The Science of Mind – Chapter 1 Into To Psychology

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Psychology
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the scientific study of behavior and mental processes(the mind)
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Behavior
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outward actions and reactions; includes both verbal and nonverbal behaviors.
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Mental Processes
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internal, covert activity of our minds e.g. thoughts, feelings, sensations, perceptions, memories, learning, dreams, motives, and other subjective experiences.
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Science
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an objective way to answer the questions based on observable facts/data and well described methods
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Introspection
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personal observation of your own thoughts, feelings, and behavior.
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Humanistic Perspective
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focus on people’s ability direct their own lives (free will). emphasize human potential. key idea: we have free will to live more creative, meaningful, and satisfying lives.
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The Gestalt Viewpoint
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key idea; to understand consciousness, we study the whole, not just its component parts. \”the whole is greater than the sum of its parts”
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Cognitive Perspective
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involves the study of thoughts and mental processes. key idea; the way our brain processes information influences how we behave.
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Structuralism
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identify ‘atoms’ of the mind. key idea; our consciousness can be broken down into its essential elements.
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Functionalism
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focused on how the mind allows people to function/survive in the real world(behavior is purposeful). influenced by Darwin idea of natural selection-> led to focus on how behaviors help us adapt to the environment.
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Psychodynamic Theory
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key idea; our behavior is deeply influenced by unconscious thoughts, impulses, and desires. many unconscious drives are sexual or destructive in nature. Psychoanalysis attempts to ‘free’ these threats.
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Behavioral Perspective
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believed that only observable events can be studied scientifically, and studied the effects of environments on the overt behavior of human and animals. key idea; our behavior is learned, observable, and measurable.
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Biological psychology
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also referred to as behavioral neuroscience, focuses on the relationships between mind and behavior and their underlying biological processes, including genetics, biochemistry, anatomy, and physiology.
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Evolutionary psychology
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attempts to answer the question of how our physical structure and behavior have been shaped by their contributions to our species’ survival. The basic principle of evolutionary psychology is that our current behavior exists in its present form because it provided some advantage in survival and reproduction to our ancestors. An evolutionary psychologist might be interested in the fact that we have a very good memory for faces, and particularly for faces of people who have cheated us in the past
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Cognitive psychology
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focuses on the process of thinking, or the processing of information. Because our ability to remember plays an integral part in the processing of information, a cognitive psychologist is likely to have a lot to say about the storage and retrieval of memories.
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psychodynamic perspective,
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focusing on internal, often unconscious mental processes, motives, and desires or childhood conflicts to explain behavior.
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developmental perspective,
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A modern approach to developmental psychology explores the normal changes in behavior that occur across the lifespan.
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behavioral perspective
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seeks to explain external causes of behavior, suggests that behavior is learned and is influenced by other people and events define, and treat abnormal behaviors.
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Sociocultural psychology (social psychology)
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describes the effects of the social environment, including culture, on the behavior of individuals. One cannot fully explain a person’s behavior without understanding his or her culture, gender identity, ethnic identity and other important cultural factors, and looks at individual differences. Recognizing individual differences is especially important to psychologists interested in variations in personality.
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humanistic perspective
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explain behavior as stemming from your choices and free will. These choices are influenced by your self-concept (how you think of yourself) and by your self-esteem (how you feel about yourself).
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positive psychology
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A growing emphasis on human strengths and on how humans attain happiness has led to the subfield of
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eclectic approach
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integrates or combines several perspectives to provide a more complete and complex picture of behavior.
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Biological anxiety
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is related to chemicals in the body or to genetics (heredity).
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Evolutionary anxiety
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is an adaptive response that prepares one to respond to potential threats in the environment. This response helps humans survive because it warns them of danger and thereby helps them avoid situations or people that may harm them. However, in modern times, these threats tend to be ongoing: traffic jams, crowding, and the hectic pace of consumerism.
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Psychodynamic anxiety
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is the product of unresolved feelings of hostility, guilt, anger, or sexual attraction experienced in childhood.
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Behavioral anxiety
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is a learned behavior much like Albert’s fear of the white rat. It is a response that is associated with a specific stimulus or a response that has been rewarded.
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Sociocultural anxiety
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is a product of a person’s culture. In the United States, more women than men report being anxious and fearful, and this gender difference results from different socialization experiences. Men in the United States are raised to believe that they must not be afraid, so they are less likely to acknowledge or report anxiety. Women do not experience this pressure to hide their fears, so they are more likely to tell others that they are anxious and to seek treatment.
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Humanistic anxiety
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is rooted in people’s dissatisfaction with their real self (how they perceive themselves) as compared to their ideal self (how they want to be).
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Cognitive anxiety
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refers to the idea that people think differently than nonanxious people. Anxious people may engage in more pessimistic thinking or worry that everything will go wrong.
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Eclectic anxiety
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stems from various sources depending on the individual. One person may be prone to anxiety because many people in his family are anxious and he has learned to be anxious from several experiences. Another person may be anxious because she is dissatisfied with herself and believes that everything always goes wrong in her life.
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The first official psychological experiment involved ____.
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measuring how quickly, after hearing a ball drop onto a platform, a person could respond by striking a telegraph key
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The letter B and the number 13 might appear to be very similar; in fact, the only real difference between them is the space between the left and right sides of each figure. Who would be most likely to describe this difference as being caused by the context of the letters or numbers that come before and after the image?
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Max, who is a Gestalt psychologist
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Which of the following proverbs best describes Gestalt theory?
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The whole is greater than the sum of its parts.
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An approach to psychology that features the study and careful measurement of observable behaviors is called ____.
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behaviorism
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The psychological perspective that examines the normal changes in behavior, which occur across the life span, is called ____.
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developmental psychology
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Edward has a fear of being contaminated when shaking hands with others, touching doorknobs, and being in crowded public spaces, such as subway cars. He washes his hands roughly 100 times a day. His doctor has recently prescribed an antidepressant to increase his level of serotonin. Which approach to psychological disorders does this exemplify?
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the biological model
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Functionalism emerged partly in response to the publication of ____.
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The Origin of the Species, by Charles Darwin
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A doctor notices that many soldiers returning from fighting in the trenches in World War I were highly anxious, fearful of loud noises, and having difficulty reconnecting with their families. He asks them to record personal observations of their own thoughts, feelings, and behaviors in a journal. This process is called ____.
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introspection
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Using the developmental perspective, a psychologist might look at whether the loss of a parent ____.
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is experienced differently at different ages
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What is the psychological perspective that focuses on the relationships between mind, behavior, and their underlying biological processes, including genetics, biochemistry, anatomy, and physiology?
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biological psychology
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Which of the following is most likely to be the topic of research of a biological psychologist?
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Do stress hormones due to abuse in early childhood affect the ability to form memories?
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Most philosophers beginning with Aristotle commonly believed that all knowledge is ____.
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gained through sensory experience
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An approach to psychology that sees people as inherently good and motivated to learn and improve is called ____.
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humanistic psychology
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The psychological perspective that investigates how physical structure and behavior have been shaped by their contributions to survival and reproduction is called ____ psychology.
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evolutionary
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Rosa, a doctoral student in psychology, observes that one of her young study participants grimaces after taking a bite of broccoli. His facial expression is an example of ____.
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a behavior
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The psychological perspective that investigates information processing, thinking, reasoning, and problem solving is called ____.
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cognitive psychology
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What is the approach to psychology that saw behavior as purposeful and contributing to survival?
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functionalism
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A biological psychologist studies the effects of amphetamine on aggression in rhesus monkeys. However, to the researcher’s surprise, the experimental results differ for isolated monkeys versus monkeys in a colony. What is missing from this experiment?
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the social psychology perspective
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An evolutionary psychologist would be most interested in the question of ____.
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whether there is an adaptive reason why men tend to gamble more than women
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structuralism
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can be broken into smaller pieces placed it’s importance on systematic observation in studying consequences
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who is wilhelm w
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founding father of psychology first to establish a psychology lab
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introspection
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looking inside oneself
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functionalism
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most concerned with enabling humans to adapt to changing environments.
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behaviorism
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focuses on outside influence or external factors causing a person’s behavior
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john watson
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father of behaviorism
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humanistic psychology
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arose as reaction against psychoanalysis and behaviorism. concentrated on assumed inherent tendency toward personal growth
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cognitive approach
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focuses on mental processes
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biological approach
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nervous system, heredity, brain and nervous system effect behavior.
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social cultural approach
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social and cultural influences on behavior
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evolutionary approach
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functional purpose and adaption
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operational definition
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exactly specifies variables in experimental to be measured. defines what the variable will be.

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