UC Berkeley – History 6B – Midterm 40 Terms

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Yellow River
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What: Huang He, main river system in north China, leads to ocean, as river moves it picks up \”loess\” which is yellow dusty stuff and makes the land more fertile, also connected to the Mandate of Heaven in the form of floods Where: Qiangzang plateau to Shandong Peninsula; North China When: Early Chinese Civilization to Current Day HS: controlling flood = mandate of heaven, target for multiple Civil Service Projects, called the cradle of Chinese civilization because it was the birthplace of Chinese civilization
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Yangzi River
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What: longest river in China, contributed largely to the culture and economy of China, small river feeds into the large river Where: South China, longest river When: early Chinese Civilization to Current day HS: contributed largely to the inland ports/exports, for example, the Han dynasty relied on the river which made them agriculturally very stable and productive; backbone of inland China transportation
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Zhou Dynasty
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Main Points – time of inventions – Confucius (lots of war = how to regulate society) Western Zhou – Golden Age: bronze vessels for ritual function – mandate of heaven (King You had a sh1tty one) – torch communication on Great Wall Eastern Zhou – decline – S/A Period: many states in conflict, capital moved to Zhang, rapid development – age of philosophy toward end – Warring States Period: iron inventions: weapons, xbow, stuff to fck people up – 7 warring states: automatic drafting total war – Qin: used legalism and system of standards, started in West and conquered everything, became Qin Shi Huang Badass Extraordinaire
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Mandate of Heaven/Dynastic Cycle
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Idea that good ruler has to keep the \”mandate of heaven\” – if the ruler sucks balls (no rain, famine, lost battles), it means god hates them – controlled by higher power – lots of rituals: hope to gain a type of harmony for things out of human control Dynastic Cycle: – Every dynasty goes through a cultural cycle: rise and fall – 3 main periods: beginning, middle (peak), decline (polit+econ) until collapse Historical: – used by Zhou to explain why Shang deserved to go –
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Confucius
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We read an entire fricken book on him – Wants to go back to Golden Age – Filial piety: respect your elders – Innate goodness of humans – Lots of compassion and benevolence in treating each other – Virtue: moral power through own morality: rulers can influence their subjects through virtuosity alone: punishment is bad – an idealistic fob (-_-)’
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Mencius
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– W.S. period – Innate goodness in humans – Society’s influence: positive can bring out good, negative causes bad – People before the ruler – Ruler’s #1 priority is the people, opposite of Confucius sorta: bottom up belief
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Daoism
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– developed by Laozi (6th century BC — Zhou) – influenced Tang dynasty – focus on simplicity and primitiveness – follow \”The Way\” – countercultural compared to Confucius society – \”action through non-action\” is naturalness
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Legalism
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Philosophy developed by students of Xunzi (~300 BCE) – humans by natures are ugly little shits (-_-), society makes them not poops – gained traction during Warring States, formed the basis for Qin rule 3 main tenets: – widely publicized laws (fa) – application of management techniques (shu) – manipulation of political purchase (shi) Society must have conformity or else booboos happen
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Han Dynasty
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Founded by Liu Bang (aka Han Gaozu) who came from peasant origins – Capital in the West, fiefdoms in the East – replaces commanders with liu clan – started imperial govt: dividing it up and paying them – First 200 years, west han, last 200 years eastern han – Employed Confucian principles for long success – literate society, cultural advancements, relatively peaceful
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Buddhism
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About that fat dude with big ears – introduced in Han, prominent during Tang – traveled slowly into China through Silk Road – at beginning was seen as foreign threat to Confucius – existence = suffering – end to suffering = remove all desire – end desire through 8-fold path – karma is a bitch – nirvana: ultimate goal (stillness of mind) – meditate to remove desires – Maitreya Buddha, believed in multiple Buddhas, \”enlightened\” Buddhas
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Tang Dynasty
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Successor to short-lived Sui – capital in Xi’an, biggest city in the entire world – Golden Age that ultimately ended in anarchy, but was hot diggity shit back in 8th century peak – founded by Li Yuan (aka Gaozu) – methodical census and taxation, introduced coinage, set system of laws – Taizong #2 successor (626) murdered 2 bros but became diamond I emperor: use of examinations for civil servants, good schools, expanded China’s land – Gaozong’s wife Wuhou became tyrant ruler, fcked many people up – rebellion soon broke out, forced Xuanzong (last emperor) to flee west, marked beginning of decline – during Golden Age: sculpture, art, poems, pottery – Buddhism was flavor of the dynasty
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Song Dynasty
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Founded by Zhao Kuangyin (Taizu) – Confucian principles, pragmatic civil service, decent military expansion – Over time, shit started, and Jurchen overthrew Liao, then took over North Song, established Jin Southern Song – Gaozong started, chose capital in Li’an – promoted Han Dynasty’s civil service – Khubilai killed them Song as a whole – renewal of Buddhism – moveable type = literacy – paper currency, welfare policy – famous ppl included Zhu Xi and Neo-Confucianism – wet rice cultivation, wealth in urban areas – 3 MAIN inventions: money, movable type printing, gunpowder
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Neo-Confucianism
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-originated in Tang, but became hot shit during song and ming Harmony is maintained by a reciprocal relationship of justice between superior (urged to be benevolent) and a subordinate (urged to be obedient) – rejected superstitious and mystical elements of Daoism and Buddhism that influenced the Confucianism of Han – rationalist ethical philosophy – emerged as a response to all the new ideas of the Song Dynasty
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Zhu Xi
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Father of Neo-Confuciansim – Song Dynasty – preferred life of scholar over govt jobs – wrote a big history book – often put in \”political disgrace\” b/c of his radical views – more rational, focus on li and qi – task of moral cultivation is to clear our qi – meditation: quiet introspection to balance qi
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Civil Service Exam
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605-1905 – Started in Han Dynasty, used in Tang, Song, Yuan, gradually phased out in Qing Test based off of the Four Books that granted entry into the govt 1) County: exempt from tax/labor 2) Provincial: recommended man 3) Metropolitan: called presented scholar
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Genghis Khan: Temujin
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(1162-1227) – came from poor family in the Steppe – 1206: united Steppe tribes and is called Genghis Khan – 1219: Central Asian campaign, very successful – dies in battle against Western Xia – had very good micro and macro skills: kept good tax and pop. records – religious freedom – started Pax Mongolica, FREE TRADE – compulsory military service – no slaves no kidnapping
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Ogedei Khan
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1185-1241 After Temujin, greatly expanded empire size – didn’t screw over Chinese people – 1234 conquered North China held by Jin – 1258, made a bag out of Baghdad – used Song tech to go ham on others – spared lives of commoners, but killed leaders
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Khuriltai
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political and military council of the Khans, held to name the new Khagan of Mongol Empire – important because Khuriltai is held after Ogedei dies, forcing all the generals to go back home before they shit on EU
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Yuan Dynasty
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1279 Khublai Khan completes S. China conquest – capital was at Nanjing first then moved to Beijing (Dadu) – first time all 3 main regions unified by a non-ethnically Chinese govt – Extractive rule: tried to take shit from China – weak centralized control, lots of corruption, inflation – natural disaster (yellow river floods) – peasant rebellion b/c they believed govt was ineffective – art+cultural stuff wasn’t really promoted by govt
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Four Khanates
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2nd half of 13th century, Mongol Empire split into 4: Started after Genghis Khan divided his land among children: – The Goldern Horde (Khanate of Kipchak): Jochi the eldest, breaks off with Mongol Empire (Batu’s folks) – Khanate of Chaghadai: The one that goes to Chaghadai’s family – Ilkhanate of Persia/Middle East: given to Tolui’s family the youngest son – Yuan Dynasty (khubilai’s family
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Khubilai Khan
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Became first Yuan emperor in 1271 after unifying all the tribes under him – 4th son under Tolui – tried invading japan but failed twice – beat up some viets, and made them tributaries – really liked Chinese culture – later got old and fat, died a lonely man
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Khanbalik = Dadu = Beijing
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Capital of Yuan Dynasty founded by Khubilai Khan
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Marco Polo
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white d00d like h0mi3 Caleb from Venice who wrote about his expeditions to Central Asian and China, met Khubilai Khan in 1269
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Pax Mongolica
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cultural exchange between EU, Middle East, and Asia – spearheaded by Genghis in early 1200s – in the process of conquering, made trade routes – promoted trade, built roads and postal stations – paper money used and spread around – increase in cultural exchanges: math of islam, astronomy, architecture, religion
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Ming Dynasty
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Founded by Hongwu Emperor/Zhu Yuanzhang, Ming Taizu – perfected civil service exam – stability but autocracy – Yongle Emperor was next (Zhu Di) – Forbidden City built, hella cool – lots of new art and pottery and opera developed in that time – 3 family System for social order – tax collection was hard, so special systems in place for that
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Imperial Government
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Created by Ming Taizu (Hongwu) – 3 main branches: Civil, Censorate, and Military – emperor, inner court, 3 departments, 6 ministries, provinces, prefectures, subprefectures, counties, very systematic
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Hongwu Emperor = Zhu Yuanzhang = Ming Taizu
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Started as lil peasant – Was a good general and eventually overthrew the Yuan – later become a paranoid, cruel tyrant – he centralized power in the emperor’s hands – had a small staff of 200 (93 women) – Hu Weiyong case: killed along with 30k of his ppl – got rid of prime minister and took over everything
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Yongle Emperor
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called Zhu Di (Prince of Yan), ruled 1403-1424 – took army to Beijing, barged capital, and became emperor – supported encyclopedia (11k volumes) – moved capital from beijing to nanjing: forbidden city – invaded Manchuria and Mongolia, pushed into Vietnam – Forbidden city built under his reign
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Nanjing
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Capital moved from Nanjing to Beijing under Yongle – Forbidden city: 100,000 workers to build
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Great Wall
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originally built during S/A of Zhou dynasty to repel the Northerners – Qin made it bigger – Ming built an even bigger one after Tumu crisis – Wall held Manchus off – wall is currently 5.5k miles
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Tribute System
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Historical start?? – weaker states send gifts to emperor to demonstrate superiority – tributary states recognized as legit rulers – got different titles and endorsements – gifts from china was sometimes even bigger than tributes to show how badass they were – got military protection – commercial tradig
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Wang Yangming
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(1472-1529) – Neo-confucian scholar believed that ppl are innately good – goes against Zhu Xi – influenced by Buddhism – shows that chinese philosophies overlap and coexist vs. EU – good at suppressing rebellions – understanding the world comes from the mind vs. rationalism from Zhu Xi – both Neo-Confucianists that were pretty bombdotcom
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Tumu Crisis
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(1449 Ming) – the defeat of a much larger army (Ming forces) by a much smaller army of Mongols – Zhengton emperor was captured by the Mongols after personally leading them to battle – Tried to ransom the emperor but failed because brother wanted to be emperor – returned to China and put under house arrest, staged a coup and reclaimed the throne
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Mutual Responsibility System
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– social organizing system of the Ming Dynasty – Main reason is tax collecting – 10 wealthiest families take turns collecting taxes – also recruited for census taking, local militias, labor service – conflict mediation help as well
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Three Families System/Wandering Population
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– ideal social order – purpose is to create 3 categories (soldiers, farmers, artisans) – merchants were not included because they were parasites – wandering population was not included (miners, pirates, highway robbers, city workers) – an individual could not voluntarily move out of social classes – attempt by government to freeze society and maintain order
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Single Whip Reform (invitation to discuss silver economy)
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– Fiscal law instituted during the middle of the Ming Dynasty – aimed primarily to simplify the complex fiscal code – tax changed from rice to silver – poor people couldn’t afford silver – eventually led to the overthrowing of the Ming dynasty because of the inflation
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Zheng He
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– fleet admiral during early Ming dynasty – acted as tribute system leader using large wooden ships (junks) – Indian Ocean 1405-1433 – helped increase trade and global presence of China
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Matteo Ricci/Jesuits
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– Ricci was one of the first priests in China – Jesuits emphasized not only religion, but other practical ideas such as arithmetic – Ricci was invited by the emperor to become and adviser to the IMperial court – Ricci knew Chinese well
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Li Zicheng
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– Chinese rebel leader who helped overthrow the Ming dynasty and briefly ruled the Shun Dynasty – sacked Beijing while the imperial army was at Shanhaiguan Pass – driven out by the combination of Manchus and imperial army – 2 year reign
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Wu Sangui
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– part of the Ming during the peasant rebellion (overthrow of the Ming dynasty) – was stationed at Shanhaiguan – led the imperial army to a stalemate with the Manchus while the rebels sacked Beijing – sided with the Manchus – tried to revolt when he was granted a kingdom, but failed – 1600s

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