Unit 1 Test Study Guide (Biology)

biology
the study of life

bio-
pertaining to life

-logy
the study of

organization
the high degree of order within an organism’s internal and external parts and in its interactions with the living world

cell
the smallest unit that can perform all of life’s processes

multicellular
describes a tissue, organ, or organism that is made of many cells

stimulus (plural stimuli)
something that causes a reaction in an organ or cell

homeostasis
the steady-state physiological condition of the body

metabolism
the sum of all chemical processes that occur in an organism

growth
the gradual increase of an animal or vegetable body over time

development
gradual advancement or growth through a series of progressive changes

reproduction
the process of producing offspring

scientific method
the series of steps followed to solve problems, including collecting data, formulating a hypothesis, testing the hypothesis, and stating conclusions

uniformity
Consistency

observation
the process of obtaining information by using the senses

hypothesis
an idea or explanation that is based on observations and that can be tested

prediction
a statement made in advance that expresses the results that will be obtained from testing a hypothesis if the hypothesis is supported

controlled experiment
A scientific investigation in which both the control group and experimental group(s) are kept under similar variables apart from the factor under study so that the effect or influence of that factor can be identified or determined

control group
a group that serves as a standard of comparison with another group to which the control group is identical except for one factor

experimental group
a group that is identical to a control group, except for one factor

independent variable
the factor that is deliberately manipulated

dependent variable
the factor that changes as a result of the manipulation

inference
The act or process of deriving logical conclusions from premises known or assumed to be true

theory
an explanation of for some phenomenon that based on observation

compound light microscope
a microscope that uses light to illuminate a specimen that is then magnified by two lenses

ocular lens (eyepiece)
the part of a compound light microscope that magnifies an image

objective lens
the part of a compound light microscope that is directly above the specimen and that magnifies the image of the specimen

stage
a platform of a compound light microscope that supports the slide holding the specimen

light source
Any device serving as a source of illumination

magnification
the increase of an object’s apparent size by using lenses or mirrors

resolution
the ability to form images in fine detail

electron microscope
An electron microscope is a microscope that uses a beam of accelerated electrons as a source of illumination

scanning electron microscopes
a microscope that produces an enlarged, three dimensional image of an object by using a beam of electrons other than light

transmission electron microscopes
a microscope that transmits a beam of electrons through a very thin slice of specimen of specimen