Topic 9: Ecology

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Write down the levels of ecosystem organization from smallest to largest
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organism, population, biological community, ecosystem, biomes, biosphere
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_________________ make their own food, while _____________________ eat other organisms for food.
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Autotrophs; heterotrophs
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When you move up an energy pyramid, the amount of available energy ↑ or ↓. By how much?
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↓; by 90%
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What is the difference between a food chain and a food web?
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Food chain is a linear relationship. Grass; grasshopper; bird; fox. Food web is many interconnected food chains.
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What is the difference between abiotic and biotic factors?
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Abiotic-non living that affect organisms, Ex: oxygen, sand, water,etc.; Biotic- living things that affect organisms, EX: predators, prey, etc.
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many organisms fighting for the same resources
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competition
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organism that eats prey
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predation
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a relationship in which two species are living close to one another
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symbiosis aka: symbiotic relationships
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What three types of symbiosis?
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Mutualism, Commensalism, and Parasitism
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both species benefit
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mutualism; ++
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one species benefits, the other is unaffected
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commensalism; +O
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one species benefits, the other is harmed
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parasitism; +-
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___________________ species are those that are naturally found in a location, while _________________ species are accidentally or purposefully introduced to a new area.
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Native aka: endemic Non-native aka: invasive
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vulnerable to endangerment in near future
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threatened
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seriously at risk of extinction
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endangered
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having no living members (of a species)
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extinct
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What is succession?
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recovery of an ecosystem after a disaster
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What is Primary succession?
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new land is formed; it takes longer; icebergs; volcanoes
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What is Secondary succession?
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occurs after natural disasters; hurricanes; floods
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Where would a producer be found on a food chain? A. the top B. the bottom C. the middle D. they would not be found on one
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B. the bottom
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What is producer another word for?
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autotroph
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With an energy pyramid, how does the energy change as you go up the pyramid? A. it decreases by 90% each level B. it decreases by different amounts each level C. it increases by 90% each level D. it increases by different amounts each level
With an energy pyramid, how does the energy change as you go up the pyramid?  A. it decreases by 90% each level  B. it decreases by different amounts each level  C. it increases by 90% each level  D. it increases by different amounts each level
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A. it decreases by 90% each level
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Which of the following would NOT be an abiotic factor? A. amount of sunlight B. soil bacteria C. wind D. temperature
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B. soil bacteria
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What kind of organism is soil bacteria?
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a decomposer
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A fox chases, attacks, and kills a rabbit. What type of relationship would this be? A. competition B. predation C. symbiosis D. parasitism
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B. predation
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Two foxes try to kill the same rabbit. What type of relationship would this be? A. competition B. predation C. symbiosis D. parasitism
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A. competition
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The difference between environmental science and ecology is that environmental science includes _______, while ecology does not. A. bacteria B. plants C. animals D. people
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D. people
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All of the different species of microscopic organisms living in and on your body would be called a(n)? A. community B. ecosystem C. species D. population
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A. community
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Anything that would decrease the growth, existence, or distribution of one organism or a whole population would be called a(n)? A. eutrophic event B. pollutant C. stunting nutrient D. limiting factor
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D. limiting factor
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What is limiting factor broken up into?
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abiotic-water, temperature; biotic-plants, predators, prey
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A species that belongs to an ecosystem is called ________, while a species that does not belong to an ecosystem is called __________. A. threatened; endangered B. endangered; endemic C. endemic; non-native D. non-native; endemic
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C. endemic; non-native
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Example of endemic/native?
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White-tailed deer
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Example of invasive/non-native?
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Zebra mussels; hippos if there were some lol
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A forest burns down after a lightning storm. The slow, gradual process of replacing the forest with different types of plants would be called A. evolution B. succession C. development D. development
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B. succession
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A forest burns down after a lightning storm. The slow, gradual process of replacing the forest with different types of plants would be called succession. What type of succession would this be?
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secondary succession

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