UCI 9A Psychology Chapter 5

In the experiment, a young women ostensibly conducting a survey solicited young men to answer her questionnaire, either while they were crossing a wobbly suspension bridge or after they had crossed. She invited then to call her later if they were interested in the results and they tallied how many in fact called as a function of where they were when they answered the questionnaire. What were her findings?
More young men questioned while crossing the bridge called than those who were questioned afterward.
The findings strongly suggested that arousal generated by danger can be misinterpreted as heightened romantic arousal.

Individualism is to collectivism as
independence is to interdependence.

Zimbardo’s prison experiment used a variety of methods to create

referes to a state in which a person loses her sense to self as an individual

What is not an outcome of Zimbardo’s prison experiment
It proves that the milgram study is correct

What is the outcome of Zimbardo’s prison experiment
It extends our understanding of the range under which situation factors can cause cruelty.
It creates a situation in which college students behaved in a cruel manner to other students
It outcome is now seen as illuminating our understanding of the factors leading up to the Abu Ghraib prision atrocities
It did not prove Milgram study

Proximity is an important fact in attraction. There is evidence that this relation results from the fact that
we must ordinarily meet someone in order to be attracted to him
familiarity promotes attraction, and familiarity is increased by proximity

We observe Anne yelling at her sister and concluded that her sister must have done something to maker her angry. This is an example of a
Situational attribution

By comparison with other cultures, romantic love in Western culture
is emphasized over companionate love

One other thing that should be mentioned about the jurors in the preceding test question (#48) is that they all grew up tending pigs together in George Orwell’s Animal Farm in a very isolated but tightly-knit ethnic region of Western China. How could that have also helped them to render the more extreme verdict that they did?
The were susceptible to groupthink

According to cognitive dissonance theory, the best way to cause people to change attitudes is to
Show them that their current attitude is inconsistent with their actual behavior

create self-fulfilling prophecies
are sustained by the tendency of people to pay attention to, and more readily accept, information that confirms their views
are schemas about the characteristics of whole groups

A change in behavior due to social pressure is referred to as

Which completion of the following sentence is false? The central route to persuasion is a more of argument taken:
in which the focus of presentation relies primarily on the credibility of the source and context of the message.

The central route to persuasion is more of argument taken
that assumes that the issues involved are very important to the recipient, who will likely elaborate on its arguments with considerations of her own.
that the recipient will not be distracted from attending to the message by other concerns
in which the focus of presentation is on making a case of the credibility and transworthiness of the message’s content.

Is necessary to a certain extent in social life,
has been implicated in some of the worst atrocities of the past century
has been linked to individual character traits.

Which of the following statements completions is false? Like schemas in any other domain, implicit theories of personality:
minimize our vulnerability to error

Like schemas in any other domain, implicit theories of personality
provide enormously helpful shortcuts to interpreting
free us from scrutinizing every aspect of a situation
allow us to reply on past experience
provide us with a broad summary of people and situtations

In Act 1, Scene 5 of Shakespeare’s Macbeth, Lady Macbeth counsels her husband to “Look like the innocent flower, but be the serpent undert.” What pattern below regarding people’s trust in physical attractiveness is she counting on to disguise the murderous plot she and her husband are devising?
The halo effect

A trial was held in China in which the jurors, upon being individually polled immediately after heading the agreements of the defense and the prosecution, each voted separately to sentence the defendant to a short term in prison but after discussing it among themselves in the juror’s room ended up recommending a long term. Which one of the following was probably not a group polarization factor in increasing the sentence?
People in individualistic cultures each like to be “better than average” hence, in favor of being at the leading (more extreme) edge of a group’s position

A change in behavior due to being asked to do so is referred to as

In the quiz master study described in the text ____ the predictions of the fundamental attribution error, research participants who were randomly chosen to ask though questions were viewed as ___ those who were randomly chosen to answer the questions.
Consistent with; more knowledgeable than

From a study by Muzafer Sherif et. al (the results of which were later confirmed by other studies) on how to heal a hostile competitive split between the Eagles and the Rattlers, two teams in a boys camp in Oklahoma, it was found that intergroup contact can have a powerful effect bout attitudes toward another group if
If it involves active cooperation in pursuit of a shared goal,
if it provides equal status for all participants

IN the trials of the soldiers involved in the Abu Ghraib atrocities which of the evidences considered were susceptible to the fundamental attribution error?
whether or not the soldiers were simply “bad apples” with the freedom to make correct moral choices had they wanted to or were instead psychiatrically insane

In Asch’s experiment on the effect of social pressure on judgements of noticeably different line lengths the presence of an ally who gave an answer deviant from the group led the subjects to
conform to the majority less often if the ally’s response was closer to the actual length of the line,
conforms to the majority less often if the ally’s response was even further than the majority’s response from the actual length of the line
be able to speak up without fear of embarrassment

We observe Anne yelling at her sister and conclude that Anne must be an aggressive person. This is an example of
dispositional attribution

The bystander effect is accounted for
diffusion of responsibility

Sometimes in making group decisions, the decision errs for ex. on the side of being too conservative and more conservative that the views of the individuals in the group. This can be explained by:
as one form of group polarization

An investigator has reported that mot individuals in extremist groups are in private, less extreme in their views than their group. this disparity could be accounted for by:
Group think and group polarization

When asch’s experiment on the effect of social pressure on judgment of noticeable different line lengths was carried out in collectivistic cultures, it was found that subjects tied to groups with which they do not share traditionalist bonds
experienced less discomfort on conforming.

Recall how Hindu Indians assigned responsibility regarding the motorcycle accident described in the text. To which of the choices in the immediately preceding multiple-choice question #11 would they hypothetically have assigned the most weight had they been the jurors at the Abu Ghraib trial?b
b &c

The fundamental attribution error is
taking a behavior as a sign of internal dispositions and downplaying obvious or potential situation determinants.

Which completion of the following statement is false? Implicit theories of personality are
thought to be malleable by individualistic cultures and stable by collectivistic ones.

Implicit theories of personality are
schemes about the social world
informal theories bringing together a cluster of beliefs about someone linking, for example, one of her traits to others but also linking these traits to specific behaviors that experience with that person or other people has taught us to expect

which of the following factors would increase the likelihood that someone would conform?
a desire to avoid being embarrassed
a feeling that you are less experienced than others in the group
All others in the group taking the same position

What below does not define a prejudice or constitute the three so called ABD components of which it is composed?
A physiological heightened responsively to anxiety

Which defines a prejudice or constitute the three so – called ABC components of which it is composed?
a behavioral tendency to discriminate against other groups
cognitive scheme (the stereotype itself)
an affective (emotional) inclination to view a group other tan their own as “bad”
A negative attitude toward another person based on his group membership

A pattern in which individual workings in a group all doing the same thing, generate less total effort than they would if each worked alone in a phenomenon known as
social loafing

Stereotype threat refers to
expectations about a group influencing the performance of members of that group

collectivistic cultures tend to emphasize the preference of
cultural norms, traditions of families

The slippery slope referes to
The pattern of successively larger steps taken by participants in Milgram’s study
programs of progressive exclamation used by the Nazis
basic trainging strategies used by the military

Studies of the authoritarian personality trait system find that it has closely associated with it all but which of the following
a motivated social cognitive perspective for dealing with threat and uncertainty that commits itself to a political liberalism

An attitude is
a belief (a set of mental views and assumptions) about some idea, object or person.

More than a simple belief’s “cold” set of dispassionate mental views and assumptions — rather it is “hot” in having emotional feelings and predisposition associated with it so as to be a relatively stable assertion.

formed through mechanisms of classical and operant conditioning and observational learning.

In Muzafer Sherif’s study on the auto kinetic effect, judgements made
When the participants were alone differed greatly from one subject to the next

when the participant were alone differed greatly from one trial to the next

in a group of participants tended to converge.