Toxicology Final Exam Study Guide

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Uritcaria
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typical hives which are pruritic red wheals that erupt on the skin
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Asthma
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a common occurence after exposure to an induce of uritcaria
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Inducer of Urticaria
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Curare, aspirin, axo dyes, plant and animal toxins
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Contact Urticaria Chemicals
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cobalt chloride, benzoic acid, BHA, methanol
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Hyperpigmentation
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enhancing the production of melanin or by causing deposition of endogenour or exogenous pigment in the upper epidermis
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Hyperpigmentation Drugs
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Hg, Pb, As, Petroleum oils
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Hypopigmentation
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Phenols and Catechols
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Choloroquine and Phenozythizines
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alter retinal function
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Methanol
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Affects the nerves of the eye and retinal photoreceptor cells
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EtOH
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Treatment for retinal damage
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Virus Neutralazation
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Prevent virus from infecting target cells
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Opsonization
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Coast infectious agent and product Ab-Ag complex
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Anti-body dependent cellular toxicity
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Ag-Ab binds to leukocyte -lyse target cells
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Cell lysis
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Sequential binding of compliment proteins cause lysis of red blood cells, foreign cells, bacteria and certain viruses
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Complement
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Serious of 30 serum proteins whose functions are the modifacation of membranes of infectious agents and the promotion of an inflammatory response
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IV hypersensitivity
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Be, Bismark Brown, Chromium, and Formaldehyde
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Fetal Hydantoin Syndrome
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Occurence of craniofacial features, limb alterations, growth and learning defeciets
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Agents of Fetal Hydantoin Syndrome
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Diphenylhdantoin Phenytoin, valproic acid, and anticonvulsants
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Carcinogen
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An agents whose administration to previously untreated animals leads to a statistically significant increased incidence of neoplams of one or more histogenic types as compared with the
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Synthetic Carcinogens
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DES, EE, OM, Tamoxifen, and RU486
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Aneuplodiy
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Involves the gain or loss of one or few chromosomes
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Polyploidy
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Involves complete sets of chromosomes
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Aneuploids
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45 or 47
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Polyploids
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69
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Bradychardia
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HR less than 60 bpm
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Dose Response Curve
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Explains the reponse of an enzyme, organism, population, or biological community to a range of concentrations of a chemical
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Slope
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Rate of buildup of toxic effects
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Margin of Safety
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A comparison of the minimally lethal dose to the maximally effective dose.
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LD50
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Lethal dose that causes mortality in 50% of the test organisms
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Non-specific mechanism
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does not require previous exposure to inducing agent and lacks specifity
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Alkylating agents, ionizing radiation, anti-neoplastic drugs
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affect spermatogenesis
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cigarette smoking, alcohol, Pb
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affect female reproduction
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Process of Mutation – 1
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Structural DNA alterations
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Process of Mutation – 2
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Cell proliferation that fixes the DNA damage
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Process of Mutation – 3
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DNA repair that either directly repairs the bases and results in the removal of larger DNA segments
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DNP, CN, asesthetic gases
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acuetly toxic to cardiovascular system
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fat, cocaine, steroids, symphathomimetics
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ischemic heart disease
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Hypothermia, certain drugs, nerve stimulation
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related to bradycardia
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Theraputic index
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Used to compare the theraputically effect dose to the lethal dose
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effective dose
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The dose at which a toxin has effect, can mean for pain/relief…or bad endpoints

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