Unit 7A

3 kinds of memory
Episodic, semantic/generic, implicit/procedural
3 processes of memory (Atkinson-Shiffrin)
Encoding, storage, retrieval
3 stages of memory
Sensory, Short-term, Long-term
The process by which we collect prior experiences, information, and skills learned in the past
Memory
Memory of a specific event that took place in the person’s presence or through experience
Episodic memory
Events that are so important that every detail is remembered (9/11)
Flashbulb memory
General knowledge that people remember (1st president)
Semantic/Generic memory
Memory that consists of the skills and procedures one has learned (riding a bike)
Implicit/Procedural memory
The translation of information into a form in which it can be stored
Encoding
Forming a mental picture of the information
Visual encoding
Recording the information as a series of sound
Acoustic encoding
Linking meaning to the information
Semantic encoding
The maintenance of encoded information over a period of time
Storage
Repeating over and over (role in play)
Maintenance rehearsal
Relate to what you already know (foreign language
Elaborative rehearsal
Locating stored information and returning it to conscious thought
Retrieval
Return to the place where the memory was encoded
Context-dependent memories
Recreate the mood in which the memory was encoded (drugs)
State-dependent memories
The immediate, initial recording of information that enters through our senses
Sensory memory
Mental pictures called icons store visual stimuli
Iconic memory
Photographic memory. Remember info over a long time
Eidetic memory
Mental traces of sound
Echoic memory
Narrowing down that comes into our senses
Feature extraction
Activated memory that holds a few items briefly before the info is lost or forgotten (working memory)
Short-term memory
Relatively permanent and limitless storehouse of the memory system that includes knowledge, skills, and experiences
Long-term memory
Tendency to recall the initial items in a series of items
Primacy effect
Tendency to recall the last items first
Recency effect
Organizing information into familiar or manageable units
Chunking
When new info forces old info out of STM
Interference
Mental representations of objects; may distort memory
Schemas
Unconscious encoding of incidental information and of well-learned information such as word meanings
Automatic processing
Encoding that requires attention and conscious effort
Effortful processing
Conscious repetition of information, either to maintain it in consciousness or to encode it for storage
Rehearsal
Tendency for distributed study or practice to yield better long-term retention than is achieved through massed study or practice
Spacing effect
Tendency to recall best the last and first items in a list
Serial position effect
Mental pictures; powerful aid to effortful processing
Imagery
Memory aids, especially those techniques that use vivid imagery and organizational devices
Mnemonics
Loss of memory
Amnesia
An increase in a synapse’s firing potential after a brief, rapid stimulation. Neural basis for learning and memory
Long-term potentiation (LTP)
Retention independent of conscious recollection
Implicit memory
Memory of facts and experiences that one can consciously know and declare
Explicit memory
Turns genes on/off
CREB
Enhances LTP
Glutamate
Retrieve information learned earlier (fill in the blank)
Recall
Identify items previously learned (MC)
Recognition
Assesses amount of time saved when learning material for a second time
Relearning
Activation of particular associations in memory
Priming
Tendency to recall experiences that are consistent with one’s current good or bad mood
Mood-congruent memory
Disruptive effect of prior learning on the recall of new information
Proactive interference
Disruptive effect of new learning on the recall of old information
Retroactive interference
Basic defense mechanism that banishes from consciousness anxiety-arousing thoughts, feelings, and memories
Repression
Incorporating misleading information into one’s memory of an event
Misinformation effect
Attributing to the wrong source an event we have experienced, read about, heard about, or imagined
Source amnesia
3 sins of forgetting
Absent-mindedness, transcience, blocking
Inattention to detail leads to encoding failure (car keys)
Absent-mindedness
Storage decay over time (don’t use it)
Transcience
Inability to retrieve info; tip-of-tongue phenomena
Blocking
Those who learn quickly, forget quickly
Ebbinghaus curve
Occurs when info in a list is unique or strange in some way (assassinated presidents)
Von Restorff Effect
Some information in our fleeting ________ is encoded into short-term memory.
Sensory memory
Automatic processing and effortful processing involve two types of
Encoding
Hermann Ebbinghaus’ use of nonsense syllables to study memory led to the discovery that
The amount remembered depends on the time spent learning
Recalling the pleasurable high points of an experience while forgetting its more mundane moments helps explain
Rosy retrospection
Mnemonic devices such as the peg-word system make effective use of
Visual imagery
Sabrina went to the store for furniture polish, carrots, pencils, ham, sponges, celery, notebook paper, and salami. She remembered to buy all these items by reminding herself that she needed food products that included meats and vegetables and that she needed nonfood products that included school supplies and cleaning aids. Sabrina made effective use of
Hierarchical organization
Peterson and Peterson demonstrated that unrehearsed short-term memories for three consonants almost completely decay in as short a time as
12 seconds
Research suggests that a memory trace is most likely to involve
Synaptic changes
Watching a TV soap opera involving marital conflict and divorce led Andrea to recall several instances in which her husband had mistreated her. The effect of the TV program on Andrea’s recall provides an example of
Priming
Mood-congruent memory refers to the effect of emotional states on the process of
Retrieval
Based on Herman Ebbinghaus’ “forgetting curve” how will your memories for psychological concepts change?
I will forget most psychological concepts soon after learning them, but the information I recall after that immediate drop will be retained for years
After learning the combination for his new locker at school, Milton is unable to remember the combination for his year-old bicycle lock. Milton is experiencing the effects of
Retroactive interference
A type of motivated forgetting in which anxiety-arousing memories are blocked from conscious awareness is known as
Repression
Compared with false memories, true memories are more likely to
Contain detailed information