The Social Animal — Chapter 2

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Define: Groupthink
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A kind of thinking in which maintaining group agreement overrides a careful consideration of the facts in a realistic manner.
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Define: Mindguards
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A person who consciously or unconsciously controls dissent through an informational filter.
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Define: Conformity
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A change in a person’s behavior or opinions as a result of real or imagined pressure from a person or a group of people.
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What two reasons for conformity to an incorrect answer were predicted by Asch in his experiment?
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1. They become convinced that their opinion was incorrect. In other words, they come to believe they were wrong. 2. They still believe they’re correct, but went along with the crowd.
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What were the two underlying goals of action in Asch’s experiment?
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1. Being correct. 2. Being in the group’s good graces.
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What did Wolosin discover about outside witnesses who watched Asch’s experiment?
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He found that they believed the participants will conform more than they actually did, and the witnesses believed they would conform less than the participants had.
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What are the five factors that increase or decrease conformity?
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1. Unanimity 2. Commitment 3. Accountability 4. The person and the culture 5. The group exerting the pressure
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What was one of the major factors that determined conformity in Asch’s experiment?
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Whether or not majority opinion was unanimous. Even if conformity was broken by a \”non-ally,\” the power of the group opinion was sharply diminished.
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Regarding commitment on the likelihood of decreasing conformity, what did the researchers Deutsch & Gerard find?
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They found that when someone makes a commitment to a decision before being pressured to change their opinion, they will conform 6% of the time. Whereas, if he or she did not make a commitment before their decision, 25% will conform to the group opinion.
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Regarding accountability to a decision influenced by a group majority–in other words, justifying your choice after the fact–what two findings are of interest?
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1. When accuracy is emphasized over cooperation, there are more instances of independent judgment. 2. Most people will cooperate with the group majority, unless they know that they will be held accountable after the fact.
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What was the general result of replicating Asch’s study in many different countries?
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Collectivist societies like China or Japan yielded more conformity to group influence than individualistic ones, such as the United States and France.
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When speaking of the group that exerts pressure to conform, what three factors characterize the most persuasive group?
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1. If it consists of experts. 2. If its members are of a high social status. 3. If its members are comparable/similar to the individual being pressured.
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Define: Informational Social Influence
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The influence of other people that leads us to conform because we see them as a source of information to guide our behavior. – We conform because we believe that others’ interpretation of an ambiguous situation is more correct than ours.
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In general, which of these two methods for producing conformity is more effective? 1. Observing the behavior of others in creating proper behavior 2. Incorporating behavior or belief in the interest of being accepted or avoiding punishment
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The first method.
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What was William James’ proclamation on emotion?
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He argued that an emotion is a combination of a feeling and a cognitive component. A feeling requires an appropriate stimulus to exactly replicate in other instance.
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Schacter & Singer conducted an experiment wherein they injected participants with epinephrine. Recount the proceedings of the experiments, and its results.
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There were two groups: in the first, the researchers shared the injection’s side effects. The other group received no prior indication. After the second group received the shot, a stooge began to act out in a variety of ways. The participants in the second group began to mimic the euphoria or anger of the stooge.
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Name the three possible responses to social influence.
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1. Compliance – Describes the behavior of a person motivated by the desire for reward or the avoidance of a punishment. 2. Identification – A response to social influence brought about by an individual’s desire to be like the influencer. 3. Internalization – The most deeply rooted response to social influence; motivation to internalize a particular belief rooted in the desire to be right.
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List the most enduring responses to social influence from least to greatest.
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1. Compliance 2. Identification 3. Internalization
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How does identification differ from compliance?
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It differs from compliance because we come to believe in the opinions and values we adopt.
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List the major component of each of the three responses to social influence.
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1. Compliance – Power 2. Identification – Attractiveness 3. Internalization – Credibility (of person supplying info)
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Define: Secondary Gain
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An effect that makes it worthwhile to continue a behavior even after the original reason for compliance is no longer forthcoming.
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Define: Bystander Effect
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What occurs when another bystander or others tend(s) to inhibit helpful action.
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Define: Debriefing
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The procedure whereby the purpose of the study and exactly what transpired is explained to the participants at the end of the experiment.

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