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uiowa Introduction to social psychology exam 2

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Freud’s views of aggression
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Death instinct (Thanatos) – hostility, destructiveness Civilization keeps in check
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Skinner’s views of aggression
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Environment is most important- experience with rewards and punishments
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Rousseau’s views of aggression
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Born good and Harmless but society causes aggression
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Effects of discomfort on aggression
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discomfort leads to aggression ex: physical pain, heat, overcrowding
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Heat and aggression
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heat leads to aggression Heat – hostile feelings- aggressive thoughts
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External rewards that reinforce aggression
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○ Potential positive consequences of aggression § Attention § Respect from peers § Control over others Money, candy, toys etc.
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Internal rewards that reinforce aggression
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○ Feeling of power control ○ Rush ○ Self expression
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Social cognitive theory of aggression
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§ Aggression is learned from observing others (Albert Bandura) we learn aggression from; Imitation, Copying others, Peers media parents etc. § Observational learning □ Notice consequences of other’s aggression; TV movies family members peers, Also: toys can provide aggressive cues ex: People act more aggressively if there is a gun laying around
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According to social cognitive theory, what types of media violence will promote aggression?
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Aggressive scripts (cool criminal, aggressive hero, saving honor, etc.) when the aggresive character is rewarded
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Effects of media violence on aggression
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§ Short term increases in aggression □ Priming aggressive thoughts □ Increasing physiological arousal □ Imitation (especially in children) § Long term increases in aggression □ Aggressive scripts (cool criminal, aggressive hero, saving honor, etc.) □ Belief that aggression is appropriate behavior Desensitization ® Decreased abhorrence of violence ® Decreased sympathy for victims
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Effects of aggressive cues
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Frustration-aggression theory
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Frustration- aggression theory Thwarted in reaching goal leads to frustration which leads to aggression strong evidence that frustration leads to aggression
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Why does displaced aggression occur? Likely targets of displaced aggression
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□ taking it out on someone else □ Sometimes can’t aggress against cause of frustration Displaced aggressive behavior towards someone more convenient or with lower status or power
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Does research support or refute the idea that people who engage in aggressive acts will experience catharsis with respect to aggression?
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□ Not supported by most research Aggressive acts often lead to increased aggressiveness and arousal why? ® Initial act reduces inhibitions against aggression ® Cognitive dissonance ◊ Believe aggression is more acceptable ◊ Derogate victim ◊ Blame victim ◊ Dehumanize victim ® Belief in catharsis- more aggression
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Reasons why aggressive acts tend to lead to greater aggression– overcome inhibitions, self-justification, blaming victim, pleasurable feeling of power, etc.
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Initial act reduces inhibitions against aggression ® Cognitive dissonance ◊ Believe aggression is more acceptable ◊ Derogate victim ◊ Blame victim ◊ Dehumanize victim
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What are the likely effects of catharsis-based exercises sometimes used in counseling? Why?
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an increase in aggression
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How does dehumanization of the target affect aggression? Why?
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§ Dehumanization of victim increases aggression § Easier to justify hurting the victim □ Victim perceived as less than human □ Distance from victim □ Can be cause and result of aggression § Examples □ Derogatory names Hooding prisoners
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In a culture of honor, in what types of situations would you be especially likely to find aggression? Why?
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when manhood is threathened
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Social evolution theory of aggression
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aggressive people survived therefore aggression is attractive aggression behavior evolved because it aided survival and reproduction in the past
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Why is social evolution theory of aggression controversial?
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How does deindividuation affect aggressive behavior? Why?
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Deindividuation makes aggression more likely State of decreased self awareness Increases feelings of anonymity Temporarily lose sense of individual identity Promotes automatic processing
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How does deindividuation affect the likelihood that behavior will be determined by automatic vs. controlled cognitive processes?
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it promotes automatic processing
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Deindividuation and crowds, alcohol, darkness
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those situations make deindividuation more likely
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Deindividuation and imitation in riots
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One person’s aggression may trigger group Swept up in action of the group automatic process is conformity
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Common riot/mob behaviors
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Stealing Violence Nudity
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¥What is the relationship between self-esteem & aggression? Why? ◦Low self-esteem and externalizing aggression ◦Narcissistic aggression ◦Controversies in research on self-esteem and aggression
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§ Difficulty handling frustration § Poor social skills: feel cant influence others through other means § Repeated aggression leads to social rejection low self esteem people are most likely to be target of aggression § Narcissistic aggression: Aggression toward source of threat to ego, threat to self esteem § Defensiveness when criticized insulted not getting respect deserved § Defensive high self esteem linked to bullying Stable high self esteem linked to defending others against bullying
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How does social rejection/exclusion affect aggression?
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if someone is rejected they will be frustrated leading to aggression and feel no social consequences of actions
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How is emotional empathy linked to aggression? Why?
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○ Low emotional empathy § Less empathy for victims pain or distress § Less able to make accurate attributions of intent § High empathy accurately detecting harmless intent less aggressive ○ Low emotional empathy § Less empathy for victims pain or distress § Less able to make accurate attributions of intent § High empathy leads to accurately detecting harmless intent which leads to less aggressiveness
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Attributions of hostile intent
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○ Those who attribute aggression to hostile intentions of others § Especially under stress § Anger reactivity No attributions of harmless intent to override automatic reaction to provocation
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Research on hot weather and violent crime (Anderson)
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. Data on rates of murder, rape, assault, robbery, burglary, larceny-theft, and motor vehicle theft were gathered from archival sources. The first three crimes listed are violent; the latter four are less violent (labeled nonviolent). On the basis of previous research and theory (Anderson & Anderson, 1984), it was predicted that violent crimes would be more prevalent in the hotter quarters of the year and in hotter years. Furthermore, it was predicted that this temperature-crime relation would be stronger for violent than for nonviolent crime. Study 1 confirmed both predictions. Also, differences among cities in violent crime were predicted to be related to the hotness of cities; this effect was expected to be stronger for violent than for nonviolent crimes. Study 2 confirmed both predictions, even when effects of a variety of social, demographic, and economic variables were statistically removed. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed.
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Research on anger and aggressive cues (Berkowitz)
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situational cues (weapons, alcohol cues, and media violence) increase violence when they are present
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Bobo doll study (Bandura)
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children who watched adults act aggressively toward bobo doll acted aggressively
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Effects of publicized executions on homicide rate– London study
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○ Results § Homicide rate: went down during execution and then rose a week after ○ Public interpretations More publicity bigger drop
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Review of research on effects of media violence (Anderson et al., 2003)—short-term effects, long-term effects, beliefs about aggression, desensitization
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§ Short term increases in aggression □ Priming aggressive thoughts □ Increasing physiological arousal □ Imitation (especially in children) § Long term increases in aggression □ Aggressive scripts (cool criminal, aggressive hero, saving honor, etc.) □ Belief that aggression is appropriate behavior Desensitization ® Decreased abhorrence of violence ® Decreased sympathy for victims
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Review of research on effects of video game violence (Anderson & Bushman, 2001)
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□ Violent video games increase aggression (2001) ® Children ® Young adults ® Males and females □ Exposure to violent video games ® Increases physiological arousal ® Increases aggressive thoughts and feelings ® Decreases prosocial behavior
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Research on copycat suicides (Phillips, 1986)
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In a series of studies, Dr. Phillips found that there was a significant rise in suicides after a well-publicized case. The rise was greatest among teen-agers, regardless of the age of the first victim, according to Dr. Phillips. A nationally publicized suicide, he found, increased the suicide rate over the next month by about 2 percent on average – an additional 58 cases -and about 7 percent among teen-agers. The suicide of a famous person had an even greater effect; after Marilyn Monroe’s death, the rate rose by 12 percent. ‘Permission’ to Die ”Hearing about a suicide seems to make those who are vulnerable feel they have permission to do it,” Dr. Phillips said. He cited studies that showed that people were more likely to engage in dangerous deviant behavior, such as drug taking, if someone else had set the example first.
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Research on honor-related aggression in the US North and South (studies by Nisbett & Cohen)
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• Culture of honor ○ Common in western ranching and southern areas of the US most areas of Latin America and middle east ○ Social status bases on individual and family If honor is threatened men are expected to use violence to preserve or restore honor
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Hair braiding studies about precarious manhood and aggression (Bosson et al., 2009)
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□ Hair braiding studies □ Males were assigned to braid hair or braid rope □ After braiding they were given choice of puzzle or boxing □ 50% of hair braiding choose boxing □ 22% chose boxing □ Punched pad harder when assigned to hair braiding Reaffirming manhood
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Cross-cultural research on rape-prone vs. (nearly) rape-free societies (Sanday, 1981, 1997)
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analysis of available information suggested that rape in tribal societies was part of a cultural configuration, which includes interpersonal violence, male dominance, and sexual separation. There was considerable evidence to support the notion that rape was an expression of a social ideology of male dominance. First, female power and authority was lower in rape prone societies. Second, women in these societies do not participate in decision making. The correlates of rape strongly suggested that rape was the playing out of a sociocultural script in which the personhood of males was expressed through interpersonal violence and an ideology of toughness.
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Stephen Beckerman’s research on Waorani warriors—aggression and number of children
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More aggressive men did not acquire more wives than milder men. They did not have more children, and their wives and children did not survive longer. In fact, warlike men had fewer children who survived to reproductive age.
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Jane Goodall and colleagues’ research on dominance hierarchies among female chimps
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○ Strong female dominance hierarchies ○ Higher rank among females= § Better access to food § Earlier maturity §More offspring
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Zimbardo’s deindividuation and aggression study
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□ People were randomly assigned to individuated or deindividuated ® deindividuated ◊ Dark in room ◊ Wearing dark robes ◊ Anonymous Deindividuated people did more shocks
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Prison study (Zimbardo et al.—see separate study guide)
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○ Purpose § Explain behavior of prisoners and prison guards § Why are prisoners hostile depressed passive etc. § What are guards frequently brutal tough ○ Design § Participants □ All male □ Young adults □ Psychologically normal □ Randomly assigned to be prisoner or guard □ Realistic setting □ Establishing riles through clothing and routines ○ Results § Prisoners uncooperative at first § Guards became tougher, psychologically brutal § Prisoners rebelled then became passive § Experimenter (Zimbardo) had to cancel study after one week it was supposed to last 2 weeks ○ Implications § Power of the situation, roles ethics in conducting research
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Thanatos /death instinct
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displaced aggression
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taking it out on someone else
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catharsis
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“If given aggressive outlet, people will be less aggressive afterwards “
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observational learning
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Observational learning is learning that occurs through observing the behavior of others. It is a form of social learning which takes various forms, based on various processes.
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imitation
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Copying others
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reactive aggression, hostile aggression
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Gut level reaction Example: lashing out when frustrated Automatic cognitive processes
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proactive aggression, instrumental aggression
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Deliberate calculated Example: bullying to steal lunch money Controlled cognitive processes
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deindividuation
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State of decreased self awareness
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dehumanization
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Victim perceived as less than human
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desensitization
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Decreased abhorrence of violence Decreased sympathy for victims
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Why are judgments of others so strongly influenced by their physical attractiveness?
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○ First impressions influence subsequent impressions and interactions § First thing noticed is appearance § Creates initial expectations § Expectations influence □ Interpretations of behavior ○ Halo effect § Assume that a physically attractive person has other desirable traits § Nice interesting skilled intelligent § Unconscious implicit assumption
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How early in life is this tendency to favor attractive people observed?
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observed even in children
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Is this tendency to favor attractive people mostly based on automatic or controlled cognitive processes?
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automatic
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Gender differences in emphasis on physical attractiveness—results of self-report, problems with self-report, results when studies use non-self-report measures
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Why do people assume that attractive people have other good qualities?
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self fulfilling prophecy
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Self-fulfilling prophecy and attractiveness
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§ Attractiveness better treatment § Result appears more intelligent personable § Unattractiveness Worse treatment
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How is an individual’s perceived attractiveness affected by the attractiveness of their companions? (romantic companions, friends, etc.) Why?
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social profit- association with attractive people enhances your own image Assimilation effect- Look more attractive with similarly but slightly more attractive person Contrast effect- Makes you look less attractive next to a more attractive person
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Biases based on facial features? How quickly do they happen? How accurate are they?
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○ Non baby faced people judged as more competent § Sharper features appeared more mature
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How accurate are judgments based on “thin slices” of behavior?
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are more accurate than chance
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What characterizes high self-monitors? Low self-monitors? What are the pros and cons of each? (see discussion notes)
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high self motivators will change themselves to fit in and low self monitors will not high self monitors: • Better at lying • Better at detecting lies • More influenced by product labels • More likely to stretch the truth when presenting themselves to a potential date Less committed to romantic relationships low self monitors: • Bad at lying • Worse at detecting lies • Less influenced by product labels • More likely to be upfront about them self when presenting themselves to a potential date • More committed to their romantic relationships
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How do high and low self-monitors differ in the extent to which their judgments are influenced by the attractiveness of others? (see discussion notes)
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they are more motivated by attractivness
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Study on perceptions of children who misbehaved (Dion)
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□ Study of adult perceptions of grade school children ® School behavior report of grade school children ® Photo of attractive vs unattractive child More blame given to unattractive children
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Study of preschoolers and effect of attractiveness (Dion & Berscheid)
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attractive kids liked better than unattractive kids
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Study of physical attractiveness & salaries
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attractive people are paid more
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Attractiveness and self-fulfilling prophecy study (Snyder, Tanke, & Berscheid)
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□ Male and female undergraduates □ Get acquainted “phone” conversation □ Arrived in separate rooms did not see each other □ Males given photo unbeknownst to females □ Photo of attractive vs unattractive females □ Females did not get photos □ Record conversation □ Results ® Independent raters listened to men ® Did not know about photos ® Men who thought they were talking to an attractive woman were friendlier, warmer toward her ® Other raters listened to only females’ part of the conversation ® “attractive” women: rated as more confident attractive and warm ® Opposite effects for unattractive women ® Interviews women after conversation ® Attractive women thought conversation went well ® Unattractive woman felt that something was wrong interaction did not go well ® Most were not unattractive not used to that treatment Physical attractiveness can create a self fulfilling prophecy
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What is beautiful is good” study (Dion, Bersheid, & Walster)
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attractive people were rated higher for every category except being good parents
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Self-monitoring and online dating (Hall et al.—see discussion notes)
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In online dating high self monitors are more likely to misrepresent themselves online than low self monitors are because high self monitors are more sensitive to the desires of others
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Research on self-monitoring and product labels and image-oriented ads (see discussion notes)
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high self monitors are motivated by the attractive product lables and low self monitors are motivated by facts
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beauty = goodness stereotype
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people who are attractive have good charateristcs
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halo effect
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Assume that a physically attractive person has other desirable traits
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social profit
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association with attractive people enhances your own image
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assimilation effect
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□ Look more attractive with similarly but slightly more attractive person
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contrast effect
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Makes you look less attractive next to a more attractive person
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“thin slice”
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only a small piece of information about behavior, few seconds
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self-monitoring (see discussion notes)
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Tendency to regulate social behavior to meet the demands of the situation
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Social evolution explanation for prevalence of obedience
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groups with hierarchies were more likely to survive emergencies and conflicts
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Possible benefits of hierarchy
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groups with hierarchies were more likely to survive emergencies and conflicts
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Social learning explanation for prevalence of obedience
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see that deviants are disliked
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Why was Milgram interested in obedience to malevolent authority?
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Inspired by interrogation and trial of Adolf Eichmann who was in charge of the final solution
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Controversy over motivation of Adolf Eichmann
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said he wad just following orders and he didn’t hate jews, Seemed very normal, not evil
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In what situations is obedience strongest? Why? How do these factors affect obedience? threats of punishment for disobedience
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increases disobedience frequent in the real world not present in Milgram’s study
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In what situations is obedience strongest? Why? How do these factors affect obedience? automatic cognitive processes
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obedience is the automatic process
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In what situations is obedience strongest? Why? How do these factors affect obedience? dehumanization
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§ Not present in Milgram’s study § Victim viewed as not fully human § Easier to harm § More likely to obey orders to harm § Examples “Krauts” “Ragheads” □ Despised animals such as “cockroaches” Example: victim is very distant or hidden so humanity is hidden
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In what situations is obedience strongest? Why? How do these factors affect obedience? routinization
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§ Focusing on details and procedure rather than meaning § Requires cognitive resources § Distraction form deliberation about moral issues, independent judgment § How was routinization present in Milgram’s study Timing of questions □ Procedure of when you give shock □ Focus on if participant is right or wrong Had to do things in a certain order
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In what situations is obedience strongest? Why? How do these factors affect obedience? agentic state / authorization
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§ Reduced feelings of responsibility for making decisions § “agent of authority figure” § Increases automatic processing § Controlled processing: duty to obey orders becomes primarily morality § If individual responsibility is emphasized obedience drops § Milgram’s study □ Experimenter says he will take responsibility § Example □ Cohen and Davis 1981 studied actual cases of medication errors in hospitals □ Unquestioning obedience to doctors orders was a top reason for errors
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In what situations is obedience strongest? Why? How do these factors affect obedience? conformity
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§ Conformity to obedient others § Follow up studies conducted by Milgram using 2 confederates posing as participants § Peers obedient vs. defiant § Peers obedient- 90% obedience § Peers defiant- 10% obedience Another variation: Peer gives shock and real participant performs subsidiary role (like in a bureaucracy)- high levels of obedience
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In what situations is obedience strongest? Why? How do these factors affect obedience? social learning to obey
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In what situations is obedience strongest? Why? How do these factors affect obedience? gradual escalation
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§ What was gradually escalated in Milgram’s study □ Stepping up a few volts at a time § Why does gradual escalation increase obedience □ What you do is only slightly higher then the last § Study former torturers: training of tortures during military rule in Greece Gradually get used to torturing people
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In what situations is obedience strongest? Why? How do these factors affect obedience? distance of victims
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§ victim □ Closer the victim less obedience □ Original study- 65% obedience □ Victim visible- 40% obedience □ Participants must force victims hand to shock plate- 30% obedience
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In what situations is obedience strongest? Why? How do these factors affect obedience? distance of authority
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§ Authority □ More distance form authority- less obedience □ Experimenter not in room (telephone)– 20% □ Some covert defiance □ High obedience if experimenter gave orders in person then left □ No orders- 2.5% chose 450v shock level § Further from victim § Closer to authority § Which situation produces the most stress □ Close experimenter Close victim
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In what situations is obedience strongest? Why? How do these factors affect obedience? time pressure
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§ Lack of time for individual judgments □ Obedience is automatic response □ Disobedience usually requires more conscious controlled processing § How was time pressure created in Milgram’s study □ They experimenter kept prompting them □ “its important to keep this at a brink pace”
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In what situations is obedience strongest? Why? How do these factors affect obedience? uncertainty in the situation
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§ Look to authority for interpretation of situation § In what ways might the Milgram’s participants have felt uncertain □ Don’t know about volts Cant see the person
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How can the social psychology of obedience explain what happened at My Lai?
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routinization, uncertainty, time pressure, etc.
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What was the role of Lt. William Calley? how do the soldiers who participated feel about the events now?
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gave the order at My Lai regretful
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Milgram’s obedience study
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§ Authority/ experimenter orders “teacher” to administer “shocks” to “learner” § Over story: effects of punishment on own learning § 15 volts to 450 volts § Shocks seemed real and painful § Although the shocks can be extremely painful they are not dangerous § Teacher participant gets mild sample shock § Learner not visible but can be shocked □ 75 volts- learner moans □ 150 volts- learner asks to be let out of experiment □ 180 volts- I cant stand the pain screams get louder □ He stops anweing and gets silent § Results □ Approximently 2/3 of participants gave 450 volts were fully obedient □ Most protested or argued with experimenter □ Seemed like they care about learner § If learner has a heart problem □ Says he has a heart problem before □ Complains his heart is bothering him after the shocks get severe
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What percentage of participants were fully obedient in Milgram’s original study? · distance from victim · distance from authority · obedience/defiance of others
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original 2/3 Victim visible- 40% obedience Experimenter not in room (telephone)– 20% Peers obedient- 90% obedience Peers defiant- 10% obedience
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Results of Milgram’s study when conducted in other nations
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similar results
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Burger (2009) study that replicated Milgram study up to 150 volts
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Replication got 70% obedience and Milgram got 82%
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Study on the training of Greek torturers (Haritos-Fatouros, 1988)
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gradually got to the point of torture it is concluded that, given the appropriate training condition, any individual is a potential torturer, and a model for obedience to the authority of violence is proposed.
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malevolent authority
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commanding people to do something wrong, harmful
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Adolf Eichmann
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in charge of the final soluion
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agentic state
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Reduced feelings of responsibility for making decisions “agent of authority figure”
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gradual escalation
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What you do is only slightly higher then the last
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routinization
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Focusing on details and procedure rather than meaning
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dehumanization
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Victim viewed as not fully human
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Cognitive approach to understanding prejudice, cognitive processes that make humans prone to stereotyping and prejudice
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○ Cognitive processes lead to social categorization § Human mind creates categories § Why □ Information is easier to process § Some biases are “side effects” of categorization § When things are categorized the differences are more apparent
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What are the effects of categorization on perceptions of objects? perceptions of people?
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• Effects on the target of prejudice ○ Sometimes prejudice toward own group conscious, but especially unconscious ○ Stereotype threat § Worry about confirming a negative stereotype of one’s own group □ Research initiated by Claude Steele □ African Americans and high stakes academic testing □ Women and math testing ○ attributional ambiguity § Uncertainty about weather an experience is a result of prejudice If black mad are not smiling they risk being perceived as angry
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What is the outgroup homogeneity effect? Why does it occur?
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§ Outgroup homogeneity effect □ They are all alike □ Behavior and traits
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How does race influence the accuracy of facial recognition? Why does the own race effect occur?
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People recognized people of their own race more accurately You can more easily distinguish between people of your own race
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How can illusory correlation based on salience (called “paired distinctiveness” in the textbook) explain stereotypes, especially negative stereotypes of minority groups?
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§ Focus on unusual- people in statistical minority groups § Focus on negative- incompetent or immoral behavior § Combination especially salient § Illusionary correlation based on salience □ Overestimate minority+ negative § Produces negative stereotypes of minority group § Example: incompetent black administrators § Effects in target of prejudice Spotlight effect
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How does illusory correlation based on salience cause a “spotlight effect” on the target of prejudice?
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we only notice the negatives in the group being stereotyped
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How does distinctiveness influence perceptions of an individual? The self-concept of distinctive individuals?
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§ Distinctive: unusual within a context § Effect: more likely to see the characteristic that is unusual in a person § You are what makes you unusual § Effects on the target of prejudice □ Self concept based on distinctiveness □ If frequent, can feel oppressive □ Example: always bringing up food diversity issues Example: Michelle Obama said at Princeton in 1980″s she felt black first and a student second
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How is conscious/controlled/explicit prejudice different from unconscious/automatic/implicit prejudice?
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Blatant conscious explicit prejudice is Self reported negative attributes and Believing negative stereotypes unconscious is implicit feelings and negative attitudes toward a group
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Why do people have unconscious/automatic/implicit prejudice or bias?
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Cognitive processes lead to social categorization
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What are several ways in which unconscious/implicit prejudice can be measured?
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Example: implicit association test IAT Startle eye blink responses Activity of facial muscles EMG Reactions to ambiguous stimuli ○ Test of anger faces
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What are the consequences of unconscious/implicit prejudice? What behaviors are linked to it?
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○ Guilt and discomfort for people with conscious egalitarian attitudes ○ Intergroup anxiety § Study: low prejudice white participants placing chairs for profiling discussion ○ Awkward interactions § White participants IAT scores predict reactions of black but not white partners
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How are law enforcement officers being educated about implicit bias?
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What happens when a person who is consciously/explicitly non-prejudiced has unconscious/implicit prejudice?
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Why do the targets of frequent prejudice experience attributional ambiguity?
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§ Uncertainty about weather an experience is a result of prejudice If black mad are not smiling they risk being perceived as angry
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Why does stereotype threat occur? How can it be reduced?
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Worry about confirming a negative stereotype of one’s own group
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What happens when people are divided into minimal groups? What do minimal group studies indicate about prejudice and intergroup conflict?
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□ Attitudes: own group liked better =□ Resources: more to own group By default: outgroup liked less, given less
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• Understand two explanations for ingroup favoritism: ◦ Social evolution theory ◦ Social identity theory
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Social evolution theory: Ingroup favoritism promoted survival and reproduction Need ingroups for security Social identity theory: Ingroup favoritism is pat of positive self image Need ingroups for identity
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How do emotions and motivations influence prejudice?
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Anger increases us and them thinking Two experiment with NYC community residents and college students Minimal groups created “over estimators and under estimators blue and green wrist bands Anger induced by autobiographical writing (angry or sad) IAT using ingroup and outgroup with green and blue backgrounds Results showed bias against outgroup Negative mood increases negative stereotyping Study of white Canadians Negative mood induction (left moth muscle contraction) vs positive mood (right mouth muscle contraction) No consciously perceived mood change Negative mood- more negative stereotypes of many outgroups Prejudiced scapegoating Unfairly blame a group for individual or social problems Blame can lead to hatred and violence Which group will be the scapegoat Disliked group Envied/ resented minority group Scapegoating does involve conscious blame Seek a scape goat when their status is declining Examples Nazi Germany: Jews 1980’s U.S. auto towns: Japanese Americans Displaced aggression prejudice Source of frustration is too powerful or ambiguous Displace aggression toward Less powerful group Disliked group Outgroup Example Archival study by Hovland and Sears Lynching’s 1882-1930 in U.S. south Price of cotton as an indicator of economic frustration Correlated with number of lynching’s per month Research example Frustration aggression and prejudice Displaced aggression More prejudice toward minority group Research example anti Semitic students wrote stories with more aggression toward Jewish characters Anger and frustration but not displacement white students gave stronger shocks to insulting black students than to insulting whites
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Why does prejudice sometimes lead to hatred?
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dehumanization promotes hatred we use prejudices for scapegoats
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Frustration & aggression toward outgroups, displaced aggression toward outgroups
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Displaced aggression prejudice Source of frustration is too powerful or ambiguous Displace aggression toward Less powerful group Disliked group Outgroup Example Archival study by Hovland and Sears Lynching’s 1882-1930 in U.S. south Price of cotton as an indicator of economic frustration Correlated with number of lynching’s per month Research example Frustration aggression and prejudice Displaced aggression More prejudice toward minority group Research example anti Semitic students wrote stories with more aggression toward Jewish characters Anger and frustration but not displacement white students gave stronger shocks to insulting black students than to insulting whites
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Which types of outgroups are most likely to be the target of displaced aggression?
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Less powerful group Disliked group
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Scapegoating and prejudice
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Prejudiced scapegoating Unfairly blame a group for individual or social problems Blame can lead to hatred and violence Which group will be the scapegoat Disliked group Envied/ resented minority group Scapegoating does involve conscious blame Seek a scape goat when their status is declining Examples Nazi Germany: Jews 1980’s U.S. auto towns: Japanese Americans Displaced aggression prejudice Source of frustration is too powerful or ambiguous Displace aggression toward Less powerful group Disliked group Outgroup Example Archival study by Hovland and Sears Lynching’s 1882-1930 in U.S. south Price of cotton as an indicator of economic frustration Correlated with number of lynching’s per month
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How are displacing aggression onto an outgroup and scapegoating similar? Different?
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one is blame the other is aggression
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Effects of anger and negative mood on prejudice, intergroup bias
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○ Anger increases us and them thinking ○ Negative mood increases negative stereotyping
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Dehumanization and prejudice, dehumanization of outgroups and opponents in conflicts
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• Dehumanization of outgroup can increase prejudice ○ Not unique individuals (outgroup homogeneity) ○ Less than human ○ Promotes hatred, removed empathy ○ Examples § Europeans debating weather American Indians had souls § Police called “pigs” § Rwandan genocide: Tutsis called “cockroaches” and “rats” • Dehumanizing names for opponents in conflicts ○ Examples ○ Iraqis “hajis” ○ Japanese “Japs” ○ Germans “krauts”
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How does group membership contribute to social identity and self-esteem?
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• Prejudice to bolster self esteem ○ Feeling part of a “superior” group ○ If self esteem damaged/ threatened ○ Attempt to repair self esteem our group identity defines us § Ingroup favoritism is pat of positive self image Need ingroups for identity
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How do threats to self-esteem affect prejudice? Why?
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• Prejudice to bolster self esteem ○ Feeling part of a “superior” group ○ If self esteem damaged/ threatened ○ Attempt to repair self esteem
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Why is prejudice resistant to change? Why does exposure to counter-stereotypical information often have little impact on prejudice?
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○ First attitude and information provide cognitive framework § If fist information is negative, creates negative stereotype § Influences subsequent perceptions of individuals
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How do initial attitudes affect the interpretation of subsequent information?
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First attitude and information provide cognitive framework
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How can illusory correlation make stereotypes resistant to change?
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Perceive expected group behavior link, even if no actual link
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How is prejudice perpetuated by biased attributions for in-group vs. out-group behavior? Biased attributions based on prior expectations about a group?
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biased attributions for in group vs. outgroup behaviors § Perpetuates negative stereotypes § Negative behavior □ Outgroup negative behavior: character of group □ Ingroup negative behavior behavior: character of individual, situation, expectations § Positive behavior □ Outgroup positive behavior; situation, exceptions, sub-typing
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How is prejudice perpetuated by biased information processing and biased memory?
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Self-fulfilling prophecy and the perpetuation of prejudice
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we treat people differently and it changes the way they act to behaviors in line with the prejudice
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Social dominance theory of prejudice •What is the relationship between social dominance orientation and prejudice? Why?
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§ Once a group has power, motivated to keep it Some members of dominant group have desire to maintain their social dominance
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Clark & Clark doll study
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The researchers found that black children often chose to play with the white dolls more than the black ones. When the kids were asked to fill in a human figure with the color of their own skin, they frequently chose a lighter shade than their actual skin color. The children also gave the color ‘white’ positive attributes like good and pretty. On the contrary, ‘black’ was attributed to being bad and ugly.
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Study about child “Hannah” with ambiguous test performance (Darley & Gross)
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Aim: to investigate whether a schema or pre-exisiting idea will make people form stereotypes for a particular person. Method: participants were told that a girl called Hannah was either rich or poor. The people that were told she was rich split off into a separate group to those that were told she was poor. Both groups watched exactly the same video about her. Results: participants in the “wealthy family” group rated Hannah’s performance above fourth grade, whereas the “poor family” group rated her performance below fourth grade, in spite of watching the same ambiguous video. Conclusion: these findings demonstrate that stereotypes about socioeconomic status affect perceptions of intelligence.
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Study about detecting anger in facial expressions of Black vs. White men (Hugenberg & Bodenhausen)
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We propose that social attitudes, and in particular implicit prejudice, bias people’s perceptions of the facial emotion displayed by others. To test this hypothesis, we employed a facial emotion changedetection task in which European American participants detected the offset (Study 1) or onset (Study 2) of facial anger in both Black and White targets. Higher implicit (but not explicit) prejudice was associated with a greater readiness to perceive anger in Black faces, but neither explicit nor implicit prejudice predicted anger perceptions regarding similar White faces. This pattern indicates that European Americans high in implicit racial prejudice are biased to perceive threatening affect in Black but not White faces, suggesting that the deleterious effects of stereotypes may take hold extremely early in social interaction.
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Study examining implicit association of Black faces with weapons and with sports equipment (Payne)
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participants were faster to identify a weapon as a weapon when it was preceded by an African-American face and faster to identify a hand tool as a hand tool when it was preceded by a white face. This is the facilitation caused by a stereotypical association between handguns and African-Americans that exerts its effect even among nonprejudiced individuals. Judd and his colleagues found that African-American faces facilitated the recognition of both positive and negative stereotypical items (handguns and sports equipment), but not the nonstereotypical items (insects and fruits), regardless of whether they were positive or negative.
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Study by UI social psychologists examining implicit association of Black boys with weapons (Todd et al., 2016)
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results consistently revealed that participants had less difficulty (i.e., faster response times, fewer errors) identifying threatening stimuli and more difficulty identifying nonthreatening stimuli after seeing Black faces than after seeing White faces, and this racial bias was equally strong following adult and child faces
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Studies using “shooter task” in which Black vs. White men held guns vs. other objects (Correll)
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. In Study 1, diffusion analysis (Ratcliff, 1978) showed that participants rapidly acquired information about a gun when it appeared in the hands of a Black target, and about an innocuous object in the hands of a White target. For counter stereotypic pairings (armed Whites, unarmed Blacks), participants acquired information more slowly. In Study 2, eye tracking showed that participants relied on more ambiguous information (measured by visual angle from fovea) when responding to stereotypic targets; for counter stereotypic targets, they achieved greater clarity before responding. In Study 3, participants were briefly exposed to targets (limiting access to visual information) but had unlimited time to respond. In spite of their slow, deliberative responses, they showed racial bias. This pattern is inconsistent with control failure and suggests that stereotypes influenced identification of the object. All 3 studies show that race affects visual processing by supplementing objective information.
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Two studies of race, immediacy, and self-fulfilling prophecy in a job interview (Word et a
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they treated participants either the way blacks were treated or the way whites were treated both race’s performance was affected
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Study of emails sent to landlords advertising apartments online
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§ Researchers sent 1,100 identical emails to landlords advertising apartments online § Signed by □ Patrick McDougall 89% positive replies □ Al- Rahman 66% positive replies □ Tyrell Jackson 56% positive replies
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Classic (1940’s) study using a sketch of two men on a subway (Allport & Postman)
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one black on white guy drawing. Ambiguous situation going on. Researchers played telephone. The more it went through the more it turned into the minority group person ended up being in the wrong. When in actuality the majoritygroup was holding switchblade. Pre-existing expectations can alter perception of things. Change around in mind so it’s consistent with what they thought alread
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Stereotype threat research on the performance of Black vs. White students on a difficult exam—effects of beliefs about the exam, effects of indicating race on the exam (Steele & Arsonson)
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Adjusted for previous SAT scores, subjects in the non-diagnostic-challenge condition performed significantly better than those in the non-diagnostic-only condition and those in the diagnostic condition. In the first experiment, the race-by-condition interaction was marginally significant. However, the second study reported in the same paper found a significant interaction effect of race and condition. This suggested that placement in the diagnostic condition significantly impacted African Americans compared with European Americans.[2] steele and Aronson concluded that changing the instructions on the test could reduce African-American students’ concern about confirming a negative stereotype about their group. Supporting this conclusion, they found that African-American students who regarded the test as a measure of intelligence had more thoughts related to negative stereotypes of their group. Steele and Aronson measured this through a word completion task. They found that African Americans who thought the test measured intelligence were more likely to complete word fragments using words associated with relevant negative stereotypes
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Minimal group studies by Tajfel
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§ Minimal group effect ingroup favoritism □ Attitudes: own group liked better □ Resources: more to own group □ By default: outgroup liked less, given less § Ethnic cultural/ ingroup favoritism= ethnocentrism □ Ingroup members are real people □ Example ® Inuit means people ® Inupiat means real people or original people □ By age 3 ® More positive attitudes toward own racial groups Not necessarily more negative toward outgroups
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Research on “basking in reflected glory” after sporting events (Cialdini)
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The first experiment demonstrated BIRGing by showing that students have a greater tendency to wear apparel with the university’s colors and name after the football team had won a game. In the second experiment, subjects used the pronoun “we” to associate themselves more with a positive than a negative source. This was shown most prominently when their public reputation was at risk. When the subjects failed a task, they had a greater tendency to affiliate themselves with a winner, and less of a tendency to associate themselves with a loser. The third experiment replicated the finding that students used the pronoun “we” more when describing a victory compared to a non-victory by their school’s football team. The researchers found that BIRGing is an attempt to enhance one’s public image
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Study of anger, minimal groups, and unconscious bias (DeSteno et al.)
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In both experiments, after minimal ingroups and outgroups were created, participants were induced to experience anger, sadness, or a neutral state. Automatic attitudes toward the in- and outgroups were then assessed using an evaluative priming measure (Experiment 1) and the Implicit Association Test (Experiment 2). As predicted, results showed that anger created automatic prejudice toward the outgroup, whereas sadness and neutrality resulted in no automatic intergroup bias
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Archival study of lynchings in the US South & the economy (Hovland & Sears)
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□ Example ® Archival study by Hovland and Sears ® Lynching’s 1882-1930 in U.S. south ® Price of cotton as an indicator of economic frustration Correlated with number of lynching’s per month
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Studies of self-esteem threat and prejudice against “J.A.P.” and gay man (Fein & Spencer)
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The authors argue that self-image maintenance processes play an important role in stereotyping and prejudice. Three studies demonstrated that when individuals evaluated a member of a stereotyped group, they were less likely to evaluate that person negatively if their self-images had been bolstered through a self-affirmation procedure, and they were more likely to evaluate that person stereotypically if their self-images had been threatened by negative feedback.’ Moreover, among those individuals whose self-image had been threatened, derogating a stereotyped target mediated an increase in their self-esteem. The authors suggest that stereotyping and prejudice may be a common means to maintain one’s self-image, and they discuss the role of self-image-maintenance processes in the context of motivational, sociocultural, and cognitive approaches to stereotyping and prejudice
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Canadian study examining negative mood and negative stereotyping (Schiff et al.)
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§ English Canadian participants § Self esteem lowered: caused lots of important papers to spill onto floor when getting a chair (control, no spill) § Measured attitudes toward French Canadians § Lowered self esteem- greater prejudice
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ingroup, outgroup
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an exclusive, typically small, group of people with a shared interest or identity., those people who do not belong to a specific in-group.
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outgroup homogeneity effect
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§ Outgroup homogeneity effect □ They are all alike □ Behavior and traits □ Physical appearance: own race effect
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own-race effect
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○ You can more easily distinguish between people of your own race
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illusory correlation (2 types: based on salience, based on expectations)
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○ Illusory correlation based on prior expectation § Perceive expected group behavior link, even if no actual link ○ Illusory correlations based on salience § Focus on unusual- people in statistical minority groups § Focus on negative- incompetent or immoral behavior § Combination especially salient § Illusionary correlation based on salience □ Overestimate minority+ negative § Produces negative stereotypes of minority group § Example: incompetent black administrators § Effects in target of prejudice
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distinctiveness effect
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Focus on the unusual- characteristics of the people
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spotlight effect
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automatic/unconscious/implicit prejudice
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prejudice we are not aware of
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controlled/conscious/explicit/blatant prejudice
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prejudice in our conscious awareness
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Implicit Association Test (IAT)
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test measuring subconscious preferences
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minimal group, minimal group effect
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§ Minimal group effect ingroup favoritism □ Attitudes: own group liked better □ Resources: more to own group □ By default: outgroup liked less, given less
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ingroup favoritism
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favoring those in the group
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ethnocentrism
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evaluation of other cultures according to preconceptions originating in the standards and customs of one’s own culture.
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immediacy
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§ Less physical distance § Forward lean More eye contact
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intergroup anxiety
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Intergroup anxiety is the social phenomenon identified by Walter and Cookie Stephan in 1985 that describes the ambiguous feelings of discomfort or anxiety when interacting with members of other group
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stereotype threat
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Worry about confirming a negative stereotype of one’s own group
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scapegoating
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Unfairly blame a group for individual or social problems
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dehumanization
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making less than human
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social dominance orientation
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How were participants recruited? How did the researchers determine who would be a prisoner and who would be a guard?
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there was an ad on campus, it was randomly assined
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How was the prison study conducted?
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□ All male □ Young adults □ Psychologically normal □ Randomly assigned to be prisoner or guard □ Realistic setting Establishing roles through clothing and routines
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How did the simulation affect the prisoners’ behavior?
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§ Prisoners uncooperative at first § Prisoners rebelled then became passive
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How did the simulation affect the guards’ behavior?
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§ Guards became tougher, psychologically brutal
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How did participants later feel about the study?
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guilty and confused about their behavior
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What ethical issues were raised by the prison study?
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prisoners were have psychologic problems
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How does the study illustrate the power of the situation? the power of social roles in influencing behavior?
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roles affect the way people act, they were randomly assigned
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How does this study explain why prison guards sometimes behave aggressively toward prisoners?
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they get caught up in the roles