Unit 1: Psychology`s History and Approaches

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Plato and Socrates view of the mind
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mind is separate from the body and continues on after death
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Blank Slate/ Tabula Rasa
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John Locke
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Ideas that formed modern Empiricism
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John Locke and Francis Bacon
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First psychological lab
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Wilhelm Wundt
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Wundt’s lab work involved experimental studies of
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reactions to sensory stimulation
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differentiated Wundt’s research from psychologists before him
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laboratory research
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Wundt’s early experiments were attempts to investigate what area of psych?
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the simplest mental processes
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consciously aware of perceiving a sound
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introspection
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used introspection to scientifically identify basic elements of mind
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Edward Titchener
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self-reflective observation of one’s own sensations and feelings
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introspection
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introspection was used by Titchener to identify
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elements of sensory experience
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participants carefully observe and report their immediate reactions and feelings in response to different musical sounds
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introspection
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the unreliability of introspection contributed to the waning popularity of
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structuralism
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functionalism was developed by
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William James
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William James was a
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functionalist
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Functionalism focused on
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adaptive value of conscious thoughts and emotions
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Student of William James and first female president of the American Psychological Association
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Mary Calkins
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American philosopher who authored a textbook in 1890 for the emerging discipline of psych
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William James
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defines psychology as the scientific study of observable behavior (What have you done to my baby)
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John B. Watson
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emphasizes the role of the unconscious in affecting behavior
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Sigmund Freud
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psychoanalysts focus on
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childhood experiences and unconscious thought processes
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humanistic psychologists concentrate on
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current environmental influences on potential
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behaviorists dismissed the value of (thought process disvalued)
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introspection
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humanistic psychologists focused on the importance of (people are good)
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healthy grow potential
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cognitive revolution involved a renewal of interest in the study of
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mental processes
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what field of psych would this question fall under: what happens in our brain when we forget details about stressful life events, and how does this process affect behavior?
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cognitive neuroscience
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argument as to whether psychological differences between men and women result from biological or social influences involves what debate
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nature vs nurture
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the inheritance of behavioral characteristics was emphasized by
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Charles Darwin
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the biopsychosocial approach provides an understanding of social-cultural influences integrated within the larger framework of
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multiple levels of analysis
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approach asses both nature and nurture on our psychological traits
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biopsychosocial
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perspective most relevant to understanding the impact of strokes and brain diseases on memory
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biological
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cognitive perspective of psych focuses on how
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people encode, process, store, and retrieve information
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distinctive feature of psychodynamic perspective
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unconscious conflicts
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perspective that focuses most clearly on how we learn observable responses (Watson & Skinner)
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behavioral
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boosts morale and productivity
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behavioral
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reproductive advantages of inherited psychological traits
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evolutionary
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praise is a method of this approach to psych
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behavioral
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unconscious
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psychodynamic
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physical properties of the brain influence behaviors and mental states
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biological
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contribute to psychological disorders
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biological
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criticism for Freud’s psychoanalytic theory
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unscientific and unverifiable
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humanist
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Abraham Maslow
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behaviorists explain human thought and behavior as a result of (Spider demo)
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past conditioning
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relies on observation
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empiricism
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relies on introspection
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structuralism
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how mental and behavioral processes function
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functionalism
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emphasizes observable mental behavior
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behaviorism
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links biological and psychological processes
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biological
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how the natural selection of traits promoted the survival of genes
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evolutionary
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how behavior springs from unconscious drives and conflicts
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psychodynamic
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how we learn observable responses
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behavioral
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how we encode process store and retrieve information
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cognitive
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how we meet our needs for love and acceptance and achieve self-fulfillment
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humanistic
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how behavior and thinking vary across situations and cultures
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social-cultural

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