Third Quarterly Test Flashcard

 

 

 

 

Polyatomic Ions

Ions which are formed when a group of atoms gains or loses electrons

 

 

 

 

Polyatomic Ion:

Sulfate

 

 

 

 

SO42-

 

 

 

 

Polyatomic Ion:

Nitrite

 

 

 

NO2

 

 

 

 

Polyatomic Ion:

Chromate

 

 

 

CrO42-

 

 

 

 

Polyatomic Ion:

Phosphate

 

 

 

PO43-

 

 

 

 

Polyatomic Ion:

Ammonium

 

 

 

NH4

 

 

 

 

Polyatomic Ion:

Dichromate

 

 

 

Cr2O72-

 

 

 

 

Polyatomic Ion:

Acetate

 

 

 

C2H3O2

 

 

 

 

Polyatomic Ion:

Chlorite

 

 

 

ClO2

 

 

 

 

Polyatomic Ion:

Cyanide

 

 

 

CN

 

 

 

 

Polyatomic Ion:

Hydroxide

 

 

 

OH

 

 

 

 

Polyatomic Ion:

Carbonate

 

 

 

CO32-

 

 

 

 

Polyatomic Ion:

Chlorate

 

 

 

ClO3

 

 

 

 

Polyatomic Ion:

Sulfite

 

 

 

SO32-

 

 

 

 

Polyatomic Ion:

Nitrate

 

 

 

NO3

 

 

 

 

Polyatomic Ion:

Hydronium

 

 

 

H3O+

 

 

 

 

VSEPR Theory


Valence Shell Pair Repulsion

 

Thetheory states that the molcules will attain whatever shape keeps the valence electrons of the central atom as far apart from one another as possible

 

 

 

 
Molecule Shape:

Linear

 

 

Angle: 180°

 

If there are only two atoms in the molecule or if there are only two groups of electrons around the central atom. 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Molecule Shape:
Pyramidal

 

 

Angle: 107°

 

If the central atom has one pair of non-bonding electrons (tetrahedron with one leg removed).

 

 

 

 

Molecule Shape:
Trigonal

 

 

Angle: 120°

 

If there are three groups of electrons around the central atom 

 

 

 

 

Molecule Shape:
Tetrahedron

 

 

Angle: 109°

 

If none of the condiditons for linear or trigonal molecules exist and there are no non-bonding electrons around the central atom 

 

 

 

 

Molecule Shape:
Bent

 

 

Angle: 105°

 

If two non-bonding electron pairs surround the central atom

 

 

 

 

Purely Covalent Bond

A covalent bond in which the electrons are shared equally between the atoms involved

 

 

 

 

Polar Bond

A covalent bond in which the electrons are shared unequally between the atoms involved

 

 

 

 

Molarity (M)

A concentration unit that tells how many moles of a substance are in a liter of solution. It is determined by taking the number of moles of a substance and dividing it by the number of liters of the substance.

 

 

 

 

Titration

The process of slowly reacting a base of unknown concentration with an acid of a known concentration (or visa versa) until just enough acid has been added to react with all of the base. This process determines the concentration of the unknown base (or acid)

 

 

 

 

Amphiprotic Compounds

Compounds that can act as a either an acid or a base, depending on the situation.

 

 

 

 

Indicator

A substance that turns one color in the presence of acids and another color in the presence of bases

 

 

 

 

 Acid

 

 A molecule that donates H+ ions

 

 

 

 

Base

 

A molecule that accepts H+ ions

 

(We own all you base) 

 

 

 

 

Polyprotic Acid

 

An acid that can donate more then one H+ ion

 

 

 

 

 

 

Dilution

 

Adding water to a solution in order to decrease the concentration 

 

 

 

Three Solubility Rules

  1. The solubility of any solute depends both on the identity of the solute and the idenitiy of the solvent.

 

2. For solid solutes, solubility usually increases with increasing temperature. The solubility of liquid solutes is not affected by temperature. The solubility of gases decreases with increasing temperature.

 

3. Increasing pressure increases the solubility of gases. Pressure does not affect the solubility of either liquids or solids. 

 

 

 

 

Molality (m)

The number of moles of solute per kilogram of solvent

 

 

 

 

 

Solubility

The maximum amount of solute that can dissolve in a given amount of solvent

 

 

 

 Saturated Solution

A solution in which the maximum amount of solute has been dissolved

 

 

 

Endothermic Process

 A process that absorbs heat

 

(feels cold) 

 

 

 

Exothermic Process

A process that releases heat

 

(feels hot) 

 

 

 

Vapor Pressure

The pressure exerted by the vapor which sits on top of any liquid

 

 

 

Boiling Point

The temperature at which the vapor pressure of a liquid is equal to the normal atmospheric pressure

 

 

 

Dalton’s Law of Partial Pressures

When two or more ideal gases are mixed together, the total pressure of the mixture is equal to the sum of the pressure of each individual gas.

;

;

;

Charles Law

At a constant pressure, the temperature and volume of a gas are linearly proportional

;

;

;

;

Boyle’s Law

Under conditions of constant temperature the product of gases pressure pressure and volume are always constant

 

 

 

 

Properties of an ideal gas

1. The molecules (or atoms) that make up an ideal gas must be small compared to the volume available to the gas.

 

2. The gas molucules (or atoms) must be so far apart that they don’t attract or repel each other.

;

3. All colisions must be elastic (no energy lost or gained);

;

;

;

Standard Temperature and Pressure (STP)

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;

Temperature of 273K and a pressure of 1.00 atm

;

;

;

;

Ideal Gas Constant

;

;

;

;

R= 0.0821 L;atm/mole;K

;

;

;

;

Pressure

The force per unit exerted on an object

;

;

;

;

Extrapolation

Following an established trend is data even though there is no data available for that region

;

;

;

Atmospheric Pressure Conversions

Atm to kPa

Atm to torr

Atm to mmHG;

;

;

1.000 atm = 101.3 kPa
;1.000 atm = 760.0 torr

1.000 atm = 760.0 mmHG;

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