The Life Span: Human Development for Helping Professionals

Functions of Emotions
• Serve many purposes
• ‘Trusty arsenal of survival skills’
• Means of communication
• Motivators of behavior
• Infants use emotion to communicate with caregiver

Sroufe’s position on emotions
• Emotions aren’t fully formed at birth
• Emotions develop from undifferentiated responses into more differentiated ones, finally into integrated emotional repertoire (aka orthogenetic)
• Early infant emotional expressions are considered precursors to more mature emotions.
• Believed that infants lacked the cognitive ability needed to place meaning to emotional experiences.

Emotional regulation
• One of the cornerstones of emotional well-being and positive adjustment throughout the life span.
• Strategies and behaviors we use to moderate our emotional experiences in order to meet the demands of different situations or to achieve our goals.
• Example: Healthy people find ways to comfort themselves in difficult times, keeping their distress from overwhelming.
• Poor emotional regulation in newborns

• Focused on parent-child relationships
• Integrated ideas from ethology, systems theory, cognitive development (Piaget’s works), and from psychoanalysis.
• Argued that some human infant behaviors help keep the mother close. Such behaviors initiate the development of an attachment system that promotes the infant’s survival and creates a feeling of security.
• Believed that mental health and behavioral problems could be attributed to early childhood

• Also focused on parent-child relationships and agreed with Bowlby.
• Her research enhanced the credibility of Bowlby’s views.
• Babies actively help create an attachment system that protects them and provides a foundation for later development.

Attachment Theory
• The infant’s connection with the primary caregiver is the first attachment relationship.
• How it changes and what it means for the child’s psychosocial life
• Attachment is a system, not a particular set of behaviors

What are the NY Longitudinal Study highlights?
• Categorized 3 month old babies
• Difficult baby vs. easy baby
• Difficult baby- more fearful, more irritable, and more active = challenging to parent
• Easy baby- more positive, less active, more placid = easy to take care of.
• Nine traits observed: activity level, rhythmicity, approach/withdrawal, adaptability, threshold, intensity, mood, distractibility, attention span and persistence.

• Beliefs about oneself

Begins to emerge in early elementary
Example: child may believe they are good in art if they are good with coloring, cutting, drawing.

Begins to form more abstract traitlike concepts to describe self. Example: “being smart” “friendly”
Self-esteem may decline a little
Middle Childhood to Early Adolescence

Beginning of the looking glass
shaping one’s self-concepts based on one’s understanding of how others perceive them

Masculine approach to morality. Legalistic moral dilemmas
Kohlberg: Morality of Justice

Feminine approach to morality. Caring and nurturing approach.
Gilligan: Morality of Care

Moral Development
Kohlberg-Heinz dilemma (Heinz’s wife is ill and will die without a certain medicine which Heinz can’t afford)
Preconventional/Conventional/&Post conventional Level) 6 stages.

Kohlbergs Complex interweaving of three elements
o Emotions
o Cognitions
o Behaviors

Pro-social behavior
Acts in ways intended to benefit someone else (aka Altruism)
o Altruistic tendencies remain stable across age but differ per person/child.
Examples: Sharing, comforting friends, and helping
Empathy: ‘Feeling with’ recognize another person’s emotions & conditions, and experiencing it.
Sympathy: ‘Feeling for’ Having concern for another person, but not feeling it.
Preschooler’s: Hedonistic
Needs oriented

‘Feeling with’ recognize another person’s emotions & conditions, and experiencing it.

‘Feeling for’ Having concern for another person, but not feeling it.

Effortful Control
• Helps child regulate or modulate emotional reactions
• Inhibiting a response that is considered ‘dominant’ and perform a response that is less compelling. Example: child feeling discomfort after watching a video of a young burn victim. Instead of paying attention to own discomfort, the child will express sympathy for burn victim (p.233)
• If a child can’t moderate such emotions, then the child will focus on their own discomfort. This will reduce the chances of sympathetic responses to someone in need.

anti-social behavior
May look different as children grow
Intent to harm, or injure, or disregard for actions that may harm or injure others
Physical, verbal, or social attacks
Cheating, lying, stealing
Instrumental Aggression vs. Individual Aggression
Relational Aggression
Normative developmentally
Social Information Processing Model
Hostile Attributional Bias

Hostile Attributional bias
Aggressive individuals that perceive threats even in neutral situations.

This pathway has a life course trajectory characterized by the presence of oppositional, noncompliant, and aggressive behavior that begins early, persists and diversifies overtime, and becomes increasingly more serious.
Pathways to anti-social behavior
• Early-starter

Begins in adolescence and less likely to result in adult criminality. Serious but seems reflective of a difficult or exaggerated reaction to the adolescent period.
Adolescent-onset or Late starter-

1. Accepting responsibility for the consequences of one’s actions
2. Making independent decisions
3. Becoming financially independent
Marker events

Emerging adulthood
Concept of emerging adulthood :18-25
American Population
Social Construction
Culturally determined
Takes longer to grow up
Median age for marriage
1950:W: 20; M: 23
1993: W: 25; M; 27

Perry’s Theory of intellectual and ethical development in college years
• Transitions from absolute adherence to authority to beliefs founded on personal commitment (changes in their expectations and assumptions about the world).
• “Journey”

Kitchener’s 7-stage theory of relativistic thinking. You do not need to memorize the stages, be familiar with the concepts (p.365).
• Stage 1: know is limited to single concrete instances
• Stage 2: two categories for knowing: right and wrong answers.
• Stage 3: Knowledge (K) is certain in some areas and uncertain in others
• Stage 4: given that K is unknown in some cases, K is assumed to be uncertain in general.
• Stage 5: K is uncertain and must be understood within a context. Can be justified by arguments
• Stage 6: K is uncertain, constructed by comparing and coordinating evidence and opinions.
• Stage 7: K develops probabilistically through inquire that generalizes across domains.

Adult attachment theory: 3 prototypes in peer/romantic traditions
1. Avoidant
Uncomfortable being close
2. Anxious-ambivalent
Worry partner does not want to be as close as I do
3. Secure
Easy, comfortable, don’t worry

The Forgotten Half
18-24 year olds who do not go to college.
Under half of the total young adult population in the US in 1988.
1998- rate of high school dropouts declined and # of HS graduates entering college increased.

• Beliefs about our ability to exercise control over events that affect our lives.
• Example: a positive sense of self motivates a person to work hard and persevere.

vivid and personally relevant.
Flashbulb memories

The numb
Self-memories. One salient feature of self-memories is a phenomenon called the bump. Regardless of age, adults cue prompted memories of the self from the young adult period (ages 18-22) are slightly but reliably overproduced. That is, more memories are produced from this era than we would predict on the basis of recency.

Grief work
6 months to one year; work through. Freud’s theorizing about grief and mourning was very influential in shaping the legacy that came to be known as grief work. Freud believed that individuals who lose a loved one or object must withdrawal their emotional attachments or energy (or libido) and detach from the lost object. The tenants of grief work explicitly encourage bereaved individuals to confront the work through their feelings about loss for recovery to take place. This might involve reflecting on ones relationship to the deceased, expressing anger and other negative emotions related to death

Elizabeth Kubler-Ross
Kubler-Ross Stages:

Defines as “expertise in the fundamental pragmatics of life.” We have seen that the practical problems that adults must face do not necessary have one right answer. These kinds of problems are described as ill-defined or ill-structured.

Concerns maintenance of functioning by substitution of means in situation of losses of means.

Concerns the acquiring and refinement of means and their coordination to achieve goals/outcomes.

Concerns directionality and focus of developmental outcomes such as goals.

the remembered self, representations of who we have been along the way.
Autobiographical memory: remembered self-

paying attention in a particular way, on purpose, in the moment, and nonjudgmentally; can help short circuit negative self-talk. Within the body of techniques that address stress reduction, interventions that target stress reactivity-the quick response that often switches on the cascade of potentially harmful biopsychological events. One promising approach is to work with the minds own plasticity and capacity for reducing negative reactivity through present-moment and somatic awareness.

Psychological Resilience Factors
Attitudes and behaviors that can help maintain well-being during stress. (the whole chart is on pg. 475).
1. Positive attitude: optimism and sense of humor
2. Active coping: seeking solutions, managing emotions
3. Cognitive flexibility/cognitive reappraisal: finding value or meaning in adversity
4. Moral compass: embrace a set of core beliefs that few things can shatter
5. Physical exercise: engage in regular physical activity
6. Social support and role models or mentors.

Diathesis-stress disorders
Diathesis are premorbid conditions or predispositions that render individuals vulnerability to some disorder under certain circumstances. May be genetically based (inherited traits) or acquired through learning (as in the case of self defeating cognitions).

A person be spiritual without practicing a particular religion, although the two are closely allied for many people. Both are concerning a search for the “sacred” which means attempting to identify, articulate, or move toward an understanding or association with a divine being, or divine object or some kind of ultimate reality or truth.

Self-determination Theory
self-realization is at the core of eudaemonic well-being. Ryan and Deci suggest that life satisfactions derived from the fulfillment of fundamental psychological needs for autonomy (feeling that ones behaviors are self-endorsed) , competence (expressing ones talents and skills), and relatedness (opportunities to feel cared for and valued by others).

What are risky behaviors?
1) Behaviors that contribute to unintentional injuries and violence
2) Tobacco use
3) Alcohol and other drug use
4) Sexual risk behaviors
5) Unhealthy dietary behaviors
6) Physical inactivity

Role of school
Look at students with fresh eyes
Find times when the student is happy, absorbed, engaged
Talk to them with the intent to help they discover their own abilities and possibilities
Find ways to follow-through

Role of parents
Conflicts have been overstated
Baumrind’s parenting styles
control or demandingness;
parental monitoring
Acceptance, democracy
Keep track, place limits

Exploration/no commitment

Commitment/no exploration

Lack exploration AND commitment

Game plan
Identity achievement

MAMA cycles

Categorical system for labeling the patterns that emerge in the identity development process:
Marcia’s Identity Status- listed above

Attribute substitution
involves both imitation and identification. Adolescents need to borrow and try on various behaviors and attributes that they observe in others because the state of frameworkness leaves them without clearly defined ways of behaving and thinking. Borrowing, Buddhism, etc.

Erikson- Immortal

Personal Fable
Erikson- Uniqueness. distorted view of importance, a special destiny

Erickson- Extreme Self-Consciousness. so sure that others are interested in them, leads to self-consciousness.
Imaginary Audience

refers to some failure to recognize your own subjectivity. You fail to see things realistically because you are trapped in your own perspective.

Formal Opertational thought
Behavioral changes and coping patterns- Multidimensional Moodiness
Depressed Moods: 1/3 of teens experience this.
Girls vs. Boys
Delayed Phase preference: shift in sleep patterns at puberty
Girls Coping Rumination vs. Distraction vs. Active Problem Solving
Sexual Orientation

Tasks of middle childhood
Tasks of this age group
Control their behavior
Monitor attention
Develop more formal and complicated academic competencies
Navigate the school yard
Understand rules of the group and how to respond
Understand self in relationship to gender and others

Sensory Memory
Snapshot: 5 year old vs. Adult
refers to brief retention of sensory experience. For about one third of a second when we see scene, we store most of the sensory information that has come in. Same with hearing.

Working Memory
Short term store

Long-Term Memory
Long-term memory- Execute problem solving strategies, make inferences, and transfer information.

Information processing approach
Many interesting studies of middle childhood cognition-especially memory and problem solving have been done by researchers in the information processing tradition. Information processing theories compare cognitive functioning of a computers processing of information.

Perspective Taking
• Perspective Taking and Social Relationships
o Egocentrism: Piaget “the problem of human affairs”
• Perspective Taking and Friendships

Izard: (1991-2004)
he concluded that infant expressive behaviors are components of basic emotions. In other words babies faces are mirrors of their felt emotions. Izards theory called differential emotions theory, construes emotions to be the direct product of the underlying neural processes related to each of the emotional expressions. Pg. 116

talking out loud to self is useful to human development according to Vygotski. Precursor to problem-solving, planning, planning ability, and self-control. Eventually becomes internalized and becomes inner speech, the kind of internal dialogue that facilitates thinking.
Egocentric or Private speech

One of Vygotskis most influential ideas. It describes the situation in which a learner is able to grasp a concept or preform some skill only with some support or scaffolding from someone else. She can do the task with assistance.
Zone of proximal development

Serves as a temporary prop until the child has mastered a task. Enables learners to reach a higher levels of thinking. In educational services the concept of scaffolding has been interpreted as learning that occurs when a more cognitively advanced individual (a teacher of peer) guides a learner with prompts, cues, and other supports o reach a point where the learner can manifest in actuality what had previously only been her potential.

Issues with development take place when external support is lacking; that social interactions increase cognitive development/learning
Lev Vygotsky, (1896 – 1934)

The ability to perceive emotions, to identify and understand their meaning, to integrate them with other kinds of cognition, and to manage them.
Emotional IQ: Daniel Goleman-

Apgar Scale
As soon as your baby makes his or her grand entrance into the world, she will be given an APGAR test. This test helps your doctor or midwife to evaluate your baby’s condition and determine if he or she needs any treatment. It is quick and painless, and if the test indicates your baby is in distress, doctors can administer necessary medical attention immediately.

APGAR stands for
A: appearance
P: pulse
G: grimace
A: activity
R: respiration
Baby gets a score of 0 to 2 for each area with a perfect score of 10!

Early Intervention
Taking Good care of our children in their earliest stages of development is an investment in their FUTURE physical, cognitive, and mental health.

Early intervention 2
Skills, abilities, and tendencies develop early and establish trajectories
3 essential components of early intervention:
1) OUTREACH to families
2) CENTER based- enriched preschool experiences
3) Transition services to ease transition to elementary school

This model assumes that development is the result of interacting genetic and experimental elements
Epigenetic Model

Environmental substances and agents that could harm the developing fetus. (alcohol, tobacco, drugs, AIDS, lead, PCBS)
Damage related to the stage of development
Not all are susceptible
Dosage (no safe level of alcohol)
Risk amplified when exposure to more than one factor is present: Cocaine abusing mothers.

Four Horseman of the Apocalypse
hurt relationships: 1. Criticism, 2. Defensiveness 3. Contempt 4. Stonewalling

the time when emerging adults begin to move away from home and become more self-sufficient
Launching period

those who carry the double responsibilities of taking care of both an elderly relative and their own children.
Sandwich generation

the person in an extended family who helps the generations maintain contact with one another

growing up

growing down

Sternberg’s Triangular theory of Love
• Three elements:
passion, intimacy, commitment

Sternberg’s Triangular theory of Love
Kinds of Love:
o Nonlove- Intimacy present, passion/commitment not present
o Liking- intimacy present, passion/commitment not present
o Infatuation- passion present, intimacy/commitment not present
o Empty love- commitment present, intimacy/passion not present
o Romantic love- passion/intimacy present, commitment not present
o Companionate love- intimacy/commitment present, passion not present
o Fatuous love- intimacy not present, passion/commitment not present
o Consummate love- all three present

Unexpected events: good and bad
Nonnormative Changes

changes in our life experience that are a function of historical circumstance, including events that we share with our whole cohort
History Graded changes

Fluid Intelligence (mechanics)
• peaks during early adulthood and then declines
• basic operational characteristics (mechanics) that seem to directly reflect how well the “hardware ” of the nervous system is working. Its functions include such things as processing speed and inhibitory mechanisms

• improves through middle age and on
• the compilation of skills and information we have acquired in the course of our lives that can be viewed as the software programs of our nervous system
Crystallized intelligence (pragmatics)

The Big 5 dimensions of personality
• Neuroticism- tense, touchy, self-pitying, unstable mood, anxious
• Extraversion- outgoing, active, assertive, energetic, talkative, enthusiastic
• Agreeableness- warm, sympathetic, generous, forgiving, kind, affectionate, compliant
• Conscientiousness- organized, planful, reliable, responsible, careful, efficient, self-controlled
• Openness to experience- creative, artistic, curious, insightful, original, wide-ranging interests, positive orientation to learning

Growth, Maintenance, and Loss
• Growth- when we add new characteristics, understandings, skills
• Maintenance- continue functioning at the same level in the face of challenges or restoring our functioning after suffering some loss
• Loss- reorganization of how we behave, adjusting expectations and accepting a lower level of functioning

Social Competence
• Social Competence: empathy, valuing, perspective taking
• Social Skills
• Peer Groups
• Cliques
• Crowds
• DE grouping

Gender Schema Theory
• A network of expectations and beliefs about male and female characteristics
• Affect how children evaluate behaviors and the kinds of behaviors they choose for self
• Examples:
• Spilled milk
• Novel toy
• Two year olds: little awareness
• Three year olds: gender preference for toys
• Four year olds: sexist regardless of parenting
• Age 5 or 6: knowledge of gendered activities and occupations is extensive
• Middle childhood: more awareness of stereotypes
• By age 10: recognize that female roles are devalued (may be why females show more susceptibility to depression

Gender Identity
• The Story of Augustina (1913)
• Gender Category
• Late Year 1: perceptual distinctions between sexes
• 2.5 to 3: can label self
• Early 3: Some skill at labeling boy/girl
• Gender Stability: one’s category stays the same 3-4 years old (still fragile)
• Gender Constancy: membership is permanent
• Even if clothes, hair, etc. change: sex would not change
• Growth in Self-awareness
o Social comparisons
o Feedback about self from others

Perry studies (3rd to 8th graders):
o 3 dimensions
o Gender compatibility, contentedness, pressure for sex-typing
o Dissatisfaction dependent upon pressures to conform by others
o Children’s optimal adjustment: secure in self; free to explore

Dimensions and Types of Status
• Popular- high levels of self-regulation and self-control, prosoiclal, cooperative, intelligent
• Rejected-high levels of instrumental aggression, verbal negativity, disruptiveness, low levels of positive social interaction, self-control, perspective taking
• Neglected- lowers levels of peer interaction, less aggressive, less sociability, perceived by peers as likeable
• Average- lower levels of social competence as compared to popular children, less aggression than rejected children

Methods of Control
• Power Assertion
• Love Withdrawal
• Induction
• Time of Day; Forewarned is Forearmed

4 Parenting practices/methods of control
• Authoritative- Demandingness- Controlling but accepting, child-centered, responsive
• Authoritarian- demanding and controlling while rejecting, parent-centered, unresponsive
• Permissive- no control, but accepting, child-centered, responsive
• Neglecting-univolved-no control while rejecting, parent-centered, unresponsive

Demandingness- Controlling but accepting, child-centered, responsive

demanding and controlling while rejecting, parent-centered, unresponsive

no control, but accepting, child-centered, responsive

univolved-no control while rejecting, parent-centered, unresponsive

Concept of Self-system
• Self-concept: Personal attributes
• Self-esteem: One’s evaluation of these attributes
• Pretensions: What is important to us

The notion that the self originates from observing reflected appraisals of others.
Cooley: Looking Glass self

Bronfenbrenner’s Bio-Ecological theory
• Bio-ecological systems theory
o Microsystem: The person
o Mesosystem: Interactions for the sake of the individual (teacher-parent)
o Exosystem: Forces outside of the individual but having an impact (school board)
o Macrosystem: (Department of Education

(Department of Education

The person

Interactions for the sake of the individual (teacher-parent)

Forces outside of the individual but having an impact (school board)

Definition of Resilience
• The quality that permits developmental success for some individuals despite grave setbacks or early adversity.
• Human capacity to deal with, overcome, learn from, or be transformed by the inevitable adversities of life. (Grotberg, 2003)
• 1/3rd of people around our world consistently show resilience.
• Taking good care of our children in the earliest stages is an investment in their future physical, cognitive, and mental health.

Information processing
Computer processing of information (Siegler)

Vine growing in the forest

Steadily rising mountain range: knowledge and skill are thought to accumulate based upon each person’s individual experiences

Learning Theories:
Behavioral: Skinner, Pavlov
Social Learning Theories
Bandura: Modeling

Learning Theories:
Skinner, Pavlov
Social Learning Theories
Bandura: Modeling

Classification and models slides
Stage: Development is like a staircase:

Types of transitions
Elected (graduation)
• Surprise (death of a child)
• Non-events (expected: Doesn’t happen)
• Life on hold (waiting to happen)
• Sleeper transitions ( without awareness)gain weight)
• Double whammies (retire and death of spouse)

Developmental Issues slides
• Nurture and Nature: biological inheritance or environment
• Critical periods (language acquisition) and Plasticity (over time: Dr. Collins)
• Continuity and Discontinuity: gradual and cumulative or distinct stages
• Universality and specificity: universal across cultures or specific to cultures
Age graded changes
History Grade Changes (cohort)
Nonnormative changes (death of a parent)
• Stability and Change: older renditions of our earlier self someone different
• Qualitative and Quantitative changes: transformational change or incremen
• Activity and Passivity: (a newborn)
• Which are key: early or later experiences?
The early experience view: first two years are critical for optimal development
The later experience view

Chronological Age:
Conception of age

# of years

Biological Age
biological health

Psychological Age
adaptive capacities compared to others of the same age

Social Age
roles and expectations related to age

Periods of Development slide
• Prenatal- 9 months
• Infancy-18-24 months
• Early childhood-To 5-6 years
• Middle and late childhood- 6-11 years
• Adolescence- 10-12 to 18-22
• Early adulthood- through 30s
• Middle adulthood- 40-60 years
• Late adulthood-60-70 years
• Young old- 65-75 years
• Old old- 75+
• The oldest old- 85+

The Nature of Development slides
• Biological Processes- height/weight gains, brain, motor skills, cardiovascular decline
• Cognitive Processes- Individual’s thought, intelligence, language
• Socio Emotional Processes- Changes in individual’s relationships with other people, Changes in emotion, Changes in personality
• Context-Home, school, peer groups, church, cities, neighborhoods, countries, etc.
• Culture- Behavior, patterns, beliefs, and all other products of a particular group of people that are passed on from generation to generation
• Ethnicity-Based on cultural heritage, national characteristics, race, religion, and language
• Gender-Socio-cultural dimensions of being male or female

height/weight gains, brain, motor skills, cardiovascular decline
Biological Processes

Individual’s thought, intelligence, language
Cognitive Processes

Changes in individual’s relationships with other people, Changes in emotion, Changes in personality
Socio Emotional Processes

Home, school, peer groups, church, cities, neighborhoods, countries, etc.

Behavior, patterns, beliefs, and all other products of a particular group of people that are passed on from generation to generation

Based on cultural heritage, national characteristics, race, religion, and language

Socio-cultural dimensions of being male or female

Life span perspective slide
• Lifespan- no age period dominates
• Multidimensional- Biological, cognitive, socio-emotional dimensions
• Multidirectional- Increase and decrease in growth
• Plastic-Degree to which characteristics change or remain stable
• Contextual- Age graded, history grade, life event

no age period dominates

Biological, cognitive, socio-emotional dimensions

Increase and decrease in growth

Degree to which characteristics change or remain stable

Age graded, history grade, life event

Define Reflective Practitioner
• One of the great things you all bring is your experience. Go beyond technical application to generate new strategies.
• Uses theory as a partial lens complemented by the practitioners professional and other life experiences
• Self-monitoring: counselors world views can have significant implications for the client!

Define Developmental Counseling
• Framework and rationale for counseling that builds on the positive potential of people to grow, achieve, and build competence in dealing with the inevitable challenges confronting them across the lifespan
• Emphasis on strength, awareness, empowerment, prevention, ameliorative, enhanced function
• The main goal confronting developmental counselors is that of helping people attain a sustained, growth oriented pattern of interactions with their environments and within their relationships. Developmental counseling looks at helping the person understand their own self (all dimensions) and to find and engage with environments that help to nurture growth. Engagement leads to development where as withdrawal leads to stagnation.

Definition of Life span development
• Pattern of movement or change that begins at conception and continues through the human life span
• Life Span is both universal and uniquely personal

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