UNIT 5 APUSH EXAM (casselberry)

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Lincoln/Douglass Debates
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a series of seven debates between Abraham Lincoln and Stephen A. Douglas for an Illinois seat in the Senate. led to Abe Lincoln being elected to the senate and this experience later propelled him to the Presidency, lincoln was a member of the republican party. faced off against democrat Douglass rounning for the state of Illinois. Lincoln opposed slavery and stephen douglass stood for popular sovereignty. Lincoln lost but issued a warning that “house divided against itself cannot stand”
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Freeport Doctrine
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Idea authored by Stephen Douglas that claimed slavery could only exist when popular sovereignty said so, It was unpopular with Southerners, and thus cost him the election.
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Panic of 1857
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Economic downturn caused by overspeculation of western lands, railroads, gold in California, grain. Mostly affected northerners, who called for higher tariffs and free homesteads
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Dred Scott case
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Supreme Court case which ruled that slaves are not citizens but are property, affirmed that property cannot be interfered with by Congress, slaves do not become free if they travel to free territories or states, fueled abolitionist movement, hailed as victory for the south
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Kansas-Nebraska Act
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1854 – Created Nebraska and Kansas as states and gave the people in those territories the right to chose to be a free or slave state through popular sovereignty., This Act set up Kansas and Nebraska as states. Each state would use popular sovereignty to decide what to do about slavery. People who were proslavery and antislavery moved to Kansas, but some antislavery settlers were against the Act. This began guerrilla warfare.
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Harper’s Ferry raid
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Occurred in October of 1859. John Brown of Kansas attempted to create a major revolt among the slaves. He wanted to ride down the river and provide the slaves with arms from the North, but he failed to get the slaves organized. Brown was captured. The effects of Harper’s Ferry Raid were as such: the South saw the act as one of treason and were encouraged to separate from the North, and Brown became a martyr to the northern abolitionist cause.
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The caning of Charles Sumner
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gave a two day speech on the Senate floor, denouncing the South for crimes against Kansas and singling out Senator Andrew Brooks of South Carolina for extra abuse. Brooks beat this speaker over the head with his cane, severely crippling him; the South responded positively by sending Brooks hundreds of new canes; furthered sectionalism
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The LeCompton Constitution
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constitution to get statehood made by Kansas, created by crafty proslavery forces in Kansas -only gave people the option of voting with or against slavery -if they voted against it, the state would protect farmers in Kansas who already owned slaves – The constitution was approved with slavery
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“Bleeding Kansas”
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A sequence of violent events involving abolitionists and pro-Slavery elements that took place in Kansas-Nebraska Territory. The dispute further strained the relations of the North and South, making civil war imminent.
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Beecher’s Bibles
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rifles shipped ot antislavery settlers in kansas by the congregation Brooklyn, NY minister Henry Ward Beecher
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Preston Brooks
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Was a Congressman from South Carolina, notorious for brutally assaulting senator Charles Sumner on the floor of the United States Senate.
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George Fitzhugh’s book “Cannibals All”
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The modern era of industrialism with its supposed abolition of slavery actually has resulted in the vast majority of men & women worse off than that of slaves – slaves without the benevolence of masters.
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“Uncle Tom’s Cabin”
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Written by Harriet Beecher Stowe in 1853 that highly influenced england’s view on the American Deep South and slavery. a novel promoting abolition. intensified sectional conflict.
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Stephen Douglass
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Northern Democratic candidate for Election of 1860, wanted popular sovereignty to make the Western territories free, saved the Compromise of 1850 by reintroducing each resolution separately, and wrote the Kansas-Nebraska Act
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Compromise of 1850
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Forestalled the Civil War by instating the Fugitive Slave Act , banning slave trade in DC, admitting California as a free state, splitting up the Texas territory, and instating popular sovereignty in the Mexican Cession
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Daniel Webster’s Seventh of March Speech
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Senator Daniel Webster delivered his famous “Seventh of March” speech urging sectional compromise on the issue of slavery. Advising abolition-minded Northerners to forgo antislavery measures, he simultaneously cautioned Southerners that disunion inevitably would lead to war. Following the lead of senators Henry Clay and Stephen Douglas, Webster endorsed Clay’s plan to assure sectional equilibrium in Congress. Passed after eight months of congressional wrangling, the legislation admitted California to the Union as a free state, permitted the question of slavery in Utah and New Mexico territories to be decided by popular sovereignty, settled Texas border disputes, and abolished slave trading in the District of Columbia while strengthening the Fugitive Slave Act.
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Jayhawkers
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People in Kansas who were anti-slavery and willing to use violence
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border ruffians
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pro-slavery Missourians who traveled in armed groups to vote in Kansas’ election during the mid-1850’s, in order to make it a pro-slavery government
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John C. Fremont
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an American military officer, explorer, the first candidate of the Republican Party for the office of President of the United States, and the first presidential candidate of a major party to run on a platform in opposition to slavery.
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Millard Fillmore
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elected Vice President and became the 13th President of the United States when Zachary Taylor died in office (1800-1874), Successor of President Zachary Taylor after his death on July 9th 1850. He helped pass the Compromise of 1850 by gaining the support of Northern Whigs for the compromise.
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Martin Van Buren
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8th President of the United States (1782-1862), He was the eighth president of the United States who was experienced in legislative and administrative life. He passed the Divorce Bill which placed the federal surplus in vaults located in large cities and denied the backing system.
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James Buchanan
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The 15th President of the United States (1857-1861). He tried to maintain a balance between proslavery and antislavery factions, but his moderate views angered radicals in both North and South, and he was unable to forestall the secession of South Carolina on December 20, 1860.
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Free Soilers
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anti-slavery agitators; there was a “Free Soil Party” from 1848 to 1854 (it was absorbed by the Republican Party when that party was formed); “The Free-Soilers’ historic slogan calling for ‘free soil, free speech, free labor, and free men’ attracted small farmers, debtors, village merchants, and household and mill workers, who resented the prospect of black-labour competition-whether slave or free-in the territories
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Zachary Taylor administration
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Taylor, as president gets intestinal illness, dies on July 9. (2nd time president has died in office)nown as Old Rough and Ready, had a 40-year military career in the U.S. Army, serving in the War of 1812, Black Hawk War, and Second Seminole War before achieving fame leading U.S. troops to victory at several critical battles of the Mexican-American War. A Southern slaveholder who opposed the spread of slavery to the territories, he was uninterested in politics but was recruited by the Whig Party as their nominee in the 1848 presidential election.
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1848 election
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Democrats nominate Lewiss Cass. Whigs nominate Zachary Taylor (Ol’ Rough n’ Ready). Free-soil party nominate former president Van Buren, opposed the extension of slavery into territories. Big issue: Squatter sovereignty; said that states should be able to decide whether or not they have slavery based on vote (mainly speaking of new states in west). Only dispute is that it makes Missouri Compromise useless. First election that everyone had to vote on same day. Taylor wins.
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The Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo
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This treaty ended the Mexican-American war. Mexico agreed to give up all its northern lands to the United States. These lands included California, Utah, Nevada, and parts of New Mexico, Arizona, Colorado, and Wyoming. The United States payed Mexico $15 million.
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Stephen W. Kearny
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General that led a detachment of 17,000 troops over the Santa fe Tail from Fort Leavenworth to Santa Fe. Secured California for the US.
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Zachary Taylor
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General that was a military leader in Mexican-American War and 12th president of the United States. Sent by president Polk to lead the American Army against Mexico at Rio Grande, but defeated.
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Winfield Scott
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General in the Mexican-War; ” Old Fuss and Feathers” ; succeeded in battling his way up to Mexico City by 1847.
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1860 election candidates
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Lincoln Breckenridge Bell Douglas
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1860 election candidates’ position on slavery
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Lincoln- AntiSlavery Breckenridge- ProSlavery Bell- ProSlavery Douglas- ProSlavery (but changed sides frequently…)
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transcontinental railroad controversy
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Besides the costs in money and lives, the building of the railroad caused some disagreement between the white European settlers and the Native Americans. Native Americans believed their land was invaded and their people killed because of the selfish wants of the settlers. White Americans justified the construction of the Transcontinental Railroad with the concept of Manifest Destiny. They believed that the United States was meant to control as much land as possible. To accomplish this, the country must first stretch “from sea to shining sea.” A railroad that spanned the entire nation would help to achieve this goal. However, to get the land for a railroad, Native American rights to territory had to be taken away as quickly as possibly to make way for construction. The white Americans saw nothing wrong with this. They believed it was acceptable to harm a minority if it benefited the majority. This attitude resulted in many broken treaties and Native American lives lost. The conflicts between the Americans and Indians ensuing from the construction of the Transcontinental Railroad would strain relations for many years to come.
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arguments for/against annexation of Texas
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Against: 1) it would enhance the slave power (upsetting the slave state/free state balance) 2) it would bring war with Mexico and possibly England 3) it amounted to a landgrab that was counter to U.S. principles of democracy 4) unconsitutional – the U.S. Constitution disallowed annexation (at least in the manner proposed) 5) annexation was a threat to national unity –since the Northern sentiment against it was so strong For: Manifest Destiny, Annexing with Cali would balance slave power
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Webster-Ashburton Treaty
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1842, Between the US and the Brits, – Established Maine’s northern border and the boundaries of the Great Lake states. settled boundry disputes in the North West, fixed most borders between US and Canada, talked about slavery
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John Tyler
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elected Vice President and became the 10th President of the United States when Harrison died 1841-1845, President responsible for annexation of Mexico after receiving mandate from Polk, opposed many parts of the Whig program for economic recovery. His presidency was responsible for the veto against another Bank of the U.S and settled the Texas and Maine disputes in the country
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Martin van Buren
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8th President of the United States (1782-1862), Served as secretary of state during Andrew Jackson’s first term, vice president during Jackson’s second term, and won the presidency in 1836
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popular sovereignty
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The concept that political power rests with the people who can create, alter, and abolish government. People express themselves through voting and free participation in government
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Know-Nothing Party
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Group of prejudice people who formed a political party during the time when the KKK grew. Anti-Catholics and anti-foreign. They were also known as the American Party.
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“54-40 or Fight”
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slogan of those wanting to take all of Oregon; numbers (54 40′) was line of latitude where people wanted Oregon border; did not want compromise of 49th parallel, as was done by President Polk.
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Slidell Mission
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This was a last ditch attempt to gain California for America. Polk sent Slidell to offer a maximum of $25 million for it, but it was rejected by the Mexicans. This prompted Polk to provoke war with the Mexicans.
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Bear Flag Revolt
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A revolt of American settlers in California against Mexican rule. It ignited the Mexican War and ultimately made California a state.
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James K. Polk
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Polk was a slave owning southerner dedicated to Democratic party. In 1844, he was a “dark horse” candidate for president, and he won the election. Polk favored American expansion, especially advocating the annexation of Texas, California, and Oregon. He was a friend and follower of Andrew Jackson. He opposed Clay’s American System, instead advocating lower tariff, separation the treasury and the federal government from the banking system. He was a nationalist who believed in Manifest Destiny.
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Election of 1844
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Candidates: Henry Clay (Whigs- in an upset over Van Buren) and James Polk (Democrat). Polk favored expansion, demanded that Texas and Oregon be added to the US and Clay had already spoken out against annexation. Polk won the election by the difference of one state (NY, because some of its votes went to the Liberty Party candidate, losing Clay the state)
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Manifest Destiny
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a belief shared by many Americans in the mid-1800s that the United States should expand across the continent to the Pacific Ocean
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Aroostook War
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The result of the conflict over The Caroline ship, which consisted of angry Americans and Canadians, mostly lumberjacks, began moving into the disputed Aroostook River region, causing a violent brawl.
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settlement of the Oregon boundary
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The Oregon boundary dispute arose as a result of competing British and American claims to the Pacific Northwest of North America in the first half of the 19th century. Both the United Kingdom (UK) and the United States (USA) had territorial and commercial aspirations in the region as well as residual claims from treaties with Russia and Spain. The Oregon Treaty between the United Kingdom and the United States signed on June 15, 1846 brought an end to the Oregon boundary dispute by settling competing American and British claims to the Oregon Country, which had been jointly occupied by both Britain and the U.S. since the Treaty of 1818.
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acquisition of California and Texas
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In the history of the United States, the acquisition of California, carrying with it that of New Mexico, was a peculiar and unusual event, and one of immense significance in the expansion and development of the Republic.Together with the annexation of Texas, it was the most important result of the Mexican War. California is a free state, texas a slave state.
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John Breckenridge
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A Political leader who favored the extension of slavery. His opponents were Douglas and Bell. He polled fewer votes in slave states than the combined strength of his opponents. Showing that because of Uncle toms cabin American was mainly abolitionists.
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John Bell
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Tennessee politician and Plantation owner, nominated for president in 1860 by the United States Constitutional Union Party (Whig’s) but lost to Lincoln and the Republicans.
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northerner’s view of slavery in the 1850’s
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That it was an abomination and must be banned.

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