Toulmin Model of Argument Analysis

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Toulmin model of argument
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Used to clarify what each claim asserts and locate points of disagreement
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Moving from text to a Toulmin Model argument
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1.Think about what an audience is being asked to believe or do in an act of speech or writing—\”the bottom line\” 2.Make what seems to be the most important bottom line into the major claim, and then look for support for and qualification of the claim to finish the model
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Claim
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single statement (idea or action) advanced for the adherence of others
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Grounds
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a statement made about persons, conditions,events, or things that says support is available to provide a reason for a claim
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Warrant
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a general statement that justifies using the gounds as a basis for the claim
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Backing
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any support (specific examples, statistics, testimony, values, or credibility) that provides more specific data for the grounds or warrant *Backing can be applied either to warrants or grounds
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Qualifier
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a statement that indicatesthe force of the argument (often with words such as certainly, possibly, probably, usually, or always), expressing the confidence of the arguer in the acceptability of the claim.
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Rebuttal
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the basis on which the claim might be questioned by a decision maker
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Reservation
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the limits the arguer puts on [the scopeof the claim], an exception to the original claim that answers the rebuttal

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