Unit 14 History test

Discuss the economic outcomes of demobilization.
Right after World War I, the US economy went into a bit of a recession. This was largely because of the fact that the war had ended. Factories that had been working at full speed producing weapons and such were suddenly put out of business, for example. And this loss was not made up for by other kinds of business, especially not right away. This is partly because foreign countries were no longer so able to buy things from the US.
Explain the causes of the public reaction (Sacco and Vanzetti, labor, racial unrest) associated with the Red Scare.
Sacco and Vanzetti: arrested and charged for murder…killed by electric chair. Many thought they were mistreated bc of their radical beliefs. Edna St. Vincent Millay donated proceeds from her poem “justice denied in Massachusetts”
Labor unrest: employers would label striking workers as communists. The AFL ledges to avoid strikes the Boston police strike was dissolved by Calvin Coolidge. The still mill strike caused ultimately by the U.S. Steel cooperation refusing to meet with union representatives that wanted shorter working hrs and collective bargaining rights. Coal miners strike.
Racial unrest: KKK rose again in 1924. U.S. Limited immigration with the emergency quota act of 1921. Japan had been faithfully keeping to the gentleman’s agreement but this law prohibited all Japanese immigration (angered the nation)
Public reaction which resulted from the Red Scare was based on the belief that immigrants would bring communism to the United States after we had just gotten out of WWI.
Examine the impact of United States foreign economic policy during the 1920s.
America withdrew into isolationism in the 1920s it was hard to back out of world affairs completely, as America now stretched to the Caribbean. The U.S. Still produced a large quantity of products for the world market
Evaluate how the economic boom during the Roaring Twenties changed consumers, businesses, manufacturing, and marketing practices.
Hoover kept taxes down and business profits up. And gave businesses more available credit in order to expand. Coolidge placed high tariffs on foreign imports helping am. Manufacturers. He reduced income taxes. Consumers had more money now thanks to new technology and better productivity
Describe efforts by the United States and other world powers to avoid future wars.
The United States tried to stay out of foreign affairs altogether, both political and economic.
Other countries created the League of Nations and even made war illegal at one point.
Analyze the influence that Hollywood, the Harlem Renaissance, the Fundamentalist movement, and prohibition had in changing American society in the 1920s.
Hollywood: pas-time was spent watching movies about romance or comedy
Harlem renaissance: literary and artistic movement that celebrated African American culture
Fundamentalist movement: influenced the passing of laws prohibiting the teaching of evolution.
Prohibition: stopped the selling and distributing of alcohol but it was still done illegally
Examine the freedom movements that advocated civil rights for African Americans, Latinos, Asians, and women.
Compare the views of Booker T. Washington, W.E.B. DuBois, and Marcus Garvey relating to the African American experience.
Booker T. Washington:
W.E.B. DuBois: protest racial violence
Marcus Garvey: African Americans should build a separate society
Explain why support for the Ku Klux Klan varied in the 1920s with respect to issues such as anti-immigration, anti-African American, anti-Catholic, anti-Jewish, anti-women, and anti-union ideas.
Klan began losing power?
Analyze support for and resistance to civil rights for women, African Americans, Native Americans, and other minorities.
Major notes from Harding and Coolidge presidencies (remember the DVD?)
What did a “return to normalcy” involve?
Britain and France paying backed the $10 billion they borrowed from the U.S. during the war, and a limited role in government in business affairs and social reform. A return to normalcy meant going back to the times before the war. To republicans this meant a return to big business
How did Harding help the US recover from a brief recession following World War I?
He invited several major powers to the Washington Naval Conference, in which they discussed to disarm.
What were Coolidge’s main economic policies? (4)
Keep government interference in business to a minimum, allow private enterprise to flourish, keep taxes down and business profits up, continual high tariffs of foreign imports to help American manufacturers
Coolidge believed that the business of America was …?
Business…the man who builds a factory builds a temple -the man who works there worships there
Fordney-McCumber Tariff
Raised taxes on imports nearly 60%. This tax protected US businesses (mostly metal and chemical) from foreign competition. Made it impossible for britain and France to repay debts
Scandals in the Harding Administration, especially Teapot Dome
Teapot dome: Albert B Fall leased oil rich public lands to private companies in return for money and land. Fall was the first American to convicted of a felony while holding a cabinet post
Charles R. Forbes was caught selling hospital supplies to private companies
Hardning’s friends would become wealthy through graft
Washington Naval Conference
Charles Evans Hughes urged no more warships be built for ten years; suggested the 5 major naval powers, US, Great Britain, Japan, France, and Italy, scrap many of their battle ships, cruisers, and aircraft carriers; for the first time in history, powerful nations agreed to disarm
Dawes Plan
To avoid another war, Charles G. Dawes was sent to negotiate loans w/ Germany
American investors loaned Germany $2.5 billion to pay back Britain and France with annual payments on a fixed scale.
Kellogg-Briand Pact of 1928
Renounced war as a national policy; however,none pact was futile, as it provided no means of enforcement
Overall: Foreign Policy of the 1920s = ?, Role of the Government = ?
Isolationism, laissez faire
Major race riots of the early 1920s?
Chicago riot: started over dispute over designated space between whites and blacks.
Tulsa Race Riot of 1921: A race riot over the accusation of assault by a white women by a black man.
How did the Great Migration during World War I cause this?
It caused tensions between whites and blacks to increase because whites were getting angry that their jobs were being taken.
Quota Laws of 1921 & 1924
The Emergency Quota Act of 1921 set up a quota system. This system established the maximum number of people who could enter the United States from each foreign country. The goal of the quota system was to cut sharply European immigration to the United States. As amended in 1924, the law limited immigration from each European nation to 2 percent of the number of its nationals living in the United States in 1890. discriminated against jews and RC’s. prohibited Japanese immigration causing tensions between US & Japan
A. Mitchell Palmer
U.S. Attorney General who took action to combat the Red Scare. Trampled people’s civil rights, invaded homes, and jailed hundreds of foreign-born radicals without legal trial. People eventually decided that he didn’t know what he was talking about.
Know the Sacco and Vanzetti Case
Sacco and Vanzetti were arrested and charged with the robbery and murder of a factory paymaster and his guard. Witnesses had said the criminals appeared to be Italians. The accused asserted their innocence and provided alibis; the evidence against them was circumstantial; and the presiding judge made prejudicial remarks. Nevertheless, the jury still found them guilty and sentenced them to death.
Why was there a red scare?
A Communist Party formed in the United States.after several bombs were mailed to government and business leaders the public thought the commies were taking over
Tactics of the KKK? Groups targeted?
The KKK was devoted to “100 percent Americanism. Consisted of “white male persons, native-born gentile citizens.” The Klan believed in keeping blacks “in their place,” destroying saloons, opposing unions, and driving Roman Catholics, Jews, and foreign-born people out of the country
Results of the red scare on union membership in the 1920s?
Union membership dropped from more than 5 million to around 3.5 million, however KKK membership reached 4.5 million by 1924
Growth of cities
boom in city populations in the 1920s, African Americans and immigrants made up a large portion of this migration
Airplanes – first use?
Began as a mail carrying service for the U.S. Postal Service
How were automobiles made affordable?
Free enterprise system, they were cheap and durable (few restrictions on ownership and business activities); also the mass production of cars was made possible by the assembly line
What was Henry Ford’s dream?
Successfully alter American landscape and society with mass production and low prices
Why did the 1920s economy seem great, but in fact, was not?
People easily spent all their extra income, and then some; key industries (railroads and coal mining) were used less because of cars, and electricity –> Great Depression
Installment plans / buying on credit
Enabled people to buy goods over an extended period, without having to put down much money at the time of purchase.
Despite the economic boom of the 1920s, farmers did not enjoy prosperity. Why not?
Iron and railroad industries weren’t very prosperous, and farms suffered because with new machinery, they were producing more food than was needed and this drove down food prices
Review the growth of motion pictures. What was added to film in the 1920s?
What were the effects of radio, advertising, motion pictures and automobiles on American society? Why are these developments significant?
The developments changed society forever, many people were able to enjoy leisure time. radios connected the entire country and kept everyone updated on current events.
Understand the growth of religious fundamentalism
Apart of the Protestant movement that was grounded in the literal and non symbolic interpretation of the bible. The battle between traditionalism and modernism. Fundamentalism believed in not teaching evolution and in taking the Bible literally.
Why was prohibition difficult? Know major information from the presentations.
Men were coming home from war and wanted to relax and enjoy life.
Scopes Monkey Trial and significance?
Trial-Scopes taught about evolution even after it was made illegal. Darrow was his defender and Bryan’s his prosecutor. In the end scopes was fined 100$ (found guilty) later the Supreme Court changed their verdict due to a technicality. Significance- made apparent the conflicts occurring during the 1920’s
What does your book say was the “double standard”?
A set of principles granting greater sexual freedom to men than to women
What was a “flapper”?
A free-thinking young woman who embraced the new fashions and urban attitudes of the 1920s
Understand how/why the roles of women changed in this time period and the results.
How: families changed in that birth control info was now widely available (dropping birth rate; Margaret Sanger), “stay home” wives, more equality in marriage, double standard even though dating is common.
Why: the industrial economy opened new work opportunities for women in offices, factories, stores, and professions. New time-saving appliances and products that reshaped the roles of housewives and mothers.
Did women join the workforce?
Yes, many worked during World War I but afterwards women started working in offices as receptionists, secretaries, etc. (emergence of white collar jobs)
How did the woman’s role in the household change with new technology for the home?
Stores overflowed with ready-made clothes, sliced bread, and canned foods. Public agencies provided services for the elderly, public health clinics served the sick, and workers’ compensation assisted those who could no longer work. These innovations and institutions had the effect of freeing homemakers from some of their traditional family responsibilities. Middle class women now focused on family.
NAACP / goals / James Weldon Johnson
NAACP: national association for the advancement of colored people
Goals: protest racial violence and fought for legislation to protect African American rights
James Weldon Johnson: poet, lawyer and NAACP executive secretary
UNIA / Marcus Garvey – goals?
UNIA: universal negro improvement association
Marcus Garvey:
Goals:promote African American business
Racial problems as a result of the Great Migration
Race riots
Lost Generation” of writers?
Writers such as Fitzgerald, Ernest Hemingway, and John Dos Passos were so soured by American culture that they chose to settle in Europe, mainly in Paris. Socializing in the city’s cafes, they formed a group that the writer Gertrude Stein called the Lost Generation. They joined other American writers already in Europe such as the poets Ezra Pound and T. S. Eliot.

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