Unit 7A

3 kinds of memory
Episodic, semantic/generic, implicit/procedural

3 processes of memory (Atkinson-Shiffrin)
Encoding, storage, retrieval

3 stages of memory
Sensory, Short-term, Long-term

The process by which we collect prior experiences, information, and skills learned in the past
Memory

Memory of a specific event that took place in the person’s presence or through experience
Episodic memory

Events that are so important that every detail is remembered (9/11)
Flashbulb memory

General knowledge that people remember (1st president)
Semantic/Generic memory

Memory that consists of the skills and procedures one has learned (riding a bike)
Implicit/Procedural memory

The translation of information into a form in which it can be stored
Encoding

Forming a mental picture of the information
Visual encoding

Recording the information as a series of sound
Acoustic encoding

Linking meaning to the information
Semantic encoding

The maintenance of encoded information over a period of time
Storage

Repeating over and over (role in play)
Maintenance rehearsal

Relate to what you already know (foreign language
Elaborative rehearsal

Locating stored information and returning it to conscious thought
Retrieval

Return to the place where the memory was encoded
Context-dependent memories

Recreate the mood in which the memory was encoded (drugs)
State-dependent memories

The immediate, initial recording of information that enters through our senses
Sensory memory

Mental pictures called icons store visual stimuli
Iconic memory

Photographic memory. Remember info over a long time
Eidetic memory

Mental traces of sound
Echoic memory

Narrowing down that comes into our senses
Feature extraction

Activated memory that holds a few items briefly before the info is lost or forgotten (working memory)
Short-term memory

Relatively permanent and limitless storehouse of the memory system that includes knowledge, skills, and experiences
Long-term memory

Tendency to recall the initial items in a series of items
Primacy effect

Tendency to recall the last items first
Recency effect

Organizing information into familiar or manageable units
Chunking

When new info forces old info out of STM
Interference

Mental representations of objects; may distort memory
Schemas

Unconscious encoding of incidental information and of well-learned information such as word meanings
Automatic processing

Encoding that requires attention and conscious effort
Effortful processing

Conscious repetition of information, either to maintain it in consciousness or to encode it for storage
Rehearsal

Tendency for distributed study or practice to yield better long-term retention than is achieved through massed study or practice
Spacing effect

Tendency to recall best the last and first items in a list
Serial position effect

Mental pictures; powerful aid to effortful processing
Imagery

Memory aids, especially those techniques that use vivid imagery and organizational devices
Mnemonics

Loss of memory
Amnesia

An increase in a synapse’s firing potential after a brief, rapid stimulation. Neural basis for learning and memory
Long-term potentiation (LTP)

Retention independent of conscious recollection
Implicit memory

Memory of facts and experiences that one can consciously know and declare
Explicit memory

Turns genes on/off
CREB

Enhances LTP
Glutamate

Retrieve information learned earlier (fill in the blank)
Recall

Identify items previously learned (MC)
Recognition

Assesses amount of time saved when learning material for a second time
Relearning

Activation of particular associations in memory
Priming

Tendency to recall experiences that are consistent with one’s current good or bad mood
Mood-congruent memory

Disruptive effect of prior learning on the recall of new information
Proactive interference

Disruptive effect of new learning on the recall of old information
Retroactive interference

Basic defense mechanism that banishes from consciousness anxiety-arousing thoughts, feelings, and memories
Repression

Incorporating misleading information into one’s memory of an event
Misinformation effect

Attributing to the wrong source an event we have experienced, read about, heard about, or imagined
Source amnesia

3 sins of forgetting
Absent-mindedness, transcience, blocking

Inattention to detail leads to encoding failure (car keys)
Absent-mindedness

Storage decay over time (don’t use it)
Transcience

Inability to retrieve info; tip-of-tongue phenomena
Blocking

Those who learn quickly, forget quickly
Ebbinghaus curve

Occurs when info in a list is unique or strange in some way (assassinated presidents)
Von Restorff Effect

Some information in our fleeting ________ is encoded into short-term memory.
Sensory memory

Automatic processing and effortful processing involve two types of
Encoding

Hermann Ebbinghaus’ use of nonsense syllables to study memory led to the discovery that
The amount remembered depends on the time spent learning

Recalling the pleasurable high points of an experience while forgetting its more mundane moments helps explain
Rosy retrospection

Mnemonic devices such as the peg-word system make effective use of
Visual imagery

Sabrina went to the store for furniture polish, carrots, pencils, ham, sponges, celery, notebook paper, and salami. She remembered to buy all these items by reminding herself that she needed food products that included meats and vegetables and that she needed nonfood products that included school supplies and cleaning aids. Sabrina made effective use of
Hierarchical organization

Peterson and Peterson demonstrated that unrehearsed short-term memories for three consonants almost completely decay in as short a time as
12 seconds

Research suggests that a memory trace is most likely to involve
Synaptic changes

Watching a TV soap opera involving marital conflict and divorce led Andrea to recall several instances in which her husband had mistreated her. The effect of the TV program on Andrea’s recall provides an example of
Priming

Mood-congruent memory refers to the effect of emotional states on the process of
Retrieval

Based on Herman Ebbinghaus’ “forgetting curve” how will your memories for psychological concepts change?
I will forget most psychological concepts soon after learning them, but the information I recall after that immediate drop will be retained for years

After learning the combination for his new locker at school, Milton is unable to remember the combination for his year-old bicycle lock. Milton is experiencing the effects of
Retroactive interference

A type of motivated forgetting in which anxiety-arousing memories are blocked from conscious awareness is known as
Repression

Compared with false memories, true memories are more likely to
Contain detailed information