• ‘Trusty arsenal of survival skills’
• Means of communication
• Motivators of behavior
• Infants use emotion to communicate with caregiver
• Emotions develop from undifferentiated responses into more differentiated ones, finally into integrated emotional repertoire (aka orthogenetic)
• Early infant emotional expressions are considered precursors to more mature emotions.
• Believed that infants lacked the cognitive ability needed to place meaning to emotional experiences.
• Strategies and behaviors we use to moderate our emotional experiences in order to meet the demands of different situations or to achieve our goals.
• Example: Healthy people find ways to comfort themselves in difficult times, keeping their distress from overwhelming.
• Poor emotional regulation in newborns
• Integrated ideas from ethology, systems theory, cognitive development (Piaget’s works), and from psychoanalysis.
• Argued that some human infant behaviors help keep the mother close. Such behaviors initiate the development of an attachment system that promotes the infant’s survival and creates a feeling of security.
• Believed that mental health and behavioral problems could be attributed to early childhood
• Her research enhanced the credibility of Bowlby’s views.
• Babies actively help create an attachment system that protects them and provides a foundation for later development.
• How it changes and what it means for the child’s psychosocial life
• Attachment is a system, not a particular set of behaviors
• Difficult baby vs. easy baby
• Difficult baby- more fearful, more irritable, and more active = challenging to parent
• Easy baby- more positive, less active, more placid = easy to take care of.
• Nine traits observed: activity level, rhythmicity, approach/withdrawal, adaptability, threshold, intensity, mood, distractibility, attention span and persistence.
Example: child may believe they are good in art if they are good with coloring, cutting, drawing.
Self-esteem may decline a little
Preconventional/Conventional/&Post conventional Level) 6 stages.
o Altruistic tendencies remain stable across age but differ per person/child.
Examples: Sharing, comforting friends, and helping
Empathy: ‘Feeling with’ recognize another person’s emotions & conditions, and experiencing it.
Sympathy: ‘Feeling for’ Having concern for another person, but not feeling it.
• Inhibiting a response that is considered ‘dominant’ and perform a response that is less compelling. Example: child feeling discomfort after watching a video of a young burn victim. Instead of paying attention to own discomfort, the child will express sympathy for burn victim (p.233)
• If a child can’t moderate such emotions, then the child will focus on their own discomfort. This will reduce the chances of sympathetic responses to someone in need.
Intent to harm, or injure, or disregard for actions that may harm or injure others
Physical, verbal, or social attacks
Cheating, lying, stealing
Instrumental Aggression vs. Individual Aggression
Social Information Processing Model
Hostile Attributional Bias
2. Making independent decisions
3. Becoming financially independent
Takes longer to grow up
Median age for marriage
1950:W: 20; M: 23
1993: W: 25; M; 27
• Stage 2: two categories for knowing: right and wrong answers.
• Stage 3: Knowledge (K) is certain in some areas and uncertain in others
• Stage 4: given that K is unknown in some cases, K is assumed to be uncertain in general.
• Stage 5: K is uncertain and must be understood within a context. Can be justified by arguments
• Stage 6: K is uncertain, constructed by comparing and coordinating evidence and opinions.
• Stage 7: K develops probabilistically through inquire that generalizes across domains.
Uncomfortable being close
Worry partner does not want to be as close as I do
Easy, comfortable, don’t worry
Under half of the total young adult population in the US in 1988.
1998- rate of high school dropouts declined and # of HS graduates entering college increased.
• Example: a positive sense of self motivates a person to work hard and persevere.
1. Positive attitude: optimism and sense of humor
2. Active coping: seeking solutions, managing emotions
3. Cognitive flexibility/cognitive reappraisal: finding value or meaning in adversity
4. Moral compass: embrace a set of core beliefs that few things can shatter
5. Physical exercise: engage in regular physical activity
6. Social support and role models or mentors.
2) Tobacco use
3) Alcohol and other drug use
4) Sexual risk behaviors
5) Unhealthy dietary behaviors
6) Physical inactivity
Find times when the student is happy, absorbed, engaged
Talk to them with the intent to help they discover their own abilities and possibilities
Find ways to follow-through
Baumrind’s parenting styles
control or demandingness;
Keep track, place limits
Depressed Moods: 1/3 of teens experience this.
Girls vs. Boys
Delayed Phase preference: shift in sleep patterns at puberty
Girls Coping Rumination vs. Distraction vs. Active Problem Solving
Control their behavior
Develop more formal and complicated academic competencies
Navigate the school yard
Understand rules of the group and how to respond
Understand self in relationship to gender and others
refers to brief retention of sensory experience. For about one third of a second when we see scene, we store most of the sensory information that has come in. Same with hearing.
Long-term memory- Execute problem solving strategies, make inferences, and transfer information.
o Egocentrism: Piaget “the problem of human affairs”
• Perspective Taking and Friendships
Baby gets a score of 0 to 2 for each area with a perfect score of 10!
3 essential components of early intervention:
1) OUTREACH to families
2) CENTER based- enriched preschool experiences
3) Transition services to ease transition to elementary school
Damage related to the stage of development
Not all are susceptible
Dosage (no safe level of alcohol)
Risk amplified when exposure to more than one factor is present: Cocaine abusing mothers.
• Three elements:
Kinds of Love:
o Liking- intimacy present, passion/commitment not present
o Infatuation- passion present, intimacy/commitment not present
o Empty love- commitment present, intimacy/passion not present
o Romantic love- passion/intimacy present, commitment not present
o Companionate love- intimacy/commitment present, passion not present
o Fatuous love- intimacy not present, passion/commitment not present
o Consummate love- all three present
• basic operational characteristics (mechanics) that seem to directly reflect how well the “hardware ” of the nervous system is working. Its functions include such things as processing speed and inhibitory mechanisms
• the compilation of skills and information we have acquired in the course of our lives that can be viewed as the software programs of our nervous system
• Extraversion- outgoing, active, assertive, energetic, talkative, enthusiastic
• Agreeableness- warm, sympathetic, generous, forgiving, kind, affectionate, compliant
• Conscientiousness- organized, planful, reliable, responsible, careful, efficient, self-controlled
• Openness to experience- creative, artistic, curious, insightful, original, wide-ranging interests, positive orientation to learning
• Maintenance- continue functioning at the same level in the face of challenges or restoring our functioning after suffering some loss
• Loss- reorganization of how we behave, adjusting expectations and accepting a lower level of functioning
• Social Skills
• Peer Groups
• DE grouping
• Affect how children evaluate behaviors and the kinds of behaviors they choose for self
• Spilled milk
• Novel toy
• Two year olds: little awareness
• Three year olds: gender preference for toys
• Four year olds: sexist regardless of parenting
• Age 5 or 6: knowledge of gendered activities and occupations is extensive
• Middle childhood: more awareness of stereotypes
• By age 10: recognize that female roles are devalued (may be why females show more susceptibility to depression
• Gender Category
• Late Year 1: perceptual distinctions between sexes
• 2.5 to 3: can label self
• Early 3: Some skill at labeling boy/girl
• Gender Stability: one’s category stays the same 3-4 years old (still fragile)
• Gender Constancy: membership is permanent
• Even if clothes, hair, etc. change: sex would not change
• Growth in Self-awareness
o Social comparisons
o Feedback about self from others
o Gender compatibility, contentedness, pressure for sex-typing
o Dissatisfaction dependent upon pressures to conform by others
o Children’s optimal adjustment: secure in self; free to explore
• Rejected-high levels of instrumental aggression, verbal negativity, disruptiveness, low levels of positive social interaction, self-control, perspective taking
• Neglected- lowers levels of peer interaction, less aggressive, less sociability, perceived by peers as likeable
• Average- lower levels of social competence as compared to popular children, less aggression than rejected children
• Love Withdrawal
• Time of Day; Forewarned is Forearmed
• Authoritarian- demanding and controlling while rejecting, parent-centered, unresponsive
• Permissive- no control, but accepting, child-centered, responsive
• Neglecting-univolved-no control while rejecting, parent-centered, unresponsive
• Self-esteem: One’s evaluation of these attributes
• Pretensions: What is important to us
o Microsystem: The person
o Mesosystem: Interactions for the sake of the individual (teacher-parent)
o Exosystem: Forces outside of the individual but having an impact (school board)
o Macrosystem: (Department of Education
• Human capacity to deal with, overcome, learn from, or be transformed by the inevitable adversities of life. (Grotberg, 2003)
• 1/3rd of people around our world consistently show resilience.
• Taking good care of our children in the earliest stages is an investment in their future physical, cognitive, and mental health.
Behavioral: Skinner, Pavlov
Social Learning Theories
Social Learning Theories
Stage: Development is like a staircase:
• Surprise (death of a child)
• Non-events (expected: Doesn’t happen)
• Life on hold (waiting to happen)
• Sleeper transitions ( without awareness)gain weight)
• Double whammies (retire and death of spouse)
• Critical periods (language acquisition) and Plasticity (over time: Dr. Collins)
• Continuity and Discontinuity: gradual and cumulative or distinct stages
• Universality and specificity: universal across cultures or specific to cultures
Age graded changes
History Grade Changes (cohort)
Nonnormative changes (death of a parent)
• Stability and Change: older renditions of our earlier self someone different
• Qualitative and Quantitative changes: transformational change or incremen
• Activity and Passivity: (a newborn)
• Which are key: early or later experiences?
The early experience view: first two years are critical for optimal development
The later experience view
# of years
• Infancy-18-24 months
• Early childhood-To 5-6 years
• Middle and late childhood- 6-11 years
• Adolescence- 10-12 to 18-22
• Early adulthood- through 30s
• Middle adulthood- 40-60 years
• Late adulthood-60-70 years
• Young old- 65-75 years
• Old old- 75+
• The oldest old- 85+
• Cognitive Processes- Individual’s thought, intelligence, language
• Socio Emotional Processes- Changes in individual’s relationships with other people, Changes in emotion, Changes in personality
• Context-Home, school, peer groups, church, cities, neighborhoods, countries, etc.
• Culture- Behavior, patterns, beliefs, and all other products of a particular group of people that are passed on from generation to generation
• Ethnicity-Based on cultural heritage, national characteristics, race, religion, and language
• Gender-Socio-cultural dimensions of being male or female
• Multidimensional- Biological, cognitive, socio-emotional dimensions
• Multidirectional- Increase and decrease in growth
• Plastic-Degree to which characteristics change or remain stable
• Contextual- Age graded, history grade, life event
• Uses theory as a partial lens complemented by the practitioners professional and other life experiences
• Self-monitoring: counselors world views can have significant implications for the client!
• Emphasis on strength, awareness, empowerment, prevention, ameliorative, enhanced function
• The main goal confronting developmental counselors is that of helping people attain a sustained, growth oriented pattern of interactions with their environments and within their relationships. Developmental counseling looks at helping the person understand their own self (all dimensions) and to find and engage with environments that help to nurture growth. Engagement leads to development where as withdrawal leads to stagnation.
• Life Span is both universal and uniquely personal