Unit 1: Organic Chemistry -Introduction to Organic Chemistry (Chem) Flashcard

Organic Chemistry
Study of carbon compounds
Organic Compounds
-contain carbon
-have covalent bonds (share e- btwn non-metals)
Polar
Unequal sharing of e- (difference in electronegativity)
Non-Polar
Equal sharing of e-
Carbon Compounds:
Hydrocarbons
Compounds of carbon and hydrogen only
Carbon Compounds:
Derivatives
Carbon compounds with mostly oxygen, nitrogen, and halogen
Type of Hydrocarbon:
Aliphatic
Straight chains and ring structures (cyclic)
Type of Hydrocarbon:
Aromatic
Contains benzene ring
Carbon Single Bond
C2H6
Tetrahedral
Alkane
Non-polar
Carbon Double Bond
C2H4
Trigonal
Alkene
Non-polar
Carbon Triple Bond
C2H2
Linear
Alkyne
Non-polar
Number Naming
1- mono
2- di
3- tri
4- tetra
5- penta
6- hexa
7- hepta
8- octa
9- nona
10- deca
Differences btwn Carbon Bonds
-number of bonds btwn carbons
-as Carbon bonds increase, hydrogens decrease
-different number of atoms attached to carbons (same # of bonds)
Similarities btwn Carbon Bonds
-all have two carbons
-each hydrogen has a single bond
-all have same number of bonds (diff # of atoms)
Naming- IUPAC
(Number of carbons)
1- meth
2- eth
3- prop
4- but
5- pent
6- hex
7- hept
8- oct
9- non
10- dec
Molecular Formula
Indicates # of atoms present
ex. C4H10
Structural Formula
Shows how atoms are arranged
H H
| |
H-C-C-H
| |
H H
Condensed Structural Formula
CH3-CH2-CH2-CH3
Condensed Formula
CH3CH2CH2CH3
-bracket used to show bond or to state how many of an atom there are
Line Diagram
Points on lines represent Carbon atoms
Alkyl Group Branches
Methyl
Ethyl
Propyl
Butyl
*Isopropyl
Other Branch Names
Cl- cloro
Br- bromo
I- iodo
F- fluro
NO2- nitro
NH2- amino
OH- hydroxy
Line Diagram: drawing alkyl’s
1 line: methyl
2 lines: ethyl
3 lines: propyl

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