Unit 1 chemistry and physics

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Conformational Isomers
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Same molecule rotated around a bond differently
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Newman Projections
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Used to view along a bond. Can be used to look at bond rotations
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Anti-staggered
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The most stable bond formation. The bulkiest at 109 degrees apart
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Eclipsed
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Least favorable, bulkiest in line
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Gauche
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The two bulkiest are in 60 degrees apart. In the middle of favorability
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Cyclic conformers
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Conformational isomers that depend on ring strain For hexane, the most stable is the chair. Least favorable is a boat, then twisted boat
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Flagpole strain
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Can cause inversion of a cyclic conformer When the large ones are axial instead of equatorial Causes inversion to fix it
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When a ring flip occurs in 3-cholorocyclohexanol, its pre and post flip form represent what kind of isomer
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Conformational isomers
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Chirality
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Nonsuperimposable mirror images Has to have 4 unique substituents Called a stereo center Cannot become its mirror image without breaking a bond
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Enantiomers
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Configurational isomers that are non superimposable and mirror images
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Imagine haloalchol (R)-1-chloroethanol. What would be its enantiomer?
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(S)-1-chloroethanol
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Diastereomers
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Configurational isomers with more than one stereo center that are non superimposable and not mirror images
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How many stereo centers exist for 4-amino-3-bromo-pentan-2-ol
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8
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Cis/trans
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Configurational isomers that differ in configuration across a double bond or ring Cis is same, trans is opposite
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Between methyl-but-1-enol’s cis or trans isomers, which one is more stable?
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trans
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Meso compounds
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Have one or more chiral centers and has an internal plane of symmetry
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Z/E Configuration
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Absolute configuration used across a double bond Can be used when more than one substituent is present Z and E name are at the beginning
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R/S Configurations
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Absolute configuration using stereo centers Clockwise=R Counterclockwise=S Needs to be flipped when the larger one is dashed At the beginning of IUPAC name
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When determining the stereochemistry of 2-bromo-2-hydroethanol, which substituent is most important
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Bromine
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Linear motion
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velocity and acceleration are along the same line of motion When an object is not acceleration or has a constant velocity, it is still undergoing constant acceleration of 0
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Gravity
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10 m/s^2 Acceleration
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Linear motion equations
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VAT VAX TAX x
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VAT
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v=vi+at
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VAX
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v^2=vi^2+2ax
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TAX
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x=vit+(at^2/2)
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x equation physics
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x=v(average v)xt
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Free fall
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Linear motion
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Projectile motion
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vertical and horizontal planes each must be analyzed separately
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When a ball is thrown thru the air, what mist be the vertical component of its velocity when it reaches peak height?
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v=0
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Inclined Planes
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1D, but the motion is not going in the same direction as the largest force(g) FN always perpendicular to the box, Fg down Movement will be going parallel to the incline
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How to solve for movement down the ramp
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mgsintheta
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How to find FN from an incline
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mgcostheta
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Circular motion
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Can be resolved into radial and tangential components Velocity is forward, acceleration is into the center Centripetal force
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Centripetal force
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Fc=mv^2/r
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Centripetal acceleration
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ac=v^2/r
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Under what conditions would an object in free fall no longer experience constant acceleration? When air resistance is non-negligible When its mass changes When it slows down When it speeds up
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When air resistance is non-negligible. there is no force pulling back on it. mass does not change, and an object is at constant acceleration when falling, and it would take an outside force for the object to slow down
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A ball is thrown from a window 6.8m above the ground. If the ball is thrown upwards at an angle of 30 degrees, with a velocity of 8m/s. What is the max height above the ground that it reaches?
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7.6m
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A 6kg box accelerating down a 45 degree incline experiences 11N of force from kinetic friction. If the box is initially at rest at the top of a 3m long incline, what is its velocity at the bottom?
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5.5m/s
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Which of the following is NOT true of a 200kg object moving uniformly along a circular path with a 100m radius and experiencing 40m/s^2 of centripetal acceleration? The acceleration vector is not in line with the path of motion The magnitude of centripetal force experienced by the object is 8000N The object’s instantaneous velocity is constant at all points along its path The objects instantaneous velocity is always approximately 4000m/2
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The objects instantaneous velocity is always approximately 4000m/s
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Translational equilibrium
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Occurs when the vector sum of all forces is equal to zero No net force When a ball is kicked, then there is a net force toward that direction that outweighs the force of resistance or friction An object in translational equilibrium will have constant velocity, never sitting still
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Rotational Equilibriun
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Caused by torque. This causes an object to rotate around a fixed pivot point or fulcrum
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Torque
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Causes an object to move rotationally T=rFsintheta The larger the radius, force, and value for sin, the greater the torque
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Two runners race each other. They both are the same height, move their legs at the same rate, generate the same amount of forward force, do not tire, and have the same apparel. Which of the following would best describe why one beat the other? One generates a greater upward force They have different body shapes One has stronger legs The runners have different diets
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They have different body shapes. One has less resistance
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A designer wants to make a door that is easier to push on from the inside than open from the outside. Which of the following would not help with this? Having teeth that drag only in one direction Angling the available surface that people can push on outside of the door Moving the available surface on which people can push on above the door Moving the available surface people can push on to face the door hinges
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Making the available space higher. Nothing about the equation for torque says anything about height
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In which direction will the wrench rotate is Force A is 6N applied counterclockwise and 0.15m from the bolt, while Force B is 8N clockwise and 0.12m from the bolt. Both are at a 90 degree angle
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.06 clockwise
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Linear
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No lone pairs, 180 degrees
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Trigonal planar
Trigonal planar
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120 degrees apart 3 bonds
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Bent
Bent
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One lone pair of electrons with 2 bonds around it 120 degrees, or 109 for 4 connections
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Tetrahedral
Tetrahedral
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109 degrees, 4 connections
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Trigonal pyramidal
Trigonal pyramidal
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109 degrees, one pair of electrons with three connections
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Bernoulli’s equation
Bernoulli's equation
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Pi + 1/2dv^2 + dgh = Pf + 1/2dv^2f + dghf
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1/2dv^2 simplification
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(1/2mv^2/volume)
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dgh simplification
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ugh/volume
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Pressure equation
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Force/area N/m^2
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What type of heat transfer is the primary way the sun’s heat reaches the Earth
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Radiation
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What is the correct IUPAC name for the following compound? CH3ChCHCOOCHCl2
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Dichloromethyl-2-butenoate
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Which of the following is true of liquids, but NOT of gases? They will conform to fit the shape of their container They are essentially incompressible Larger constituent molecules will move at lower velocities, given equal temperatures They exert pressure on objects contained within them
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They are essentially incompressible
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Hydrostatic Pressure equation
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P= Po+dgh
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alkyne and alkene
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alkyne is 3 bonds alkene is 2
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amide
amide
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amine
amine
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ether
ether
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anhydride
anhydride
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ester
ester
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imine
imine
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