U.S. History Midterm Study Guide

Circumnavigation
to sail completely around
Ferdinand Magellan
the first person to circumnavigate the world
Christopher Columbus
discovered the “New World”
Isabella and Ferdinand
the king and queen of Spain who funded Columbus
Aztecs
Indian tribe located in Mexico; were conquered by Hernando Cortés
Incas
Indian tribe located in South America, around Peru; were conquered by Franscisco Pizarro
Franscisco Pizarro
Spanish conquistador who conquered much of the Incan empire
Hernando Cortés
Spanish conquistador who conquered the Aztecs
Plantation
a large estate formed by many workers that mainly grew one thing
Father Marquette
traveled with Joilet to reach the Missisippi in 1673
Northwest Passage
a waterway through or around North America
Virginia Company
a company in London that received a charter from King James I that gave them the right to settle lands in the New World and gave the colonists that settled there the rights of English citizens
Established Church
the chosen religion
John Smith
saved the Jamestown colony by setting up stern rules that forced colonists to work if they wanted to eat
Walter Raleigh
raised money to outfit a colony in North America
House of Burgesses
an assembly of burgesses with the governor and his council that made laws the for Jamestown colony; marked the beginning of representative government in the English colonies
William Bradford
a Pilgrim who went to the Plymouth colony
Mayflower Compact
an agreement for ruling the Plymouth colony that was signed by the Pilgrims
Squanto
an Indian who helped the Pilgrims by giving them the seeds of native plants and by teaching the Pilgrims how to plant them
John Winthrop
the first governor of the Massachusetts Bay colony
Roger Williams
a Puritan minister in the town of Salem that believed in religious tolerance and the seperation of church and state
Puritans
a religious group that migrated to Massachusetts Bay during the 1630s and reformed the church by introducing simpler forms of worship
Indigo
a plant used to make a valuable blue dye
Thomas Hooker
led about 100 settlers out of Massachusetts Bay and built Hartford with them
Quakers
Protstant reformers who believe in equality of all people and no war or violence
Royal Colony
a colony under the direct control of the English crown
Proprietary Colony
when the king gives land to one or more people in return for a yearly payment
Lord Baltimore
founded the colony of Maryland and gave generous land grants to anyone who brought over servants, women, and children
Peter Minuit
led a group of Dutch settlers to the mouth of the Hudson River and bought Manhattan Island from the Indians
Peter Stuyvesant
the governor of New Netherland, who was very unpopular with the colonists, but restored law and order
New Netherland
founded by the Dutch, was taken over by the English and renamed New York
New Jersey
used to be part of New York, the Duke of York gave it two his two friends who made it into a colony
Navigation Acts
a series of laws passed by the English Parliment in the 1650s that regulated trade between England and it’s colonies
William Penn
a Quaker who founded the colony of Pennsylvania because they were being prosecuted in England
James Oglethrope
founded Georgia and wanted it to be a place where debtors could make a fresh start
Apprentice
a person who worked for a master to learn a trade or craft
French and Indian War
a war that pitted the English against France and their Indian allies
Gen. James Wolfe
captured the French city of Quebec, which ended the French and Indian War
Marquis de Montcalm
fought against the British on the Plains of Abraham to defend Quebec, but lost
Plains of Abraham
was where the British fought against the French to capture Quebec
Proclamation of 1763
a law forbiddding English colonists to settle west of the Appalachian Mountains
Treaty of Paris
was signed by Britain and France and ended French power in North America; was also a peace treaty between the United States and Britain that reconized the United States as an independent country
Gen. Edward Braddock
led British and colonial troops in an attack against Fort Duquesne but failed because he was stubborn and had little experience at fighting in the forests of North America
Intolerable Acts
four strict laws passed to punish the colonists for the Boston Tea Party
George Washington
fought in the French and Indian War, became a brilliant commander to the Continental Army in the Revolution, and was elected president of the Constitutional Convention; was later elected President of the United States
Olive Branch Petition
an American petition in which they declared loyalty to the king and asked him to repeal the Intolerable Acts; was rejected by King George III
Boston Tea Party
a protest in which colonists dressed as Indians dumped British tea into Boston Harbor
Stamp Act
placed new duties on legal documents and taxed newspapers, almanacs, playing cards, and dice
First Continental Congress
a meeting between 12 delagates in Philadelphia
Minutemen
colonists who were prepared to fight at a moment’s notice
Lexington and Concord
conflicts between Massachusetts colonists and British soldiers that started the Revolutionary War
King George III
the king of England during the time of the Revolutionary War
Green Mountain Boys
a group of Vermonters that Ethan Allen lead to attack Fort Ticonderoga
Patriot
a colonist who favored war against Britain
Loyalist
a colonist who remained loyal to Britain
Battle of Bunker Hill
the first major battle of the Revolutionary War
Mercenaries
troops for hire
Thomas Paine
a Patriot who wrote Common Sense, an essay that urged colonists to declare independence
Declaration of Independence
a 1776 document stating that the 13 colonies were a free and independent nation
Thomas Jefferson
a Patriot who wrote the Declaration of Independence
Battle of Long Island
a 1776 battle in New York in which more than 1400 Americans were killed, wounded, or captured
Nathan Hale
a Patriot who volunteered to go behind British lines to gather information, but was executed when he was caught
Battle of Trenton
was when the Americans suprised the Hessian troops and took most of them prisoner
Battle of Saratoga
was a major turning point in the Revolution, and it ended the British threat to New England
Marquis de Lafayette
a young French noble who brought trained soldiers to help the Patriot cause
Lord Cornwallis
led the British army but surrendered it after they lost the Battle of Yorktown
Benedict Arnold
a traitor to the Americans who captured and burned Virgunia’s capital, Richmond, and turned over the American fort, West Point, to the British
Valley Forge
a makeshift camp where Washington’s army stayed during the winter of 1777-1778
John Paul Jones
an American captain who captured the powerful British warship Sarapis
Comte de Rochambeau
helped Washington and his troops trap Cornwallis on the Yorktown peninsula
Battle of Yorktown
the final battle of the Revoutionary War that forced the British to surrender
Constitution
a document that sets out the laws, principles, organization, and processes of government
Bill of Rights
a list of freedoms that the government promises to protect; also the first 10 amendments to the U.S. Constitution
Virginia Plan
called for a strong national government with 3 branches, the legislative, executvive, and the judicial; the legislative would have two houses and seats would be awarded by population
New Jersey Plan
called for three branches of government; but the legislative would only have one house and each state would only have one vote
3/5 Compromise
a compromise in which 3/5 of slaves would be counted as part of the population in Southern states
Great Compromise
Roger Sherman’s plan for the new government that combined the VA and NJ plans, and was approved on July 16,1787
George Mason
an Antifederalist who wrote the bill of rights for Virginia’s constitution in 1776 and was one of the strongest supporters for a bill of rights
Federalists
supporters of the Constitution
Antifederalists
people who opposed the Constitution
Amendments
additions to the Constitution that improved or changed it
House of Representatives
the larger of the two bodies that make up the legislative branch of the U.S. government; representation is based on population
Senate
the smaller of the two bodies that make up the legislative branch of the U.S. government; representation is based on equal representation
Supreme Court
highest court in the U.S. established by the Constitution
Veto
reject, as when the President rejects a law passed by Congress
Impeach
to bring charges of serious wrongdoing against a public official
Cabinet
group of officials who head government departments and advise the President
Seperation of Powers
was designed to keep any person or group from gaining too much power
Inauguration
ceremony in which the President officially takes the oath of office
Articles of Confederation
the first American Constitution, approved 1777, which created a loose alliance of 13 independent states
Northwest Ordinance
passed by Congress in 1787, set up a government for the Northwest Territory, guaranteed basic rights to settlers, and outlawed slavery there
Legislative Branch
would pass the laws
Executive Branch
would carry out the laws
Judicial Branch
a system of courts that would decide if laws were carried out fairly
1st Amendment
Freedoms of Religion, Speech, Press, Assembly, and Petition
2nd Amendment
Right to Bear Arms
3rd Amendment
Lodging Troops in Private Homes
4th Amendment
Search and Seizure
5th Amendment
Rights of the Accussed
6th Amendment
Right to Speddy Trial by Jury
7th Amendment
Jury Trial in Civil Cases
8th Amendment
Bail and Punishment
9th Amendment
Powers Reserved to the People
10th Amendment
Powers Reserved to the States
13th Amendment
Abolition of Slavery
14th Amendment
Rights of Citizens
15th Amendment
Voting Rights