Thar Exam 3

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Heightened Realism
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A new type of realism that was written mostly in a realistic style but also heightened or exaggerated some details, usually to underline thematic concerns. This was usually done through dialogue, sound, music, and scenic design)
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Jo Mielziner
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Scene designer who was influenced by Appia & Craig and worked with Williams and Miller. The sets he designed were considered \”poetic realism\” which usually consisted of rooms with no ceiling, transparent walls, painterly designs, and transitions with light.
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Elia Kazan
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Premier director of psychological realism in the 1940s and 50s. Directed a Streetcar Named Desire and Death of a Salesman. Member of Group theatre in the 1930s. Well known for method acting and being good at working with actors. Was also a film director for On the Waterfront, and East of Eden
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Tennessee Williams
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Known for lyrical dialogue and symbolism. Common themes included outcasts in hostile environments and victims of society. Wrote many plays including the The Glass Menagerie, A Streetcar Named Desire, The Rose Tattoo and Cat on a Hot Tin Roof.
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A Streetcar Named Desire
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Blanche, the wife found out that her husband was a homosexual and drove him to commit suicide. Blanche then had a series of sexual relationships. In early drafts Blanche was considered \”too far out\” and the film had to be edited in order to pass censors.
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Arthur Miller
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Wrote Death of a Salesman and the Crucible. Both allegories.
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Death of a Salesman
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Critiqued the American Dream, uses radio techniques, in the play music was used to symbolize when he was having flashbacks. Play had two acts and a requiem.
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Tragedy
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\”I believe that the common man is as apt a subject for tragedy in its highest sense as kings were.\” \”the tragic feeling is evoked in us when we are in the presence of a character who is ready to lay down his life, if need be, to secure one thing—his sense of personal dignity.\” \”Tragedy, then, is the consequence of a man’s total compulsion to evaluate himself justly.\” The author of tragedy must be willing to question \”absolutely everything\”. Tragedy is more optimistic than comedy because there is a \”possibility of victory\” – Arthur Miller
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Black Arts Movement
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A overly political, social engagement parts of aestetics, formation of black theatre companies, formation of black poetry groups and journals, manifestoes, declined in the mid 70s due to government pressure. Not only reflected life by urged social action.
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W.E.B Dubois
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Believed that negro plays should be \”About Us\”, \”By Us\”, \”For Us\” and \”Near us\”
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African Grove Theatre
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First known company of black actors. Some actors which are known is William Henry Brown and Ira Aldridge. There is little known because there are no records after 1823
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Inn Dahomey
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first full length musical written and performed by black artists on Broadway. Bert William and George Walker wrote the play.
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Alice Childress
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A black playwright, novelist and actor. Involved in the American Negro Theatre that was founded in 1940 New york. Stated that her writing attempts to interpret the \”ordinary because they are not ordinary\”
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Loraine Hansberry
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A raisin in the sun was the first broadway play written by an African American Woman. It was about racial segregation in chicago. The them of the play was integration vs separation and justice and inequality.
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Amiri Baraka/Leroi Jones
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Was an African American poet, playwright and activist. Early Career included beat poets, black arts movement, and black nationalism. Wrote the Dutchman which was his first major success. Obie Award. Was apart of the Black Arts Repertory Theatre and the Spirit house movers and players.
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Revolutionary Theatre
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should force change and be change. Should expose, accuse and attack because it is a theatre of victims. http://nationalhumanitiescenter.org/pds/maai3/protest/text12/barakatheatre.pdf
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Dutchmen
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The black man on the train and the girl target him. Has a lot of apples. Stabs him at the end. http://www.enotes.com/topics/dutchman
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Asian American Theatre
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A movement that began in 1960s amid Asian American movement, created space for development of Asian American Plays, created work for Asian American Theatre artists, explored asian american experiences and identities, Asian American Theatre critiques stereotypes and performance traditions. Writes and performs Asian American History and also explores asian American Identities.
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Orientalism
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Edward Saids’ idea about the East and the West as seperate and coherent entities. The west and East were rational/irration, masculine/feminine, knowable/mysterious. False and arbitrary division used to justify imperial rule. Was talking about british and french orientalism in relation to middle east and Africa
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M. Butterfly
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David Henry Hwang. based on Madame butterfly story that was a newspaper headline. Featured on Broadway, tony award, and was later turned into a film vision.
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Paper Angels
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Based on \”Paper sons\” angel island, chinese immigration. Set during chinese exclusion period.
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Cowboy Versus Samurai
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Adaptation of Cryando de Bergarac. Comedy about 3 Korean Americans in Breakneck, wyoming. Explores Asian American Identities.
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Issues/Challenges for women in theater
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There was a lack of access to theatre for women in terms of being in the audience, being performers/creators and were not represented well in plays. There was a dominance of the Male perspective in theatre.
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feminist spectator
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reviews theatre, film, and tv from the feminist perspective.
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50/50 in 2020
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A league of professional theatre women who’s goal is for there to be equality in professional theatre. Only 20% of professional opportunities go to women playwrights, directors and designers nationwide.
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Bechdel Test
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A feminist way of viewing a play. The main question to ask is does it have at least 2 named women and do they talk to each other about something other then men.
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Three Waves of Feminism
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The 1st wave was concerned with enducation, employment, marriage laws, and the plight of intelligent middle-class women. They did not see themselves as feminists. Responded to specific injustices they themselves experienced. The 3rd wave had to deal primarily with personal empowerment, identity, pro-sex, strong interest in pop culture; to to be more awareness/ interest in diversity.
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Hrostvitha of Gandersheim
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First known female playwright from Germany and was a nun. Not much is known about her but she wrote plays in Latin and modeled plays based off of Roman comedy and christian stories.
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20th Century Playwrights
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Marsha Norman wrote ‘Night Mother. Beth Henley wrote Crimes of the Heart. Wendy Wasserstein wrote The Heidi Chronicles and Lorraine Hansberry wrote a Raisin in the Sun. These women usually wrote realism or highly realistic stories. Their plays feature women as protagonists. Plays were produced in mainstream venues.
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feminist theatre companies
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over 100 feminist theatre companies were founded in the US. They were highly influenced by the Experimental theatre movement. They are interested in non-realist forms and in ritual. Focused primarily on women’s experiences and collective organization. Focussed also on process and community and these companies lacked money and resources
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Spiderwoman
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Native American Theatre. Story weaving.
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WOW cafe
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Women’s one World Festival. Becomes an ongoing collective in NYC. Predominantly lesbian actresses. Peggy Shaw & Lois Weaver were the founders
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Maria Iren Fornes
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Helped begin the Off-off-Broadway movement. Was born in havana Cuba and came to the US at the age of 15. is a director and writing mentor/teacher. The characteristics of her play include unconventional structures in dialogue, staging, highly symbolic, brutality and humor. Plays include Her Friends, Mud, Conduct of Life, and Fefu
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Caryl Churchill
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English playwright who was known for non-realism Themes included gender, power, and oppression. Was influenced by Brecht, epic theater, surrealism, and post modernism.
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postcolonial criticism
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Seeks to understand where in literature, the visual arts, music, and theatre we see the working of the mindsets behind and the effects of colonial domination. Seeks to expose the effects of empire and of unequal power relations between cultures, past and present.
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Colonialist oppression
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result of expansion of wealthy nations into less powerful ones. colonized nations need to be \”civilized\” and contained usually non-white populations. effects of colonial oppression included economic impoverishment and erosion of culture/cultural identity.
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double-consciousness
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mimics the colonizer in language and dress but also tries to maintain native cultrue. Parallels with other forms of oppression such as gender, patriarchy, race and white supremacy
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A couple in the cage
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guillermo gomez-pena & coco fusco, performance art. A couple in a cage is being shown like there are a circus act.
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Cloud 9
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explores the parallels between sexual oppression and colonial oppression. we might think of the play as being a piece of feminist criticism and post colonial criticism .
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Joint Stock Theatre Company
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Caryl Churchill developed with the Joint Stock theatre company in workshops, writing, rehearsals, and explored the parallels between sexual oppression and colonial oppression.
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Role Doubling
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the same actor plays different characters throughout the play. For example in cloud nine. Clive/Cathy, Betty/Edward, Maud/Victoria, Harry Bagley/Martin.
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cross-gender casting
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men would play female roles, and females would sometimes play male roles.
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cross-racial casting
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Joshua who is supposed to be a black man is played as a white male.
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Brecht/Epic Theatre
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Plays are episodic, bare stage, exposed lights, projections and placards. The acting is a balance between realist and representational. plays ask audience to question their notion or reality, what is natural. alienation effect.
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Realism
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a literary and theatrical practice valuing direct imitation or verisimilitude. Realism is usually concerned with psychological motives, the \”inner reality\” not just a superficial verisimilitude. It is closely related to naturalism.

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