Ions which are formed when a group of atoms gains or loses electrons
Valence Shell Pair Repulsion
Thetheory states that the molcules will attain whatever shape keeps the valence electrons of the central atom as far apart from one another as possible
If there are only two atoms in the molecule or if there are only two groups of electrons around the central atom.
If the central atom has one pair of non-bonding electrons (tetrahedron with one leg removed).
If there are three groups of electrons around the central atom
If none of the condiditons for linear or trigonal molecules exist and there are no non-bonding electrons around the central atom
If two non-bonding electron pairs surround the central atom
|A covalent bond in which the electrons are shared equally between the atoms involved|
|A covalent bond in which the electrons are shared unequally between the atoms involved|
|A concentration unit that tells how many moles of a substance are in a liter of solution. It is determined by taking the number of moles of a substance and dividing it by the number of liters of the substance.|
|The process of slowly reacting a base of unknown concentration with an acid of a known concentration (or visa versa) until just enough acid has been added to react with all of the base. This process determines the concentration of the unknown base (or acid)|
|Compounds that can act as a either an acid or a base, depending on the situation.|
|A substance that turns one color in the presence of acids and another color in the presence of bases|
A molecule that donates H+ ions
A molecule that accepts H+ ions
(We own all you base)
An acid that can donate more then one H+ ion
Adding water to a solution in order to decrease the concentration
- The solubility of any solute depends both on the identity of the solute and the idenitiy of the solvent.
2. For solid solutes, solubility usually increases with increasing temperature. The solubility of liquid solutes is not affected by temperature. The solubility of gases decreases with increasing temperature.
3. Increasing pressure increases the solubility of gases. Pressure does not affect the solubility of either liquids or solids.
The number of moles of solute per kilogram of solvent
|The maximum amount of solute that can dissolve in a given amount of solvent|
|A solution in which the maximum amount of solute has been dissolved|
A process that absorbs heat
A process that releases heat
|The pressure exerted by the vapor which sits on top of any liquid|
|The temperature at which the vapor pressure of a liquid is equal to the normal atmospheric pressure|
Dalton’s Law of Partial Pressures
|When two or more ideal gases are mixed together, the total pressure of the mixture is equal to the sum of the pressure of each individual gas.|
|At a constant pressure, the temperature and volume of a gas are linearly proportional|
|Under conditions of constant temperature the product of gases pressure pressure and volume are always constant|
Properties of an ideal gas
1. The molecules (or atoms) that make up an ideal gas must be small compared to the volume available to the gas.
2. The gas molucules (or atoms) must be so far apart that they don’t attract or repel each other.
3. All colisions must be elastic (no energy lost or gained);
Standard Temperature and Pressure (STP)
Temperature of 273K and a pressure of 1.00 atm
R= 0.0821 L;atm/mole;K
|The force per unit exerted on an object|
|Following an established trend is data even though there is no data available for that region|
Atmospheric Pressure Conversions
Atm to kPa
Atm to torr
Atm to mmHG;
1.000 atm = 101.3 kPa
;1.000 atm = 760.0 torr
1.000 atm = 760.0 mmHG;