Toulmin/Rogerian Arguments

question

Toulmin Argument
answer

An approach to everyday argument
question

Rogerian Argument
answer

An approach to develop consensus
question

Toulmin Outline
answer

1)Claim 2)Data 3)Warrant 4)Backing 5)Modal Qualifiers 6)Rebuttals
question

Claim
answer

-Toulmin(1) -the position on the issue, the purpose behind the argument
question

Data
answer

-Toulmin(2) -the evidence, facts, data, and info that are the reason for the claim in the first place
question

Warrant
answer

-Toulmin(3) -the reason the writer uses to justify the claim -connects the data to the claim
question

Backing
answer

-Toulmin(4) -the support materials that support the warrant -the theoretical or experimental foundations for the warrant
question

Modal Qualifiers
answer

-Toulmin(5) -temper the claim -ex: some, many, most, etc. -the verbalization of the relative strength of an argument
question

Rebuttals
answer

-Toulmin(6) -an exception to the claim represented by the arguer -strengthens the arguement because of its limitations
question

Rogerian Outline
answer

1)Introduction 2)Summary of Opposing Views 3)Statement of Understanding 4)Statement of your Position 5)Statement of Contexts 6)Statement of Benefits
question

Introduction
answer

-Rogerian(1) -states problem and raises positive change -interest the audience
question

Summary of Opposing Views
answer

-Rogerian(2) -states opposing views while being accurate and neutral to show understanding of others’ position and reasons
question

Statement of Understanding
answer

-Rogerian(3) -shows understanding that opposing views can be valid and shows respect to the people with those opposing views -avoid moralizing about your own position or reasons
question

Statement of your Position
answer

-Rogerian(4) -state your views and provide evidence to support your position while being accurate and neutral -avoid moralizing about your own position or reasons
question

Statement of Contexts
answer

-Rogerian(5) -analyze what the two positions have in common and find shared goals and values -describe situations where your opponents should be able to support your views
question

Statement of Benefits
answer

-Rogerian(6) -show how people with opposing views will benefit from accepting your position -be positive and hopeful

Get instant access to
all materials

Become a Member