U.S. History Chapter 16 Test Study Guide Part 1

Flashcard maker : Bernice Cooper
Gilded Age
1870s – 1890s; time period looked good on the outside, despite the corrupt politics & growing gap between the rich & poor
Industrialization
Development of a system which supports machine production of goods
Civil Service Commission
Created by the Pendelton Civil Service Act of 1883, this body was in charge of testing applicants and assigning them to appropriate government jobs; filling jobs on the basis of merit replaced the spoils system, in which government jobs were given as rewards for political service.
Knights of Labor
1st effort to create National union. Open to everyone but lawyers and bankers. Vague program, no clear goals, weak leadership and organization. Failed
Homestead Strike
1892 steelworker strike near Pittsburgh against the Carnegie Steel Company. Ten workers were killed in a riot when \”scab\” labor was brought in to force an end to the strike.
Reform Darwinists
To these people, progress was a process of the natural order that could be aided by government intervention
Materialism
An unhealthy attachment to material goods and wealth, particularly when it diminishes virtue and distracts from attention to the spiritual life.
Panic of 1893
Serious economic depression beginning in 1893. Began due to rail road companies over-extending themselves, causing bank failures. Was the worst economic collapse in the history of the country until that point, and, some say, as bad as the Great Depression of the 1930s.
Injunction
(law) a judicial remedy issued in order to prohibit a party from doing or continuing to do a certain activity (keeps Debs and other strike leaders to further encourage the strike)
Socialism
A system in which society, usually in the form of the government, owns and controls the means of production.
Populist Party
U.S. political party formed in 1892 representing mainly farmers, favoring free coinage of silver and government control of railroads and other monopolies
Standard Oil Company
Founded by John D. Rockefeller. Largest unit in the American oil industry in 1881. Known as A.D. Trust, it was outlawed by the Supreme Court of Ohio in 1899. Replaced by the Standard Oil Company of New Jersey.
New South
After the Civil War, southerners promoted a new vision for a self-sufficient southern economy built on modern capitalist values, industrial growth, and improved transportation. Henry Grady played an important role.
Gilded Age Politics
Pro-business, minimal interference in regional issues, weak federal government, machine politics, weak presidents, weak bills.
Mongrel Tariff
Tariff of 1883, a compromise measure that satisfied nobody. Duties were lowered on a few items, but increased on most manufactured goods.
Interstate Commerce Act
1) directed that railroad rates must be reasonable and just. 2) publish all rates and make financial rates. 3) provided for the creation of the Interstate Commerce Commission.
McKinley Tariff
1890 tariff that raised protective tariff levels by nearly 50%, making them the highest tariffs on imports in the United States history
Haymarket Riot
100,000 workers rioted in Chicago. After the police fired into the crowd, the workers met and rallied in Haymarket Square to protest police brutality. A bomb exploded, killing or injuring many of the police. The Chicago workers and the man who set the bomb were immigrants, so the incident promoted anti-immigrant feelings.
Pullman Strike
in Chicago, Pullman cut wages but refused to lower rents in the \”company town\”, Eugene Debs had American Railway Union refuse to use Pullman cars, Debs thrown in jail after being sued, strike achieved nothing
American Railway Union
Led by Eugene Debs, he refused to handle Pullman cars and equipment. Within a few days thousands of railroad workers and territories were on strike. Transportation from Chicago to the Pacific Coast was paralyzed.

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