Urban Studies midterm

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Urbanization
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__________ is the increased proportion of the population that is urban compared to rural (Davis,1965)
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city
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A ____ is community of substantial size and population density that shelters a variety of non-agricultural specialists, including a literate elite (Sjoberg, 1973) a settled community, an implied threshold of population size, non-agricultural employment, and cities are ruled by literate elite.
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cities
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2007 marked the turning point when the majority of the world’s population lived in urban areas
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revolutions
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Childe (1950, 1954) viewed the development of society in distinct stages (\”_______\”) Agricultural, urban and industrial
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cities
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Increasing specialization of work Separation of different functions through increasing interdependence of societal tasks
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Childe
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In ‘s essay \”Urban Revolution\” he notes cities were marked by a number of important innovations
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Urban Revolution
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Childe’s \”______________\” Increased population size and density Concentration of agricultural surplus Public works and monuments Specialized labor Invention of writing Social stratification Development of the arts Development of sciences Membership Long-distance tradences
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neolithic
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The neolithic communities of Catal H�y�k in Anatolia are proto-urban, and predate Mesopotamian cities by several millennia
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complex
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The first complex social, economic and political systems were in Mesopotamia, Egypt, Indus Valley and China
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ancient cities
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Most were walled Distinct citadel precinct Temple Palace Central granary Pyramid or ziggurat
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Extended commodity production
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Money allowed people with capital to hire both labor and resources to produce goods .. Simple commodity production ended in the exchange of goods and services .. Extended commodity production began with money (or capital), and after production and exchange, ended with still more money that could be invested in a new cycle of accumulation .. Cities with such economies began to prosper .. Cultural and social relations changed to sanction the pursuit of wealth through the accumulation of money
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Smith
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Adam _____, The Wealth of Nations
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Marx
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Karl ____ Das Kapitals
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Industrial capitalism
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.. Industrial capitalism created was the beginning of global capitalism and emerging world city .. Occupations became more specialized and the division of labor more complex .. These changes were supported by an emerging nation-state .. Land, which was previously held by the church and nobility, became a commodity .. Feudalism broke down and people were forced into cities where they sold their labor for a wage .. They became the urban proletariat
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urban proletariat
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workers who lived in a city who were piad a daily wage
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Industrial capitalism
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.. Middle of the 18th century, cities had populations of around 600,000 .. Middle of the 19th century cities had a million or more across Europe .. Europe dominated the world through an extensive project of colonialism .. This divided the world into industrialized and nonindustrialized nations .. New social order based on property owning capitalist and property-less proletarians .. Cities became centers for factories and slums .. Urban parks, systems of public hygiene, urban planningmone
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Industrial city
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Elements of the factories, railroads, slums
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Garden City
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Ebenezer Howard Utopian visionary who wanted to establish fully self contained cities .. Maximum population as 32,000 .. Public control of land .. Each garden city would be connected by rail to a larger urban system .. The general layout of the city was concentric zones with plenty of parks and gardens .. City government and commercial functions would be located in the center .. Factors would be located at the edge of the cityy
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Radiant City
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-Le Corbusier .. A French (Swiss) architect who influenced urban design .. Ideal city combined high density with open space .. 3 million population .. Publicly owned land .. High rise buildings scattered across park-like landscape .. Different functions were spread out .. Large, wide boulevards .. Individuals were expected to live and work in multistoried housing (based on type of work)
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Broadacre City
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-Frank Lloyd Wright .. American architect whose vision was closest to the quintessential suburb .. People should be liberated from urban agglomerations .. Town and country should be merged .. Privately owned plots (one or more acres) .. This would require a great deal of space .. People would be connected by a system of highways .. All necessities should be located in 10 to 20 miles
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Suburbanization
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with its consequential segregation by class (and later race) became a continuing feature of the modern city
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suburbanization
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Throughout the 20th century the middle class suburb has grown in size and influence .. Suburbia now defines many cities, leaving the old inner core poorest residents .. The first suburbs were built along the inter-urban railroad lines, after WWII they were automobile based and created sprawl .. Family-oriented community of skilled workers and mid-level managers, the true middle class .. Tract-home developments were criticized as a cultural wasteland and segregated sanctuary of privilege
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Edge city
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.. Sprawl and suburbia created a new kind of city .. Los Angeles grew from a population of 60,000 in 1920 to over ten million today .. Los Angeles is \”a city in search of a city,\” multinucleated metropolis or the ultimate post-urban chaos .. Preference for single family homes and replacement of a once extensive system of streetcars .. In the first stages of suburbanization the suburb was still dependent on the city center .. In the edge city there is more commuting from suburb to suburb .. The edge city is a source for new jobs, cultural centers and homes and not suburbs, but a new kind of decentralized city, a \”technoburb\” (Fishman, 1987)
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New Urbanism
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.. Borrowing freely from Kevin Lynch’s The Image of the City (1960) .. Small lot size, increased population density, building closer to lot lines, narrower streets with slow traffic .. Increased walkability through the construction of pedestrian sheds .. Mixed use (office, shops, apartments) and mixed housing (ages, income, races) within neighborhoods .. Reduce automobile dependency, de-emphasize parking .. Celebration and Seaside both in Florida .. Elitist, over-planned, social constricting neo-rich enclaves%
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Urban geography
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.. Location theory and location analysis .. Marxism, Postmoderism and Feminism .. Castells, Harvey, Soja, McDowell
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Urban politics
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.. Pluralists and Structuralists .. Neo-Marxists .. Piven and Cloward, Katznelson and Peterson
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Urban geography
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.. Geographical study of urban areas Early studies emphasized environmental determinism in the 1920s and 1930s .. Focus was on the importance of physical features– site and situation In the 1960s and 1970s geographers started to work on location theory and location analysis .. Pattern of urban settlement and internal structure of cities
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Urban geographers
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were at the forefront of the quantitative revolution in urban geography
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Positivism
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A philosophy of science originally proposed by the Auguste Comte (1798-1857)
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Positivism
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Primary purpose was to distinguish science from both metaphysics and religion
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Positivism
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Comte determined scientific status of statements through 5 steps .. As a result of the quantitative revolution, positivism came to dominate urban geography .. Subsequent critiques focused on every aspect of its prescribed method .. Critiques questioned claims to empiricism, exclusivity, autonomy, and universality
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Positivism
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1. Scientific statements were to be grounded in a direct, immediate and empirically accessible experience of the world 2. Scientific observations had to be repeatable, and their generality had to be ensured by a unitary scientific method 3. Science would advance through the formal construction of theories which, if empirically verified, would assume the status of scientific laws 4. Scientific laws would have a strictly technical function (e.g., If A then B) 5. Scientific laws would be progressively unified and integrated into a single system of knowledge and truth
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Location theory
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A body of theories that seek to account for the location of economic activity
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Location theory
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Interest in location can be traced back to the 17th and 18th century and explanation of agricultural land use .. Time was judged to be more fundamental than space in understanding social phenomena
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Location theory
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Alfred Weber (1909, 1928) and Walter Christaller (1966) who introduced theories to explain location of settlements as market centers .. started to dominate urban geography in the 1960s
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Location theory
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Drew on classical economics to construct spatial preference structures within framework of central place theory
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Central place theory
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Christaller’s model
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Central place theory
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A theoretical account of the size and distribution of settlements in an urban system .. Marketing is the predominant function .. Range of goods and the threshold of goods
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Central place theory
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(a)Market principle, minimum number of centers (b)Transportation principle, minimizes road length (c)Administrative principle, hinterlands are nested hierarchically
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Location analysis
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An approach to urban geography focusing on spatial arrangements of phenomena and on related flow .. Focus was on using quantitative methods to develop a \”science of locations\”
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Location analysis
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The theory assumes that both buyers and sellers make utility maximizing decisions
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Location analysis
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Haggett’s Locational Analysis in Human Geography (1965) became a classic and sought to: 1. Adopt a systems approach which concentrates on the patterns and linkages within assemblages 2. Employ models as the stimuli for understanding 3. Uses quantitative procedures to make precise statements about location order
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location analysis
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Stages of analysis in a nodal regional system (a) analyzes the interactions or flows across space (b) investigates the networks along which those flows move (c) considers the major nodes or organizational centers (d) examines the hierarchical structure of the nodal system (e) studies the organization of space between the nodes, or the surfaces (f) analyzes the diffusion down the hierarchy along the networks and across the surfaces
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chicago
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Urban ecology, Chicago’s School’s model of land use patterns, spatial order of residential settlements .. Tested hypothesis, derived models, analyzed census tract data using multivariate statistical techniques .. Studies of the location of shopping centers within urban areas and investigations of shopping behavior .. Did people adhere to the principles of distance minimizing .. Studied the internal structure of urban areas, first shopping centers and later residential areas .. Models were applied to other countries, then later work explored differences between contexts
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Critique
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.. Models regarding spatial behavior were not realistic and assumptions were not sufficiently scrutinized .. Approach was not critical of the positivist philosophy and the goal of theory development .. Initially work on observed patterns and residential segregation only described outcomes .. 1960s issues of poverty, deprivation and inequality led to questions about the rational process .. Urban geographers began to view themselves as urban managers, as controllers of spatial structuring .. Location decisions were not made in a vacuum and constraints are as important as choices .. Managers are constrained, shifted to wider context, reaction against positivism and spatial science
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Castells
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The Urban Question (1972) .. Distinction between urban and rural not longer exists in its pre-capitalist form .. Capitalist production now operates at a scale which, economically at least, transcends the difference between them .. Urban areas are to be understood primarily as places where labor power is reproduced .. Collective consumption (public transportation, public housing) translates economic struggles into political struggles .. Town planning is the means by which state monopoly capitalism organizes the urban environment in its own interests .. Urban social movements are manifestations of the revolt of the oppressed classes against capitalist conditions and ultimately lead to revolution
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Harvey
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author Social Justice and the City (1973) .. Moves away from positivist locational analysis to an understanding of urbanism that derived from Marxist social theory .. We should consider the consequences of location decisions, especially for the distribution of real income .. The well off have access to open space, clean air, good schools as a result of where they live or their mobility, the poor are forced to live with pollution and where schools and housing stock or poor quality .. The inequalities between the better off and the worse off are exacerbated by the structure of the city .. Lays a framework for using Marxist theory and method for understanding the evolution of the capitalist market, a necessary step in being able to change it .. Calls for a revolution of geographic theory, method and societal structures
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Soja
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Postmodern Geographies (1989) .. Los Angeles is often held up as an example of the quintessential postmodern city .. Uses postmodern critical theory to analyze and deconstruct Los Angeles .. To get beneath the symbolism of the area–the words, artifacts, cultures .. Examines a 60 mile area that encompasses 5 counties, 132 cities, and 12 million people .. His description is complex and paradoxical .. Despite de-investment by private capital, state (military) investment remains important .. Industrial dynamism, underlying logic reflects classic urban geography models .. Underneath all the whimsy, the glitter, there is a capitalist, racist, and patriarchal landscape
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McDowell
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Gender, Identity and Place (1999) .. Complex interconnections between location, ethnicity, class are related and mediated by gender divisions .. Built environment reflects the gender divisions of an earlier age .. The layout of cities, transportation networks, timetables, homes reflects a permanent male breadwinner with a stay at home housewife .. Examples of communities and buildings where women and women’s needs are central .. Women’s political representation is needed at all levels in order to challenge discriminatory practices .. Challenges community, and processes and practices that reinforce social and spatial exclusion, and seeks a city open to unassimilated otherness
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Urban politics
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.. In the 1960s pluralist political economists launched an attack on the previously accepted view, elites dominated urban politics .. From the mid-1970s onward, a new generation of structurally oriented critics challenged the pluralist point of view, but they were not able to supplant it .. More recently students of urban politics have attempted to synthesize both approaches
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Pluralists
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.. Classic pluralists studies, like Banfield’s Political Influence, and Dahl’s Who Governs? .. Examined tangled complexity of interest alignments around actual policy decisions and disputes .. No model of direct control by a unified economic or social elite could easily explain the outcomes .. Every group commands some resources and no group completely controls the other .. Political leaders and private interests engage in coalition building .. These studies lacked an understanding of the broader context of economic and political development
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Structuralist critiques
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.. There are \”two faces of power\” pluralists focus only on the first face, the exercise of power .. The second face is the relationship between the state and the underlying socioeconomic system that shapes the political agenda .. For example, the second face of power often confines the scope of decision-making to safe issues .. Values embedded in institutional practices biased the rules of the game and promote specific interests .. The structuralists provide social and economic context and highlight the role of private property, the market, wealth and income inequality and capitalism shape political competition
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Neo-Marxists
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.. Empirically show that systemic and cumulative inequality of political capacity reinforce superficial pluralism .. The mode of production stamps its pattern on the organization of the state and the dynamics of political competition .. The current stage of capitalism have determined spatial patterns, the bureaucratic state, urban consciousness .. Private investment is necessary for public revenues, so the state and political competition become subordinate to the needs of capital .. Urban politics serves to dampen and regulate conflicts generated by capitalist urbanizational
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piven
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Piven and Cloward–Poor People’s Movements (1977) .. When protest is possible among the poor, the form that it must take are delimited by the social structure in ways which usually diminish its extent and force .. When institutional crisis creates a space for defiance, established patterns of political competition tend to shape the form .. When protest sometimes breaks those boundaries, it is still shaped by the everyday-life situation of the protesters and the targets those situations afford .. Protest can still lead national leaders to \”break with an established pattern of government accommodation to private elites\”. .. Government attempts to co-opt dissidents on terms that do not threaten the basic institutional arrangements of capitalism but leave behind a residue of reform, thus providing the central means of social control
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Katznelson
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City Trenches (1981) .. Government programs ostensibly aimed at reducing poverty and increasing citizen participation absorbed and deflected black protest in the Inwood/Washington Heights section of Manhattan .. Found a more deeply embedded set of barriers to and channels for protest: the separation of work and residence and the dampening of class issues in the residence-based world of urban politics. .. Without fully abandoning his view of government cooptation he argued that the reproduction of class inequality is deeply embedded in and shaped by the spatial organization of residential communities
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Peterson
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City Limits (1981) .. Another structural critique of pluralist theory is public choice theory that comes from microeconomics .. Analyzed how external economic conditions shape and constrain the urban political arena and concluded that \”political variables no longer become relevant to analysis\” .. Policies maintain or enhance the economic position, social prestige or political power of the city .. Intercity competition drives redistribution off the agenda and puts the promotion of economic development in the top position .. Economic position is paramount
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Urban politics
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.. Pluralists and Structuralists .. Neo-Marxists .. Piven and Cloward, Katznelson and Peterson
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Urban geography
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.. Location theory and location analysis .. Marxism, Postmoderism and Feminism .. Castells, Harvey, Soja, McDowell
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chicago
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The rise of urban sociology .. The first generation of sociologists was concerned with impact of urbanization on European society .. The political revolutions of the 1800s brought an end to earlier ideas that the social and the political order reflected a divine plan .. In the wake of the French Revolution, questions about how social order itself could be maintained were essential to understanding the nature of the new industrial society and transforming European cities .. The first Sociology Department was established in 1893 at the University of Chicago
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answer

Ferdinand Tonnies (1855-1936) .. In Community and Society (1887) he sketched out an evolutionary view of the development of human society .. The period of industrialization transformed European societies, the 1700s signified a change from a communal to an associational society .. In earlier times, families had long histories, individuals interacted with one another on personal basis because they often worked together .. In a modern society, individuals often interacted with persons they do not know and work at jobs that were seemingly unrelated to one another .. This change resulted in the weakening of social ties and the loss of shared sense of belonging to a meaningful community
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communal
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Gemeinschaft (______ society) characterizes peasant societies. Personal relationships are defined and regulated by traditional social rules (e.g., family, kinship, religion). People have simple and direct face-to-face contact, which creates a consciousness of belong together and mutual dependence.
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associational
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Gesellschaft (_____ society) is typified by modern, cosmopolitan societies with government bureaucracies and large industrial organizations. Individuals act in terms of rational self-interest based on economic and political considerations. Human relations are impersonal and indirect
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Emile
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Durkheim (1858-1917) .. Concerned about the changes brought on by industrial capitalism .. In the pre-industrial village individuals were held together by mechanical solidarity (kinship, social interdependence) .. In the industrial city individuals were connected by organic solidarity, bonds would flow naturally from increased social differentiation .. New industrial economy and the new social relationships as an improvement over the limited opportunities of feudal society
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chicago
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Georg Simmel (1858-1918) .. Most influential European thinker to influence American urban sociology .. He was concerned with how urban life transformed individual consciousness .. Concerned with patterns of activity and the ways of thinking that were found in the city .. In contrast to Weber, he emphasized the historical development of the city and its way of life .. Traditional society, barter and kinship to an industrial society, profit and loss, impersonal social relations .. Subtle aspects of modernity were displayed most clearly in the large city .. Robert Park brought Simmel’s interactive perspective back to the University of Chicagoy
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chicago
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Louis Wirth (1897-1952) .. An important figure in the Chicago school .. Born in Germany and moved to the U.S. to go to school .. Wrote his doctoral dissertation on Chicago�s Jewish Ghettos and described close ties and communal life .. Emphasized the way the city�s spatial environment influenced individual behavior .. He wanted to know what it was about the city that produced unique behaviors, �the urban way of life� .. His aim was to develop a general theory that ignored forces with origins outside the city .. Studied the characteristics of people in the city
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studies
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Urban community _____ .. William Foote Whyte’s, Street Corner Society (1943), study of close knit Italian-American community in Boston’s North End .. Young and Willmott, Family and Kinship in East London (1957), uncovered a matrifocal system of social cohesiveness in a working class community in East London .. Herbert Gans, The Urban Villagers (1962), depicted second and third generation Italian-Americans in an inner city Boston neighborhood, West End .. Gerald Suttles, The Social Order of the Slum (1968), argued that locality, itself, provides the basis of social cohesion based on the study of a ethnically mixed community in Chicago
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Chicago
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_____ School .. Robert Park’s arrival in 1914 .. The city as a laboratory: \”get the seat of your pants dirty\” .. Where Weber, Marx and Simmel were interested in capitalism, the Chicago school avoided capitalism .. Preferred a biological understanding of urban life, society was dominated by biological laws .. Economic competition was a case of Darwinian struggle for survival .. Human ecology–the study and process of human groups adjusting to the environment .. Urban analysis was a branch of human ecology
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density
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Urbanism as a Way of Life The effect of ____: Greater density produces greater tolerance for living closely with strangers, but also creates greater stress, as groups that do not share a common identity come into contact with one another. Increased competition leads to mutual exploitation.
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size
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Urbanism as a Way of Life The effect of ____: the larger population leads to greater specialization and diversity of social roles. Because the population lacks a common identity, competition and formal mechanisms of social control would replace primary relationships of kinship as a means of organizing society.
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heterogeneity
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Urbanism as a Way of Life The effect of _____: Individuals in the city have regular contact with persons and groups that differ from them. Increased heterogeneity leads to greater tolerance among groups as ethnic and class barriers are broken down. However, the effect also compartmentalizes individual roles and contact.
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social darwinism
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Ecological Perspective and Social Darwinism .. Social organization of the city resulted from the struggle for survival .. Biotic level: organization produced by species’ competition over scarce environmental resources .. Cultural level: symbolic and psychological adjustment process according to shared sentiments .. Park’s later work favored the biotic level and this led to critiques of the ecological perspective .. Other members translated the social Darwinism implicit in this model into a spatially attuned analysis .. Spatial position would be determined by economic competition and the struggle for survival .. A new group of sociologists known as the ecologists studied the urban patterns resulting from this process
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Burgess
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____ Model of Urban Growth .. Theory of city growth and differentiation based on biological derived principles and social Darwinism .. New business and economic activities were attracted to the center and repelled other activities to the fringe .. The city grew outwards and the fringe was pushed further and further outwards .. The CBD would become highly concentrated, while the surrounding area comprised four concentric rings .. Explained the pattern of homes and neighborhoods and industrial and commercial location .. Explained the shift of population and activities within space .. Explained social organization of the urban population were spatially deployed
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Burgess
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______ Model of Urban Growth .. City is made up of adjacent ecological niches occupied by human groups in a series of concentric rings surrounding the central core .. Class, occupation, worldview and life experience are coterminous with the inhabitants’ location within this human ecology .. Social change occurs through socioeconomic transitions of these areas in an ever downward spiral toward the inner city .. Research focused on participant observation as a method of uncovering and explaining adaptation and accommodation of the urban populations to these microenvironments
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Burgess Model
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Contributions and Critique .. Explicitly connected social phenomena with spatial pattern (they thought in sociospatial terms) .. Symbolic interactionist perspective, individuals were studied in interaction with social structure and the physical environment .. Developed a rudimentary way of speaking about the role of individual attributes in explaining urban phenomena .. Reductionist, oversimplified human communities (communities are not just a sum of their parts)
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Urban anthropology
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.. is concerned with cultural and sociopolitical manifestations of urban lives and everyday practices illustrated by urban ethnographies
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Urban anthropology
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.. Theorizing gives us insights into the changing postindustrial/advanced, capitalist/postmodern world in which we live .. The city as a site of everyday practice provides valuable insights into the linkages between these macro processes with the texture and fabric of human experience .. The city is not the only place where these linkages can be studied, but the intensification of these processes as well as their human outcomes–occurs and can be understood best in cities
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Ethnography
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________ and participant observation .. It is the fundamental research method of cultural anthropology .. Written text produced to report ethnographic research results
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chicago
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.. Chicago school in the 1920s and 1930s and the urban ecology perspective
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Ethnic city
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.. Based on the East coast, received attention based on ethnic politics and urban social movements .. Multiplicity of immigrant groups that coexist .. Ethnographies describe structural opportunities, access to power by generation of location, identity .. Two dominant streams of research (1) the ethnic city as a mosaic of enclaves that are economically, linguistically and socially self-contained, as a strategy for political and economic survival (2) study of ethnic groups that may or may not function as enclaves but are defined by their degree of marginality, discrimination and oppression as
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Divided city
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.. Refers to the hidden barriers of race and class encoded in metaphors (e.g., upscale and ghetto) .. Continuous tension among discourses that sustain stereotypes .. Examples include black displacement through gentrification and other real estate activities
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Divided city
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.. Others explain race, class and gender through metaorganization of capitalism .. is maintained through control of social capital, which is based on relations of reciprocity)
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Gendered city
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.. The city is seen as a male place where women are not full citizens .. Women have never been granted full and free access to the streets .. Women tend to work in informal sphere: the market, homework, street vendors, and domestic work .. Hayden (1995) documents the absence of women’s physical and spatial marker on the city
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Contested city
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.. Poststructural analyses of race, class, gender and ethnic politics .. The city is a site of ongoing conflict over the provision of material basis for social reproduction: quality of life .. Examples include access to land, neighborhood control of affordable housing .. There are struggles over space and design form
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Deindustralized city
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.. Deterioration of the city because of the closing or relocation of industries that had been the sole employers .. Forces of globalization, new forms of flexible capital, new sources of cheap labor .. Declining standard of living, deterioration of family and personal life .. Deindustralization has contributed to the hyperghettoization of the city and the decline of the middle class
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Global city
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.. New York, London, Tokyo are preeminent examples .. Centers of technology, financial production and support services .. Economic forces shape the city more than local politics .. Massive changes in their economic base, spatial organization and social structure to accommodate the functions as key location for markets .. \”Dual city\” made up of upper and middle class professional who diffuse the political influence of lower class neighborhood .. Transnational forces change cultural production and group identity in such a way that it deterritorializes they city
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Modernist city
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.. Brasilia social transformation executed through strong central government .. Systematically abolished the traditional street system of public spaces, which was considered too congested and unhealthy .. It also eliminates the outdoor public domain of social life that it supports .. The consequent displacement of social life to the indoor rooms of malls, clubs, homes, and cars .. Encourages a privatizing of social relations and stratifies the public that uses this space .. Privatized space contradicts modernism’s intentions to revitalize the urban public and render it more egalitarian
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Globalization
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.. Condition is characterized by interconnection and intensified economic, political and cultural flows that make currently existing national boundaries irrelevant
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Globalization
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.. Process \” may be thought of as a process (or set of processes) which embodies a transformation in the spatial organization of social relations and transactions–assessed in terms of their extensity, intensity, velocity and impact–generating transcontinental or interregional flows and networks of activity, interaction, and the excise of power.\” David Held, London School of Economics
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Globalization
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Qualities of ________ .. The creation of new, and the multiplication of existing, social networks and activities that cut across traditional political, economic, cultural and geographic boundaries .. The expansion and stretching of social relations, activities, and interdependencies .. The intensification and acceleration of social exchange and activities .. Emergence of global imaginary and a global human consciousness .. An incomplete process
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globalization
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Prehistoric Period (10,000 BCE to 3500 BCE) .. Small bands of hunters and gathers, limited contact between people .. Increased contact when humans started producing their own food .. Food surplus lead to population increases, permanent villages, construction of fortified towns .. Introduction of highly stratified, patriarchal social structure .. For the first time society supported classes of people not engaged in food production .. Crafts people and professional bureaucrats and soldiers
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globalization
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Premodern Period (3500 BCE to 1500 BCE) .. Age of empires, some states succeeded in establishing permanent rule over other states and accumulating vast geographic territories .. Egyptian, Persian, Macedonian, Aztecs, Incas, Roman, Ottoman .. Fostered long-distance communication and exchange of culture, technology, and commodities .. Most extensive trade route was the Silk Road, linking the Chinese and Roman Empires .. Towards the end of the period, the global trade networks connected the most populous regions of Eurasia and north-eastern Africa .. Spread of new infectious diseases, like the bubonic plague
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globalization
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Early Modern Period (1500-1750) .. Europeans benefited from the diffusion of innovations originating in Islamic and Chinese cultural spheres .. Europe’s metropolitan centers and their associated merchant classes strengthened globalization .. Monarchs of Spain, Portugal, the Netherlands, France, and England all put significant resources into the exploration of the new worlds .. Corporations grew in size and stature and paved the way for colonial governments to place foreign regions under direct political control .. The Atlantic slave trade meant the forced population transfer of millions .. Interdependencies among nation-states were multiplying as well as increasing in density
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globalization
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Modern Period (1750-1970) .. European nation-states imposed direct colonial rule on much of the global south .. Global pricing system facilitated trade in important commodities like grains, cotton and various metals .. Railways and intercontinental air transportation overcame the last geographic obstacles .. Mass circulation of newspapers, magazines, films, television contributed to a sense of a shrinking world .. Unprecedented population explosion, enormous waves of migration .. Industrialization lead to increased disparities in wealth and well-being .. Extreme nationalism, two world wars, and the end of colonialism
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globalization
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Contemporary Period (1970 to the Present) .. Collapse of Soviet style communism and subsequent attempts to create a single global market .. Single, unifying European currency .. Rise of neo-liberalism .. Major advances in telecommunication and introduction of the internet .. Asian economic crisis in 1998 .. Current economic crisis in the U.S. and Europe, call into question desirability of interconnectedness
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Economic dimensions
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.. Bretton Woods and the �golden age of controlled capitalism� .. Taxation, profitable corporations and expansion of the welfare state lead to a expanding middle class .. Abandoned the gold-based fixed rate, economic instability, high inflation, high unemployment .. OPEC controlled the world�s oil supply and two unprecedented energy crisis .. Keynesianism revolt and factors that have strengthened neoliberalism: (1) internationalization of trade and finance (2) increased power of transnational corporations (3) increased power of international economic institutions
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Neoliberalism
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.. Rooted in the classical liberal ideas of Adam Smith (1723-90) and David Ricardo (1772-1823) .. Both viewed the market as self-regulating tending towards equilibrium of supply and demand .. The free market would generate the most efficient allocation of resources .. Constraint on free competition would interfere with natural efficiency of the market mechanism, and lead to social stagnation .. Advocated the elimination of tariffs on imports and other barriers to trade and capital flows between nations)
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cities
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What role do cities play? .. Global city regions spatially concentrate globalization .. They serve as centers for financial capital and transnational business .. Staging posts for the operations of multinational operations and the international division of labor .. Centers for flexible manufacturing sectors .. Networks override political boundaries (free from supervision by nation states) .. Cities and inter-urban networks appear to replace states as the basis of capitalist development
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k
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Political dimensions .. Intensification and expansion of interrelations across the globe .. Raise questions regarding the principle of state sovereignty .. Politics is subservient to economics, and the role of government is to support and promote global capital .. Rise of supraterritorial institutions and associations held together by common norms and interests .. Municipal and regional authorities, regional blocs, international organizations .. Global civil society are citizens challenging the economic and political decisions of the nation-state
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k
answer

Cultural dimensions .. The volume and extent of cultural transmission far exceeds earlier periods .. The \”culture industry\” increasingly targets the young and wealthy around the world .. Globalization always manifests locally, thus complex borrowing resulting in cultural hybrids
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globalization
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Competing perspectives on Globalization The World is Flat, Thomas L. Friedman .. Globalization creates new opportunities and will eventually spread out evenly .. Income levels in different places will converge .. We need to remove barriers to trade and market integration
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globalization
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Globalization and Its Discontents, Joseph E. Stiglitz .. Globalization is resulting in an increasing destabilized world .. Resulted in increased inequality and uneven development .. Failed to protect the environment
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k
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New International Division of Labor (NIDL) .. Old international division of labor was based on extraction of raw materials in the periphery and industrial manufacturing in the core .. Fordist modes of production: which are based on mass production, mass consumption, vertically integrated firms .. NIDL: relocation of manufacturing industries to the semi-periphery and peripheral states in an effort to make use of inexpensive labor power .. Post-Fordist production: dense networks of subcontracting arrangements, increased flexibility in labor and production vertical disintegrated forms of industrial organization
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Socioeconomic Trends and Urban Hierarchy .. Socieconomic trends support the emergence of an urban hierarchy .. The urban hierarchy is on a global scale based on integration into the world economy Dominant socioeconomic trends: .. Deindustrialization .. Spatial concentration of financial service industries .. Labor market segmentation .. Class and ethnic conflict .. Sociospatial polarization
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Globalization
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_____ and Third World Women (1) The recruitment of women into the new manufacturing and service jobs generated by the export-led manufacturing in the Global South (2) The employment of immigrant women in highly industrialized countries, particularly in major cities which have undergone economic restructuring
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Migration and Transnational Communities .. Consequence of international trade agreements .. Large scale immigration in urban areas .. Low levels of education, concentration in low paying jobs, and high levels of poverty .. Major growth sectors: services, downgraded manufacturing .. High rates of unemployment, low income employment and flexible labor forcecon
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Cities
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Polarization and Third World ____ .. Upper tiers of urban society have incomes rise while lower tiers are faced with stagnant incomes .. Loss of high wage manufacturing without opportunities for displaced workers .. Expansion of low wage industries .. Decline or non-existent labor protection (e.g., wage theft) and health and safety standards .. Devolution of work by larger firms to small firms .. Growth of the informal sector .. Crowded and deteriorating housing conditions and deteriorating health conditions .. The state has a reduced ability to address social and economic crisis
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Cities
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____ as Places of Global Contestation .. Immigrant rights movements .. International worker rights movements .. Social movements against the WTO and IMF .. Transnational alliances

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