UNIT 6: organic chemistry

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organic compounds
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based on the element carbon >16 mil+ carbon containing compounds
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why are there so many carbon compounds?
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•4 bonding sites: allows it to bond with many different elements in different ways •electronegativity=2.6: always forms covalent (polar or nonpolar) bonds (single of multiple) •strong bond between carbon atoms •low reactivity
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allotropes
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forms of an element differing in either bonding or structure
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simplest carbon compound
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hydrocarbon-only contains hydrogen and carbon
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alkene
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(unsaturated) contains 1 or more double bonds between carbon atoms
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alkyne
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(unsaturated) contains 1 or more triple bonds between carbon atoms
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alkane
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(saturated) contains only single bonds between carbon atoms
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benzene
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ring shaped with 6 carbon atoms and alternating single and double bonds
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others elements that bond with hydrogen and carbon organic compounds
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NOPS17
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functional group
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a griup of atoms attachdd to an organic compound that gives it characteristic properties
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class: alcohol
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functional group: -OH
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class: aldehyde
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functionsl group: -C-H || O
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class: halide
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funtional group: group 17- flourine chlourife bromine iodine
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class: amine
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functional group: | – N |
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class: carboxylic acid
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functional group: O || – C – OH
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class: ester
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functional group: O || – C – O –
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class: ether
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functional group: – O –
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class: ketone
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O || – C –
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naming organic compounds is based on…
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the longest chain of carbons
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# of carbons: 1
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prefix: meth-
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# of carbons: 2
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prefix: eth-
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# of carbons: 3
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prefix: prop-
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# of carbons: 4
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prefix: but-
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# of carbons: 5
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prefix: pent-
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# of carbons: 6
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prefix: hex-
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# of carbons: 7
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prefix: hept-
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# of carbons: 8
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prefix: oct-
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# of carbons: 9
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prefix: non-
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# of carbons: 10
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prefix: deca-
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namine more complicated organic compounds
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1. number the carbond in the longest chain 2. identify the carbon where the “change” from a normal alkane occurd (1-, 2-,…) always choose the lowest number possible *this ruled goes for identifying where any “change” from a normal alkane occurs, including functional groups
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alkyl
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functional groip that is a simpl alkane hydrocarbon; ex: methyl, ethyl, etc.)
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isomers
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compoundd with the dsme chemical formula but different molecular shape
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polymer
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a large organic molecule (macromolecule) made of dmsller subunitd bonded together often in long strands
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monomer
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the smaller subunits that make up polymers
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natursl polymers
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•cellulose: chain of glucose molecules •latex(“rubber”): chain of simple hydrocarbons •DNA(deoxyribonucleic acid): provides the “blueprint” for the making of proteins in the body; a combination of two polymers itself, wrapped in a double helix •protein: polymer of linked amino acids (the amino acids are monomers of polymers); the function of proteins is determined by the composition and ordering of amino acids
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synthetic polymers
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•elastomers: has elastic properties similar to rubber •fibers: has a threadlike structure and is highly resistant to being stretched (like natural cellulose); ex: nylon •plastics: able to be shaped or molded > acrylic: “acrylonitrile”

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