– is the scientific field that seeks to understand the nature and causes of individual behavior and thought in social situations
– scientific study of how people think about, influence and relate to one another
– mental representations and evaluations of features of social / physical world
-an expression of favor or disfavor toward a person, place, thing, or event (the attitude object).
– the most distinctive + indispensable concept in social psych
– used to predict how individuals will behave based on their pre-existing attitudes and behavioral intentions.
– An individual’s decision to engage in a particular behavior is based on the outcomes the individual expects will come as a result of performing the behavior.
– intention to perform a certain behavior precedes the actual behavior (+affecting factors)
– suggests that stronger intentions lead to increased effort to perform the behavior, which also increases the likelihood for the behavior to be performed
– Albert Bandura
– posits that learning is a cognitive process that takes place in a social context and can occur purely through observation or direct instruction, even in the absence of motor reproduction or direct reinforcement.
– Leon Festinger in 1954
– centers on the belief that there is a drive within individuals to gain accurate self-evaluations
– explains how individuals evaluate their own opinions and abilities by comparing themselves to others in order to reduce uncertainty in these domains, and learn how to define the self
– aspects of the situation (situational constraints, time pressure)
– aspects of the attitudes (attitude origin, attitude strength
– aspects of the individual
– “prejudgement”- an unjustified, typically negative, attitude toward an individual or group
– Richard Petty + John Cacioppo
– based on cognitive perspective on persuasion
– a theory suggesting that there are two distinct routes to persuasion involving different amounts of cognitive elaboration in response to a persuasive message / appeal
– dual process theory of how persuasion works
– central route and peripheral route
– involves calling on basic thinking and reasoning to convince people
– includes activities such as
1. evaluating the strength / rationality of the argument
2. deciding whether its content agrees / disagrees with current beliefs
– influences people by way of incidental cues, like a speaker’s physical attractiveness or personal relatability
– attitude change occurs more likely when the audience is distracted and can’t engage in a careful analysis of the persuasive message
– the state experienced by individuals when they discover inconsistency between two attitudes they hold or between their attitudes and their behavior
– the notion that we experience discomfort / dissonance, when our thoughts, beliefs or behaviors are inconsistent with each other
– “Fake it till you Make it”
– cognitive perspective
– Who said What to Whom and with what Effect?
– explained the “who” and the “how” of persuasion
– 1. what do people think about when they are exposed to persuasive messages?
2. how these thoughts & cognitive processes determine whether and to what extent, attitude change occurs?
– an approach that seeks to understand persuasion by identifying the cognitive processes that play a role in it
– a paradoxical state of mind–the fact that the stronger the reasons for engaging in attitude-discrepant behavior, the weaker the pressures toward changing the underlying attitudes and vice versa
– the tendency for people to more readily comply with a certain big request after they have first agreed to smaller, more innocuous requests
– basic form of learning in which one stimulus, initially neutral, acquires the capacity to evoke reactions through repeated pairing with another stimulus
– can occur below the level of conscious awareness
– muscle movements
– basic form of learning in which responses that lead to positive outcomes or that permit the avoidance of negative outcomes are strengthened
– basic form of learning in which individuals acquire new forms of behavior through observing others
– influence more general dispositions such as the tendency to experience positive or negative affect
– affect other aspects of social behavior such as mate selection
– it offers many ideas about how to know ourselves better, how to win friends and influence people, how to turn enemies into friends
– have implications for human health and well-being, for judicial procedures and juror decisions in courtrooms + for the encouragement of behaviors that will enable an environmentally sustainable human future
– we construct our social reality
– our social intuitions are powerful, but can be perilous
– attitudes, social influences and dispositions shape our behavior
– feelings and actions towards people are sometimes negative and sometimes positive
this involves a person’s feelings / emotions about the attitude object. For example: “I am scared of spiders”.
– Behavioral (or conative) component:
the way the attitude we have influences how we act or behave. For example: “I will avoid spiders and scream if I see one”
– Cognitive component:
this involves a person’s belief / knowledge about an attitude object. For example: “I believe spiders are dangerous”
– external attitudes (subjective norms)
– perceived behavioral control
– an indication of an individual’s readiness to perform a given behavior
– immediate antecedent of behavior
– determined by 3 factors
– a theory that links beliefs and behavior
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