-low stage with ascending seats
-less intimate between audience and actors
-no onstage violence, only in daylight
The ludi were public Roman games started before 220 B.C. as annual communal games to give thanks to the gods.
a performance using gestures and body movements without words
a play or story performed without words by actors using only gestures; to express in this way
Scene design advice shaped lie a tall wedge of cheese. Each side has a painted part of the design. Three sided scene device unit used in Greek times
a company of actors who comment (by speaking or singing in unison) on the action in a classical Greek play
i, m. a large hunting boot; a boot or buskin worn by tragic actors; hence tragedy, elevated style.
The platform rolled out though the central doorway of the ancient greek stage house used typically to display the corpses of charactes slain offstage
conventional form in which actors perform in front of a neutral facade with the audience arcing to three sides or less
A structure upon which scenery is painted, consisting of a wooden frame and canvas covering; usually of a size to be carried by one or two persons for shifting. used in both Italianate staging and box sets.
refers to the time period during which Greeks and Romans ruled Egypt, beginning in 332 B.C. with the invasion of Alexander the Great through the period of the Roman emperors.
annual spring festival in honor of Dionysus, when dramatic competitions were held among three poets selected by the city
that culture associated with the spread of Greek influence as a result of Macedonian conquests; often seen as the combination of Greek culture with eastern political forms
device for raising and lowering gods onto stage
transitional greek style of comedy that marked a change in language which grew less formal and closer to the way people spoke.
a performance using gestures and body movements without words
comic dramas of Greece of the late fourth to second centuries BCE tending toward domestic and romantic comedy, domestic, romantic (kind of), influenced Rome, fragments of Menander
classical Greek comedy that pokes fun at social, political, or cultural conditions and at particular figures
Headdress worn by some actors in ancient Greece to increase their height and, thus, visibility to theater audiences.
That area of the Greek and Roman theatre that lay between the audience area and the scene house.
the leading character, hero, or heroine of a drama or other literary work
ancient Greek form of tragicomedy, They always featured a chorus of satyrs and were based in Greek mythology and contained themes of, among other things, drinking, overt sexuality (often including large phallic props), pranks and general merriment
small hut like building behind the stage used as a dressing room and later as a backdrop for painted settings
voluntary lay groups organized by occupation, devotional preference, neighborhood, or charitable activity
Corpus Christi plays
medieval religious plays based on the Bible and performed by town guilds on movable wagons, or pageants, as a part of the procession on Corpus Christi day (the first Thursday after Trinity Sunday)
or mystery plays – a series of playletd inspired by stories in the bible, written in common language, on stages, told story of human kind as it was understood by christians
special design or visual object representing a quality, type, group, etc.
A scenic device used in the Italian court theatre to fly large groups for characters such as angels.
business associations that dominated medieval towns; they passed laws, levied taxes, built protective walls for the city, etc. Each guild represented workers in one occupation such as weavers, bakers, brewers, sword makers, etc.
latin music drama
plays chanted and sung given in the language of the church (latin)
a Christian sacrament commemorating the Last Supper by consecrating bread and wine
the particularized setting in the medieval theatre that, together with the platea, or generalized playing space, constitued the major staging elements of the theatre. several mansions were placed around or adjacent to the plateu at once thus “simultaneous advertising”
masters of secrets
The craftsman/aritst of the medieval theatre charged with the execution of special effects in the dramas
Literally ‘middle age,’ a term that historians of Europe use for the period ca. 500 to ca. 1500, signifying its intermediate point between Greco-Roman antiquity and the Renaissance. (p. 250)
The historical period from around 500 A.D. up to around 1450 A.D. between the fall of Rome and the birth of the Renaissance
Dramas, originally under church control, that were based on the lives of the saints
Dramas—originally under church control—didactic allegories in which characters had names of virtues, vices, or other qualities
a form of religious drama based on biblical history
in Medieval times, dramas were performed on flat-bed wagons that could be drawn from town to town
wheeled stages in the medieval period.
the unlocalized playing area in the medieval theatre
a mini play about the women finding Jesus’ body which was inserted into the Easter mass; one of the earliest plays in Medieval times
portable (movable) structure assembled to provide a high working platform (standing floor)
Popular in the Middle Ages, especially for Liturgical theatre. It is a technique in which all of the scenes are visible at once, consisting of platea, open space and mansions, or stalls to represent each of the settings. These were often conventional, including a hellmouth in the shape of a demon’s gaping maw, and heaven, which would be raised over the other mansions.
an interpolation in a liturgical text. some believe medieval drama to have been derived from medieval troping
Fully Expressed. Plays were restaged with ballet interludes, movable scenery, gorgeous costumes.
-Kings and courtiers played heroes of romance, purpose was entertainment. *Moved into parks, gardens, tournaments, battles.
(More modest but shared basic visual conventions of court)
the space located between 2 doors at the back of the stage used for small interior settings (Elizabethan theaters)
The highest audience areas in nineteeth century theatres (box, pit, and gallery), hence, the cheapest seats; the balconies
the great age of any culture. in spain, the period c. 1550-1650, the greatest age of spanish drama; in france, the age of Louis XIV; in england, the age of Elizabeth and Shakespeare.
Area above the stage: in the Elizabethan theatre, the underside of the roof that extended over the stage. 2. in the nineteenth century the highest gallery.
In professional companies of the renaisance and after, an actor technician hired by the shareholders to work for a set wage at a set task.
member of an acting company who owns a share of the theatre building itself.
A philosophy that believes that people should be at the center of their own deepest concerns.
In elizabethan public theatre, small space below roof, probably for machinery.
nice seats, the best seats in the house. Where the royals would sit during a play
performances that used dance, heavy on visuals, danced and pantomimed. usually glorifications of monarchs. used mythiological evens and characters. allegories for contemporary and the monarch(or guest of honor)
located on third level of tiring house
Area of the audience on the ground floor adjacent to the stage. historically an inexpensive area because originally no seats were provided there and later only backless benches were used. By the end of the nineteenth century, a preferred seatting
2.Now refers often to the area reserved for members
In elizabethan and Stuart England, indoor theatres that were open to the public but were expensive beacuse of their relatively limited seathing capacity. located on monastic lands, these theatres were outside the jurisdiction of the city of london. Initially they housed childrens troupes, but later the relguar adult troupes used them as a winter home
> 1 of 2 performance theatres in English Renaissance
> # of historians believe forerunners of public theaters were bear-baiting rings or inns adapted for performances
> Designed especially for performances & became primary playing spaces for professional adult companies
> Built outside city limits of London, across Thames River, b/c London city fathers opposed theatre on moral grounds & forbade it in the city
> Normally held 1,500-3,000
> Stage = raised platform w/ audience on 3 sides (more like thrust stage than proscenium arch)
The great period of rebirth in art, literature, and learning in the 14th-16th centuries, which marked the transition into the modern periods of European history
Belief in the validity and importance of life and things on earth. Often contrasted with spiritualism, otherworldliness, or religiosity. the renaissance period was marked by a rising secularism.
one made up of shareholders
dressing room, provided actors a variety of entries to the stage: windows, balconies, and two or more large doors.
opening in the stage floor
Another name for the pit in the shakepearean theatre; where patrons stood on the ground in front of the stage
scenery hung at back of stage
Curtain, or less often flats or cutouts, suspended at intervals behind the proscenium arch to mask the overhead rigging. Particularyly important in italianate settings.
-A system built into the stage for scene changes.
-Flats were built through the stage to an area below the boards. Under the stage was a mechagnism that moved the flats for scene changes.
-Scenery was the most important aspect of theatre in Italy at the time.
light and humorous drama with a happy ending
Commedia dell arte
professional improvised comedy that developed in Italy during the Renaissance
In drama, a character to whom another leading character gives private information
In neoclassical theory, the behavior of a dramatic characer in keeping with his or her social status, age, sex, and occupation; based on the requirements of verisimilitude.
Scenic practices (with analogs in acting, directing, and other theatre arts) that rely on a belief in the theatrical imitation of the real world.
a kind of staging developed during the renaissance in italy and marked by a proscenium arch perspective scenery arranged in wing and shutter.
short comedic scene-either seperate from or a part of a longer performance. It generally involves the Zanni and is often used to refocus the audience.
A style of drama and theatre from the Italian Renaissance based loosely on interpretations of Aristotle and Horace. Major tenets were verisimilitude, decorum, purtiy of genres the five act form, and twofold purpose of drama to teach and to please.
Simulation of visual distance by manipulation of size of objectives.
Purity of genres
two major forms, tradegy and comedy, must not be mixed
set at an angle; stage elevated higher at the back of the stage (upstage) than closer to the audience (downstage)
In general, the prose description of a plays story. in the commedia dell arte the written outline of plot and characters from which the actors improvised the particualr actions of performance
Large flat, paired with another of the same kind, to close off the back of the scene in Italianate staging; an alternative to a backdrop; sometimes used for units at the sides. when pierced with a cutout it becomes a relieve and showed a diorama.
A technique for achieving a sense of depth by establishing a single vanishing point and painting or building all objects to diminish to it.
one day, one setting, one plot (Aristotle)
drama in which the protagonist is overcome by some superior force or circumstance
the appearance of truth
areas out of the audience’s sight from which actors make their entrances and in which sets are stored
the result of techniques to keep the audience aware that what they are witnessing is only a play; used by bertold brecht. alienation techniques include having the actors address the audience out of character, exposing the lights, removing the proscenium arch and curtains, and having the actors perform on bare platforms or simple sets that are sometimes punctuated with political slogans
art theatre movement
Theatrical movement of the late 19th and early 20th century. Tried to separate itself from the commercial theatre and reliance on box office.
a group active in the invention and application of new techniques in a given field, especially in the arts
study of the laws of physics, specifically the laws of mechanics, as they apply to living bodies at rest and in motion
A type of setting that is built on the stage to look like the interior of a house or room, having three walls and no ceiling.
drama more suitable for reading that for performing
A relativistic point of view that emphasizes the subjective construction of reality. It implies that what we see in families may be based as much on our preconceptions as on what’s actually going on.
First devised by Wagner in the late 19th century for his theatre at Bayreauth; eschews a central aisle in favor of entrances and exits at the end of each aisle.
form of episodic drama associated with Bertolt Brecht and aimed at the intellect rather than the emotions
an early twentieth-century art movement that emphasized the artist’s personal, subjective expression of inner experiences
an imaginary wall between the audience and the actors in a representational play
a style of art that sought truth in fleeting moments of consciousness. prevalent in the drama and theatre of the 1890’s impressionism was noted for its moody and mysterious qulity.
independent theatre movement
19th century Europe, appearance of noncommercial theaters in several countries more or less simultaneously, most of them amateur or nontraditional and able to operate outside the usual censorship, “independent” of commercial demands.
**Stimulated international idealism and acceptance of realism for mainstream theatre.
little theatre movement
Early 20th century United States, the appearance of noncommercial theaters throughout the country dedicated to art, many became community theaters.
*quickly had a voice, origin was Theatre Arts Magazine which gave national distribution of ideas. (what’s going on around the world.
term by wagner to identify the erson responsible fro the unification of a complex work of art like music drama; someone who controls every aspect of a performance
The term naturalism describes a type of literature that attempts to apply scientific principles of objectivity and detachment to its study of human beings. Unlike realism which focuses on literary technique naturalism implies a philosophical position
A movement in stage design in the U.S that favored simplified/abstract settings. It was an effect reaction to overly realistic settings. Lighting played an important part of the design. Designers of the New Stagecraft often sought alternatives to the proscenium stage like the arena or thrust configurations.
the attribute of accepting the facts of life and favoring practicality and literal truth
a movement in literature and art during the late 18th and early 19th centuries that celebrated nature rather than civilization
Storm and Stress
sturm and drang; a theatrical movment in germany during the 1770s and 1780s that was marked by its militant experimentation with dramatc form, theatrical style and social statement
a 20th century movement of artists and writers (developing out of Dadaism) who used fantastic images and incongruous juxtapositions in order to represent unconscious thoughts and dreams
an artistic movement in the late 19th century that tried to express abstract or mystical ideas through the symbolic use of images
Theatre of cruelty
Antonin Artaud’s visionary concept of a theatre based on magic and ritual, which would liberate deep, violent, and erotic impulses
made financial decisions, selected the repertory of plays, hired actors, and performed
Historically accurate costumes and scenery
Theatre performed by and for members of a given community in a city/town. Usually amateur, sometimes with professional directors, designers, business staff.
Later melodrama for middle-class audiences with upper-middle class subjects and settings.
musical where some or all musical numbers are not narrative motivated
an extravagant comedy in which action is more salient than characterization
Executive who arranges financing and who oversees a commerical production
the amount of money a theater must pay to produce a play
the quality or condition of being excessively emotional
Music associated with certain characters or certain types of characters, particularly in the melodramas of the 19th century. Stage directions indicate “Mary’s Music” “Jim’s Music”, etc.
A system initially developed for marketing films by creating and promoting stars as objects of admiration. The promotion of stars has now become an end in itself.
a realistic style of play that employs conventions including plenty of suspense created by meticulous plotting
flat pieces of scenery painted to look 3-D including float painted panels on either side of the stage (wings), a large expanse of painted fabric upstage (drop or shutters), and strips of cloth or panels hung horizontally acorss the tops of the wings (borders). this type of scenery was typical in Europe and beyond from the Renaissance to the late 19th century
Popular theatre of China that developed in the nineteenth century
an entry path on which the actor becomes the character
In the Japanese Noh theatre, the pathway from the dressing area to the stage
an onstage costume change used to signal a transformation from one piece of music to another
A popular type of Japanese drama combined with music and dance, it is the type of theatre in Japan(Played buy all male actors)
literally means story play, and originated in the 17th century. Based in the thousands of stories by Ramayana and Mahabharata. Usually performed outdoors with no scenery and four poles defining the play area. Starts at night and goes on during the night and through the dawn of the next day. The text is sung by two singers, to a percussion accompaniment. The actors dance and mime to the story.
mudras (hand gestures)
comedic interludes between long Noh plays
a comprehensive work on the art of the theatre in the Indian theatre
The major form of classical Japanese drama that includes music and dancing. Its important because many people in Japan watch it
Traditional Turkish comic theater form
ex: sports, rituals, politics
“Flavor,” or powerful feeling, essence or individuality to which the audience must surrender themselves during Indian dramatics.There are eight in a drama: erotic, comic, compassionate, furious, heroic, terrifying, disgusting and awesome.
of or relating to or employed in social rites or rituals
One of the main characters in the No theatre, who is interrogated, prompted, and challenged by the Waki character. This character may be gods, ghosts, women, animals, or warriors. The role of the Shite is played in a mask.
Theatre for development
Use of theatrical techniques for both community involvement and commuity instruction