Unit 6-1: Basic Structure of the Human Body

Anatomy
study of form and structure of an organism

Physiology
study of processes of living organisms or why and how they work

Pathophysiology
study of how disease occurs and the responses of living organisms to disease processes

Protoplasm
Basic substance of all life and is made of ordinary elements

Cell membrane
the outer protective covering of a cell

Cytoplasm
A semi fluid inside the cell and is the site for all chemical reactions; organelles are located here; surrounded by cell membrane

Organelles
cell parts

Nucleus
Directs cell activities and is separated from cytoplasm by nuclear membrane; contains DNA

Nucleolus
Located inside nucleus; important in reproduction; site of ribosomes production; (RNA & Protein)

Chromatin
Made of DNA and is located in nucleus; contains instructions, traits, and characteristics; condenses to form chromosomes during cell reproduction

Centrosome
Located near nucleus and contains two centrioles; the centrioles seperate during cell division

Mitochondria
Located throughout cytoplasm; powerhouse of cell, produces energy through chemical reactions by breaking down fats and carbs

Golgi Apparatus
Stack of membrane layers located in cytoplasm; produces, stores, and packages secretions for discharge from cell

Endoplasmic reticulum
Tubular structures that transports materials in/out nucleus, protein synthesis and storage;

What are the two types of endoplasmic reticulum?
Smooth : lacks ribosomes & Rough: has ribosomes on surface

Lysosomes
round bodies found throughout cytoplasm; is a digestive “plant for proteins, fats, and carbs.; digests old cells, bacteria, etc.; lys=destruciton

Pinocytic Vessels
pocket-like folds in the cell membrane; allows large molecules to enter cell, once a molecule is in it closes and makes a bubble

Mitosis
an asexual reproduction where cells reproduce by dividing into two identical cells

Meiosis
Gametes use 2 separate cell division to produce 4 new cells

Tissue
Cells of the same type joined together for a common purpose; 4 groups: epithelial, connective, nerve, and muscle

Epithelial Tissue
covers the surface of the body and is the main tissue in the skin; forms lining of tracts; secrete and protective

Nerve tissue
Made of neurons; transmits messages throughout body to controls, communicates, and coordinate body activities; in nerves, brain, and spinal cord

Muscle tissue
produces power, protects, and movement by contraction of muscle fibers

Organ
two or more tissues joined together to perform a specific function

Chromosomes
There are 46 (23 pairs); contains about 100,00 genes that carry inherited traits

Ribosomes
each cells contain thousands, made in nucleus, moves to cytoplasm to aid in production of protein

3 main types of muscle tissue
skeletal: attaches to bones & provide movement for body
cardiac: causes the heart to beat
visceral: present in walls of respiratory, digestive, urinary tracts, and blood vessels

integumentary system
regulates body temp., eliminates waste, produces vitamin D;
examples : skin

skeletal system
protects internal organs, produces body heat, maintains posture

nervous system
coordinates and controls body movements;

reproductive system
provides for reproduction

circulatory system
carries oxygen and nutrients to cells; carries wastes away; protects from infection

lymphatic system
carries tissue fluid and wastes to blood; assists with fighting infection

respiratory system
breathes in oxygen and eliminates CO2

digestive system
digests food physically and chemically; transports foods, absorbs nutrients, eliminates waste

Urinary
filters blood to maintain fluid and electrolyte balances

Endocrine system
produces and secretes hormones

connective tissue
supports and connect