Unit 14: Social Psychology, Social Relations

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Prejudice is an ____ (and usually ____) attitude toward a group that involves overgeneralized beliefs known as ____.
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unjustifiable negative stereotypes
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Like all attitudes, prejudice is a mixture of ____, ____, and predispositions to ____.
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beliefs emotions action
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Prejudice is a negative ____ and ____ is a negative ____.
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attitude discrimination behavior
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Americans today express ____ racial and gender prejudice than they did 50 years ago.
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less
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Blatant forms of prejudice ____ diminished. However, even people who deny holding prejudiced attitudes may carry negative ____ about race.
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have associations
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Studies of prejudice indicate that it is often an unconscious, or ____, action. Several studies have shown that the more a person’s features are perceived as typical of their ____ the more likely they are to elicit ____ responding.
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implicity racial category race-based
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Today’s biopsychosocial approach has stimulated neuroscience studies that have detected implicit prejudice in people’s ____-muscle responses and in the activation of their brain’s ____.
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facial amygdala
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Worldwide, ____ are more likely to live in poverty. People tend to perceive women as being more ___ and ____ and less ____ than men.
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women nurturant sensitive aggressive
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For those with money, power, and prestige, prejudice often serves as a means of ____ social inequalities.
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justifying
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Discrimination increases prejudice through the tendency of people to ____ victims for their plight.
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blame
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Through our ____, we associate ourselves with certain groups.
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social identities
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Prejudice is also fostered by the ___, a tendency to favor groups to which one belongs–called the ___– while excluding others, or the ____.
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ingroup bias ingroup outgroup
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Research studies also reveal that the terror of facing ____ tends to heighten patriotism and produce loathing and aggression toward people who threaten one’s ____.
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death world
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That prejudice derives from attempts to blame others for one’s frustration is proposed by the ____ theory.
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scapegoat
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People who feel loved and supported become more ___ to and ___ of those who differ from them.
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open accepting
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Research suggests that prejudice may also derive from ____, the process by which we attempt to simplify our world by classifying people into groups. One by-product of this process is that people tend to ____ the similarity of those within a group. One manifestation of this is the ____, the tendency to recall faces of one’s own race more accurately than those of other races.
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categorization overestimate other-race effect
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Another factor that fosters the formation of group stereotypes and prejudice is the tendency to ____ from vivid or memorable cases.
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overgeneralize
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The belief that people get what they deserve–that the good are rewarded and the bad punished–is expressed in the ____ phenomenon. This phenomenon is based in part on ____, the tendency to believe that one would have foreseen how something turned out.
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just-world hindsight bias
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Aggressive behavior is defined by psychologists as ____. THus, psychologists ____ consider assertive salespeople to be aggressive.
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any physical or verbal behavior intended to hurt or destroy do not
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Like other behaviors, aggression emerges from the interaction of ___ and ___.
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biology experience
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Today, most psychologists ____ consider human aggression to be instinctive.
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do not
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In humans, aggressiveness ____ greatly from culture to culture, era to era, and person to person.
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varies
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That there are genetic influences on aggression can be shown by the fact that many species of animals have been ____ for aggressiveness.
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bred
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Twin studies suggest that genes ___ influence human aggression. One genetic marker of those who commit the most violence is the ____ chromosome. Studies of violent criminals reveal diminished activity in the brain’s ____, which play an important role in controlling ____.
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do Y frontal lobes impulses
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In humans and animals, aggression is facilitated by ____ systems, which are in turn influenced by ____, alcohol, and other substances in the blood.
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neural hormones
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The aggressive behavior of animals can be manipulated by altering the levels of the hormone ____. When this level is _____, aggressive tendencies are reduced.
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testosterone decreased
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High levels of testosterone correlate with ____, low tolerance for ___, ____, and ____. Among teenage boys and adult men, high testosterone also correlates with ___, hard ____, and aggressive-bullying responses to ____. With age, testosterone levels–and aggressiveness–____. Although testosterone heightens aggressiveness, aggression ____ testosterone level.
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irritability frustration assertiveness impulsiveness delinquency drug use frustration decrease increases
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One drug that unleashes aggressive responses to provocation is ____.
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alcohol
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According to the ____ principle, inability to achieve a goal leads to anger, which may generate aggression.
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frustration-aggression
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Other aversive stimuli can provoke hostility, including _____.
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physical pain, personal insults, foul odors, hot temperatures, cigarette smoke
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Aggressive behavior can be learned through ____, as shown by the fact that people use aggression where they’ve found it pays, and through ____ of others.
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rewards observation (or imitation)
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Crime rates are higher in countries in which there is a large disparity between those who are ____ and those who are ____. High violence rates also are typical of cultures and families in which there is minimal ____.
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rich poor father care
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Once established, aggressive behavior patterns are ____ to change. However, ____ programs have been successful in bringing down re-arrest rates of juvenile offenders and gang members.
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difficult aggression-replacement
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Violence on television tends to ____ people to cruelty and ____ them to respond aggressively when they are provoked.
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desensitize prime
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The \”rape myth\” is the mistaken idea that _____. Most rapists _____ this myth.
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some women invite or enjoy rape accept
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Experiments have shown that, among other factors, depictions by the media of ____ most directly affect men’s acceptance and performance and aggression against women. Such depictions may create ____ to which people respond when they are in new situations or are uncertain how to act.
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sexual violence social scripts
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Kids who play a lot of violent video games see the world as more ____, get into more ____ and ____, and get worse ____.
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hostile arguements fights grades
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Research studies of the impact of violent video games ____ the idea that we feel better if we \”blow off steam\” by venting our emotions. This idea is the ____. Expressing anger breeds ____ anger.
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disconfirm catharsis hypothesis more
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Many factors contribute to aggression, including ____ factors, such as an increase in testosterone; ____ factors, such as frustration; and ____ factors, such as deindividuation.
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biological psychological social-cultural
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A prerequisite for, and perhaps the most powerful predictor of, attraction is _____.
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proximity
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When people are repeatedly exposed to unfamiliar stimuli, their liking of the stimuli _____. This phenomenon is the ____ effect. Robert Zajonc contends that this phenomenon was ____ for our ancestors, for whom the unfamiliar was often dangerous. One implication of this is that ____ against those who are culturally different may be a primitive, ____ emotional response.
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increases mere exposure adaptive prejudice automatic
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Our first impression of another person is most influenced by the person’s ____.
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appearance
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In a sentence, list several of the characteristics that physically attractive people are judged to possess:_________.
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attractive people are perceived as happier, more sensitive, more successful, and more socially skilled
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A person’s attractiveness ____ strongly related to his or her self-esteem or happiness.
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is not
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Cross-cultural research reveals that men judge women as more attractive if they have a ____ appearance whereas women judge men who appear ____, ____, and ____ as more attractive. People also seem to prefer physical features that are neither unusually ____ nor ____. Average faces, which tend to be ____, are judged to be more sexually attractive.
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youthful mature dominant affluent large small symmetrical
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Compared with strangers, friends and couples are more likely to be similar in terms of _____.
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attitudes, beliefs, interests, religion, race, education, intelligence, smoking behavior, economic status, age
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Hatfield has distinguished 2 types of love: ____ love and ____ love.
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passionate companionate
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According to the 2 factor theory, emotions have 2 components: physical ____ and a ____ label.
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arousal cognitive
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When college men were placed in an aroused state, their feelings toward an attractive women ____ more positive than those of men who had not been aroused.
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were
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Companionate love is promoted by ____–mutual sharing and giving by both partners. Another key ingredient of loving relationships is the revealing of intimate aspects of ourselves through ____.
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equity self-disclosure
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An unselfish regard for the welfare of other is called ____.
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altruism
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According to Darley and Latane, people will help only if a 3 stage decision making process is completed: Bystanders must first ____ the incident, then ___ it as an emergency, and finally _____ for helping.
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notice interpret assume responsibility
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When people who overheard a seizure victim calling for help thought others were hearing the same plea, they were ____ likely to go to his aid than when they thought no one else was aware of the emergency.
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less
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In a series of staged accidents, Latane and Darley found that a bystander was ____ likely to help if other bystanders were present. This phenomenon has been called the _____.
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less bystander effect
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The idea that social behavior aims to maximize rewards and minimize costs is proposed by ____ theory.
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social exchange
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One rule of social behavior tells us to return help to those who have helped us; this is the ____ norm.
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reciprocity
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Another rule tells us to help those who need our help; this is the ____ norm.
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social-responsibility
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A perceived incompatibility of actions, goals or ideas is called ____. This perception can take place between individuals, _____, or _____.
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conflict groups nations
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Situations in which conflicting parties become caught in mutually destructive behavior by pursuing their own self-interests are called ____.
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social traps
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The distorted images people in conflict form of each other are called ____ perceptions.
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mirror-image
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In most situations, establishing contact between 2 conflicting groups ____ sufficient to resolve conflict.
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is not
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In Sherif’s study, two conflicting groups of campers were able to resolve their conflicts by working together on projects in which they shared ____ goals. Shared ____ breed solidarity, as demonstrated by a surge in use of the word ____ in the weeks after 9/11.
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superordinate predicaments \”we\”
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When conflicts arise, a 3rd party ____ may facilitate communication and promote understanding.
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mediator
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Osgood has advanced a strategy of coniliation called GRIT, which stands for ____ and ____ in ____. The key to this method is each side’s offering of a small ___ gesture in order to increase mutual trust and cooperation.
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Graduated Reciprocated Initiatives Tension-Reduction concilitory

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