education should promote
democracy
Primarily known for her pioneering work in the American feminist movement
Elizabeth Cady Stanton
In the early nineteenth century, the American Colonization Society was founded by
White Virginians opposed to slavery
Between 1840 and 1860, the American South’s slave population dramatically shifted into the
Deep South and Southwest.
Where did slaves have more privacy and a social realm of their own
On large plantations
To \”manumit\” means to
free
Among the features of their religion, American slaves often incorporated
African features into their Christianity.
What ideology declared that the United States was destined by God and history to expand in size, should create a vast new \”empire of liberty,\”and the growth of the United States was not selfish but altruistic.
Manifest Dynasty
In 1836, the Battle of the Alamo saw the death of
Davy Crockett
The Mexican War resulted from the United States
provoking Mexico to fight.
Prohibited slavery in any land acquired from Mexico.
The Wilmot Proviso
The Compromise of 1850 allowed for the admission of California along with a strengthened
Fugitive Slave Act.
The Supreme Court held in the case of Dred Scott v. Sandford (1857) that
the Missouri Compromise was unconstitutional
What President weakly endorsed the Dred Scott decision, supported the admission of Kansas as a slave state, and pressured Congress to admit Kansas under the Lecompton constitution
James Buchanan
The first state to secede from the Union in 1860 was
South Carolina
On April 14, 1861, Fort Sumter surrendered after
Confederate forces bombarded it.
The Confederate leader who attempted to strategize, make, and control all military decisions personally.
Jefferson Davis
Of these, which of the following technologies was NOT a part of warfare during the Civil War? Hot-air balloons, repeating rifles, submarines, dynamite, or torpedoes.
Dynamite
In 1861, the First Battle of Manassas was a victory for
the Confederates
The state admitted to the Union during the Civil War was
West Virginia
As the Battle of Vicksburg was ending, another major battle was taking place in
Gettysburg
Robert E. Lee surrendered to Ulysses Grant at Appomattox Court House after
Lee recognized the futility of continued fighting.
President Abraham Lincoln’s \”ten percent\” plan for the South referred to
the number of white voters required to take loyalty oaths before setting up a state government.
In the 1860s, laws that were designed to give whites control over freedmen.
Black Codes
Was designed to limit President Andrew Johnson’s authority.
The Tenure of Office Act
All of the following were involved in scandals during the Grant administration EXCEPT: President Ulysses Grant, Secretary of War William Belknap,
Vice President Schuyler Colfax, or Treasury Secretary Benjamin Bristow.
President Ulysses Grant
As president, Rutherford B. Hayes promised to
only serve one term
The Supreme Court ruled in Plessy v. Ferguson (1896) that
racial segregation was legal if whites and blacks had equal \”accommodations.\”
The early colonial conflict between Eastern and Western Virginia was
Bacon’s Rebellion
The principal factor for the early English settlement of colonies was this
Religious Reasons
This was the document in which the Pilgrims established a civil government for Plymouth Colony
The Mayflower Compact
The first colonies where the death rate was highest
The Chesapeake Colonies
This determined the relationship between the Native Americans and the Europeans
The desire for trade
This act affected the lives of ordinary people as well as the elite upper class and caused a wide-spread anti-British political movement in the colonies
The Stamp Act of 1765
He labeled the incident in Boston a Massacre because he wanted to whip up further support for the cause of the Revolt
Sam Adams
The British surrender here was the turning point of the revolution
Battle of Yorktown
He was the father of the Constitution
James Madison
This was the central point of issue between the supporters and critics of the Articles of Confederation
How to reconcile states’ rights with a strong central government
\”Planted\” US troops in the disputed border area started this war
The Mexican War
This treaty ended the War of 1812
Treaty of Ghent
After 1840, this accounted for half of the value of all American crops
Cotton
Calhoun and his supporters threatened nullification and secession over this issue
the issue of high tariffs
This was the most \”radical\” amendment voted on at the Seneca Falls Convention
Suffrage for Women
This novel caused heated debates in both the North and the South
Uncle Tom’s Cabin
This religion advocated sexual equality, communal property and strict celibacy
The Shakers
This society established a colony in Liberia as a refuge for former slaves returned to Africa
The National Colonization Society
Irving and Cooper were American authors who wrote about this
American scenes and themes
This was a major problem not solved by the civil war
Racism
This made South Carolina secede from the Union
The election of Abraham Lincoln in 1860
This battle taught both sides that the Civil War was going to be bloodier than anyone first imagined
The Battle of Bull Run (Manassas)
He was impeached for his violation of the Tenure of Office Act
Andrew Johnson
This battle was the turning point of the Civil War
Battle of Gettysburg
This English colony was originally founded in 1607 by men seeking great wealth
Jamestown
The Great Awakening ministers introduced a new form of preaching called
Evangelism
Penn’s colony of Pennsylvania was established as a religious sanctuary for this religious group
Quakers
This early rebellion convinced many Americans of the need for a stronger central government
Shay’s Rebellion
His main contribution to the Revolutionary War was his explanation of why the colonies were fighting
Thomas Paine
When an elderly Jefferson referred to the Missouri Compromise as a \”firebell in the night,\” he meant that this might happen
The US was in danger of falling apart

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