The industrial Revolution(Unit 4)- Modern World History

Flashcard maker : Joan Grant
Agricultural Revolution
The time when human beings first domesticated plants and animals and no longer relied entirely on hunting and gathering
Factory System
a method of production that brought many workers and machines together into one building
Industrialization
the development of industry on an extensive scale
Telegraph
apparatus used to communicate at a distance over a wire (usually in Morse code)
Spinning Jenny
an early spinning machine with multiple spindles
Railroads
Networks of iron (later steel) rails on which steam (later electric or diesel) locomotives pulled long trains at high speeds. First railroads were built in England in the 1830s. Success caused a railroad building boom lasting into the 20th Century (704)
Socialism
a political theory advocating state ownership of industry
Marxism
the economic and political theories of Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels that hold that human actions and institutions are economically determined and that class struggle is needed to create historical change and that capitalism will untimately be superseded
Popular Sovereignty
People hold the final authority in all matters of government
Bourgeoisie
Karl Marx’s term for the capitalist class, comprising the owners of the means of production
Urbanization
the social process whereby cities grow and societies become more urban
Standard of Living
a level of material comfort in terms of goods and services available to someone
Capitalism
private ownership of a company; pursuit of maximum profit; competition based on the economic principles of supply and demand
Child Labor
Children were viewed as laborers throughout the 19th century. Many children worked on farms, small businesses, mills and factories.
Entrepreneurs
individuals who start new businesses, introduce new products, and improve management techniques
Cottage Industry (domestic system)
small-scale industry that can be carried on at home by family members using their own equipment
Robert Owen
Welsh industrialist and social reformer who founded cooperative communities (1771-1858)
Friedrich Engels
German social science philosopher that developed communist theory with Karl Marx. Also, this philosopher edited volumes of Das Kapital, a work that influenced the work of Lenin
Jeremy Bentham
English philosopher and jurist
John Stuart Mill
English philosopher and economist remembered for his interpretations of empiricism and utilitarianism (1806-1873)
Congress of Vienna
Meeting of representatives of European monarchs called to reestablish the old order after the defeat of Napoleon
Liberalism
an economic theory advocating free competition and a self-regulating market and the gold standard
German confederation
consisted of 38 sovereign states recognized by the Vienna settlement, and was dominated by Austria and Prussia (b/c of their size); the confederation had little power and needed the consent of all 38 states to take action.
Liverpool (England)
A thriving port that was very close to the cotton manufacturing town of Manchester that inspired a railroad.
Alexander Graham Bell
inventor of the telephone
Florence Nightingale
Founder of modern nursing
Emmeline Pankhurst
woman suffragette, violence, hunger strikes
Enclosure movement
The process of consolidating small landholdings into a smaller number of larger farms in England during the eighteenth century.
Domestic System
early industrial labor system in which workers produced goods at home
Steam Engine
external-combustion engine in which heat is used to raise steam which either turns a turbine or forces a piston to move up and down in a cylinder
Cotton Gin
a machine that separates the seeds from raw cotton fibers
Assembly Line
mechanical system in a factory whereby an article is conveyed through sites at which successive operations are performed on it
Mass Production
the production of large quantities of a standardized article (often using assembly line techniques)
Utilitarianism
idea that the goal of society should be to bring about the greatest happiness for the greatest number of people
Capitalism
an economic system based on private ownership of capital
Democracy
a political system in which the supreme power lies in a body of citizens who can elect people to represent them
Proletariat
a social class comprising those who do manual labor or work for wages
Laissez-faire
the doctrine that government should not interfere in commercial affairs
Labor unions
Organizations of workers who, together, put pressure on the employers in an industry to improve working conditions and wages.
Communism
a form of socialism that abolishes private ownership
Supply and Demand
an economic concept that states that the price of a good rises and falls depending on how many people want it (demand) and depending on how much of the good is available (supply)
James Watt
Scottish engineer and inventor whose improvements in the steam engine led to its wide use in industry (1736-1819)
Robert Fulton
American inventor who designed the first commercially successful steamboat and the first steam warship (1765-1815)
Karl Marx
founder of modern communism
Thomas Malthus
an English economist who argued that increases in population would outgrow increases in the means of subsistence (1766-1834)
Adam Smith
Scottish economist who advocated private enterprise and free trade (1723-1790)
James Hargreaves
English inventor of the spinning jenny (1720-1778)
Klemens Von Metternich
This was Austria’s foreign minister who wanted a balance of power in an international equilibrium of political and military forces that would discourage aggression
Conservatism
a political or theological orientation advocating the preservation of the best in society and opposing radical changes
Manchester
a city in northwestern England (30 miles east of Liverpool)
Thomas Eddison
Established the worlds first reaserch labratory. Perfected the light bulb, and invented an entire system for producing and distributing electrical power.
Guglielmo Marconi
Italian electrical engineer known as the father of radio (1874-1937)
Clara Barton
inventor of the red cross
Suffrage movement
movement dedicated to achieving women’s right to vote

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