Unit 10 – French Revolution and Napoleon Study Guide

Estates General
-France’s traditional national assembly
-representatives of the three estates/classes (French society): clergy, nobility, and commoners.
– (1789) calling of the Estates General led to the French Revolution

First Estate
-Roman Catholic Clergy
-they received special privileges and paid no direct taxes
-1% of total population

Second Estate
-aristocrats, nobles, and high-positioned government and military officials
-paid few taxes if at all and were as wealthy as the First Estate.
-2% of total population

Third Estate
-bourgeoisie above the san-culottes above the peasants
-paid high taxes
-no special privileges
-97% of total population
-some rich, but wealth not buy them influence in government

Voting Rules of the Estates General

Louis XVI and Marie Antoinette
-queen and king during the French Revolution
-Marie was Austrian (French hate Austrians)
-lived a spoiled, lavish lifestyle when the rest of France was starving

Tennis Court Oath
-(1789) pledge made by the members of Third Estate in which they vowed to continue meeting until they had drawn up a new constitution
-Louis then allowed each representative to have vote

National Assembly
-French Revolutionary assembly (1789-1791)
-called first as the Estates General (the three estates came together and demanded radical change)
-(1789) passed the Declaration of the Rights of Man

Delcaration of Rights of Man and of the Citizen
-adopted by National Assembly
-laid out basic priciples of French Revolution
“liberty, equality, fraternity”
-inspired by Bil of Rights and Delcaration of Independence
-men are born equal and remain equal
-freedom of speeh, press and religion
-not for women

Storming the Bastille
-July 14th, 1789
-rumor that the king had been planning a military coup against the National Assembly
-mob defend their city and marched to the Bastille prison for gunpowder
-mob killed commander and stuck head on stick and paraded through streets

Great Fear
-panic that spread through the French countryside after the storming of the Bastille
-feared king would punish them and end Revolution
-massacres spread, rumors, violence

Women’s Bread March
-7,000 women march to Versailles carrying weapons
-demanded attention to poverty (not women’s rights), -murdered several guards
-Louis agreed to move back to Paris (Tuileries Palace with family)

Role of Catholic Church in Revolution

Jacobin Party-national convention
-Mountains, Montagnards: most belonged to Jacobin
-radical party
-believed terror would help reconstruct French society

Guillotine
– used to behead peopleused
-execution during the French Revolution

Sans Culottes
-“without breeches”
-radical group of shopkeepers and wage earners
-wanted a larger voice in government and an end to food shortages

Jean Paul Marat
-advocate of violence
-leader of Paris sans culottes
-National Convention radical leader

Maximillian Robespierre
-dedicated to Revolution
-radical
-led National Convention during most blood-thirsty time

Committee of Public Safety
– Reign of Terror
-set up by National Convention
–(get rid of the counter-revolutionaries)
-manage country military defense against foreign forces on France borders
-draft of able unmarried men between ages 18-45 for military service

Reign of Terror
-series of accusations, trials, and exeutions by Mountains
-violent period of time
-Robespierre rule (ended up being victim himself)

Origins and rise to power of Napoleon
-turmoil of French Revolution
-placed by Directory as commander of French forces
-won territory for France
-dictator

1799 Coup de’etat
-to seize more power for Napoleon, armed supporters of him surrounded Directory legislature and forced member to give government to him
-forced transfer of power

Domestic Policies:
-Napoleonic Code
-made laws uniform across the nation and eliminated many injustices
-also promoted order and authority over individual rights, though

Domestic Policies:
-Bank of France
-Napoleon knew a good financial system was essential for the stability of France so established the Bank of France **to regulate the economy

Domestic Policies:
-Meritocracy
-specific to government positions
-Ex./ if you’re a bad noble you could get fired…you’re not just born into it and can stay
(your job is worth as well as you can make it worth)

Domestic Policies:
-Education

Domestic Policies:
-Concordat
-was an agreement with the pope; acknowledged that most French citizens were Roman Catholics, but did not require they be Catholic because religious tolerance was still the law

Continental System
-to disrupt G. Britians trade with other nations
-Napoleon planned blockade
-prohibited French or allied ships from trading with Britian
-led to Peninsular War

Peninsular War
-Napoleon sent French troops to Portugal to take king out
-conquered spain and but brother (Joseph) on throne
-spanish didn’t want foreign ruler so rebelled with the aid of British forces to drive Napoleon’s French troops out of Spain
-Napoleon pull troops out because slaughtered many innocent people

The Russian Campaign
-Napoleon tried to take over Russia
-troops had lack of supplies on way there
-cold weather
-Russians burned down Moscow leaving nothing for French
-French ran into Russians and won
-French went home same cold way they came

Scorched Earth Policy
-burning crops
-killing livestock during wartime
-so enemy cannot live off the land

Elba Island
-Mediterranean island off coast of Italy
-Naploeon exiled there by his enemies who allowed him to keep title of emperor but new empire was Elba

Battle of Waterloo
-battle that Napoleon lost after return from Elba
-1815 Britian, Russia, Prussia, Austria defeat Napoleon
-both suffered losses, Napoleon lost military career

St. Helena
-captors sent him further away this time
-volcanic island in South Atlantic
-never escaped, died 6 years later (age 51) (unknown how)

Effects of Napoleon’s reign (see essay)

Congress of Vienna
-a meeting held in Vienna
-purpose was to create a plan to restore order and stability to Europe after the turmoil of the Napoleonic Wars
(redrew the map of Europe)