TEST 4 REVIEW Test Answers

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The four collegiate subcultures are only types you would encounter on a college campus.
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False
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Critics of the hidden curriculum are concerned that
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discipline takes precedence over the learning process
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Which sociologist was perhaps the first sociologist to recognize the critical importance of religion in human societies?
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Emile Durkheim
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Numerous sociological studies have revealed that additional years of formal schooling are associated with which of the following?
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openness to new ideas more liberal social viewpoints more liberal political viewpoints **all of these
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Giving meaning to the divine and defining the spiritual world are part of religion’s
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manifest functions
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Which perspective would opponents of school prayer and creationism draw upon when they are concerned about children facing enormous social pressure to conform to the beliefs and practices of the majority?
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interactionism
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Which sociological perspective views education as an instrument of elite domination?
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conflict perspective
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Which U.S. President created the Office of Faith-Based and Community Initiatives to give socially active religious groups access to government funding?
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George W. Bush
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Schools are responsible for transmitting culture. Which of the following statements illustrates this point?
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Chinese schools are teaching its students about China’s crucial involvement in defeating Japan during World War 2 instead of U.S. contributions.
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A sect is a
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relatively small religious group that has broken away from some other religious organization to renew what it views as the original vision of the faith
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In which of the following ways are Christianity and Islam similar?
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both are monotheistic both believe in an afterlife both include a belief in prophets **all of these
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Which one of the following points did sociologist Robin Williams make regarding better-educated people?
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they hold more diverse opinions they possess the ability to make subtle distinctions in analysis they have greater access to factual information **all of these
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Which sociological perspective emphasizes that the common identity and social integration fostered by education contributes to overall societal stability and consensus?
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functionalist perspective
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Japanese students are offered guidance sessions to improve the classroom experience and instill values useful in the Japanese business world. These sessions are an example of a
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hidden curriculum
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Which sociologist(s) argued that capitalism requires a skilled, disciplined labor force, and that the educational system of the United States is structured with that objective in mind?
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Samuel Bowles and Harold Gintis
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Women account for 39 percent of students enrolled in theological institutions but compose what percentage of U.S. clergy?
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14.8%
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What term did Max Weber use to refer to a disciplined work ethic, this-worldly concerns, and a rational orientation to life emphasized by John Calvin and his followers?
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the Protestant ethic
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The nonconformist subculture focuses on socializing and having fun instead of attending classes.
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False
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Which sociological perspective portrays contemporary education as basically benign-for example, it argues that schools rationally sort and select students for future high-status positions, thereby meeting society’s need for talented and expert personnel?
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functionalist perspective
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While it is difficult to achieve accurate measurements, what is the estimate for how many Muslims are living in the United States?
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1.5 million to 2.4 million
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Secularization is the
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process through which religion’s influence on other social institutions diminishes.
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What is tracking?
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the practice of placing students in specific curriculum groups on the basis of test scores and other criteria
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One criticism of standardized tests used by NCLB is the validity and reliability of such tests.
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True
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Creationism
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the belief that the universe and living organisms originate from specific acts of divine creation, as in the biblical account, rather than by natural processes such as evolution
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Denomination
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a large, organized religion that is not officially linked to the state or government
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Ecclesia
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a religious organization that claims to include most or all members of society and is recognized as the national or official religion
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Established sect
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a religious group that is the outgrowth of a sect, yet remains isolated from society
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Fundamentalism
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an emphasis on doctrinal conformity and the literal interpretation of sacred texts
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Intelligent design
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the theory that life, or the universe, cannot have arisen by chance and was designed and created by some intelligent entity.
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Liberation theology
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use of a church, primarily Roman Catholic, in a political effort to eliminate poverty, discrimination, and other forms of injustice from a secular society
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Cult
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a relatively small group of people having religious beliefs or practices regarded by others as strange or sinister.
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Profane
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the ordinary and commonplace elements of life, as distinguished from the sacred
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Protestant ethic
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Max Weber’s term for the disciplined work ethic, this-worldly concerns, and rational orientation to life emphasized by John Calvin and his followers
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Religion
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A unified system of beliefs and practices relative to sacred things
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Religious ritual
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a practice required or expected of members of a faith
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Sacred
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elements beyond everyday life that inspire awe, respect, and even fear
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Sect
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a relatively small religious group that has broken away from some other religious organization to renew what it considers the original vision of the faith
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Seculariztion
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the process through which religion’s influence on other social institutions diminishes
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Which two theorists were responsible for the development of socialism?
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Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels
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The authority of the president and the Congress of the U.S. is based on traditional authority, according to the classification system developed by Max Weber.
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False
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The U.S. has considered a national health care system that would guarantee medical coverage to all citizens as a basic human right. The government’s involvement in providing health care for all citizens is characteristic of which type of economic system?
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socialism
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Affirmative action is defined as
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positive efforts to recruit minority group members or women for jobs, promotions, and educational opportunities
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A decline in political participation allows governments to
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operate with less accountability.
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Communism is an economic system in which
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all property is communally owned and no social distinctions are made on the basis of people’s ability to produce.
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The social institution that relies on a recognized set of procedures for implementing and achieving the goals of a group is called a (an)
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political system.
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As described by C Wright Mills, the “power elite” is
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the group that stands at the top of the power structure in the U.S.
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One common point between the elite and pluralist perspective is that power is unequally distributed within the U.S. political system.
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True
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When a corporation in the U.S. relocates its plants to a country where prevailing wages are lower than in the U.S., this is the final stage of
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deindustrialization
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Utilizing Erving Goffman’s dramaturgical approach, Alfred McClung Lee has suggested that terrorism
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is similar to the theater, in that certain scenes are played out in a predictable fashion.
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How much did it cost for Barack Obama to run and be elected President of the United States?
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$745 million
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Which sociologist supported the pluralist model as the basis for power on the community level?
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Robert Dahl
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The English term “democracy” comes from which language
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Greek
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Max Weber defined force as
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the actual or threatened use of coercion to impose one’s will on others.
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Which sociological perspective would be likely to suggest that in the changing face of the workforce, workers will find themselves supervising and being supervised by people very different from themselves?
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interactionist perspective
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What percentage of eligible voters in the U.S. voted in the 2008 presidential election?
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62 percent
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A monopoly is
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the control of a market by a single business firm
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Downsizing refers to reductions in
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a company’s workforce.
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In a society based on charismatic authority, leaders derive their authority from
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their exceptional personal or emotional appeal
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Which group has a particularly low voter turnout
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the poor members of racial and ethnic minorities young adults **all of these
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Capitalism and socialism serve as ideal types of economic systems.
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True
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Transfers of money, goods, or services that take place but are not reported to the government are referred to as
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an informal economy.
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Authority
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institutionalized power that is recognized by the people over whom it is exercised
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Capitalism
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an economic system in which the means of production are held largely in private hands and the main incentive for economic activity is the accumulation of profits
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Communism
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as an ideal type, an economic system under which all property is communally owned and no social distinctions are made on the basis of people’s ability to produce
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Democracy
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in a literal sense, government by the people
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Downsizing
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reductions taken in a company’s workforce as part of deindustrialization
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Economic system
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the social institution through which goods and services are produced, distributed, and consumed
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Elite model
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a view of society as being ruled by a small group of individuals who share a common set of political and economic interests
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Informal economy
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transfers of money, goods, or services that are not reported to the government
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Monopoly
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control of a market by a single business firm
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Pluralist model
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a view of society in which many competing groups within the community have access to the government, so that no single group is dominant
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Political system
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the social institution that is founded on a recognized set of procedures for implementing and achieving society’s goals
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Power
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the ability to exercise one’s will over others
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Representative democracy
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a form of government in which certain individuals are selected to speak for the people
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Socialism
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an economic system under which the means of production and distribution are collectively owned
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Totalitarianism
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virtually complete government control and surveillance over all aspects of a society’s social and political life.
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Which of the following is a reason for why U.S. researchers and medical personnel have begun to recognize not everyone views medicine in the same way?
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doctors reaching out to immigrant communities recent increases in immigration increased cultural training for medical personnel **all of these
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Which area of study is concerned with the interrelationships among people in their spatial setting and physical environment?
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human ecology
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The medicalization of society refers to
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the growing role of medicine as a major institution of social control.
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Medicine serves as an agent of social control by retaining absolute jurisdiction over many healthcare procedures.
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True
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The infant mortality rate is the number of deaths of infants under one year old per how many live births in a given year?
answer

1,000
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What percent of U.S. citizens ages 65 and over are afflicted by Alzheimer’s disease?
answer

13 percent
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The rate of alcoholism mortality among Native Americans served by the Indian Health Service is how many times higher than that of the U.S. general population?
answer

5 times
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Critics of the functionalist view of the sick role suggest
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the sick role is more applicable to those with short-term illness than reoccurring long-term illness. employment will affect one’s willingness to assume the sick role. judgments regarding one’s health is related to factors of age, class, gender, and ethnic group. **all of these
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The World Health Organization estimates that up to how many premature deaths per year could be prevented if air pollutants were brought down to safer levels?
answer

700,000
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Which of the following is true about the healthcare Latinos receive?
answer

Latinos are more likely to seek treatment in clinics and emergency rooms.
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Which sociologist suggests a capitalist system creates a “treadmill of production” because of its inherent need to build ever-expanding profits?
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Allan Schnaiberg
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Prevalence refers to the
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number of new cases of a specific disorder occurring within a given population during a stated period of time.
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By the year 2018, total expenditures for health care in the U.S. are expected to exceed what figure?
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$4.4 trillion
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How many years did it take for Medicare to become so expensive that the federal government introduced a price-control system?
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18 years
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Today, the U.S. has about 27 physicians per 10,000 people while African nations have fewer than how many physicians per 10,000 people?
answer

1
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Which area in the world contains the highest number of people living with HIV/AIDS?
answer

Sub-Saharan Africa
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The fear of contracting AIDS probably has led to changes in sexual behavior in the U.S. among both homosexuals and heterosexuals. Which sociological perspective would focus on these changes in sexual relationships?
answer

interactionist perspective
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What reason do skeptics provide for why 43 percent of the people who live within 1 mile of hazardous waste treatment facilities in the U.S. do so?
answer

They like to live there due to low housing prices.
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Which sociological perspective suggests that the term “medicalization of society” refers to the growing role of medicine as a major institution of social control?
answer

conflict perspective
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Your textbook refers to “a state of complete physical, mental, and social well-being, and not merely the absence of disease and infirmity” as
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health
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Worldwide, 2.5 billion people do not have acceptable means of sanitation.
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True
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As of 2005, how much bottled water did the U.S. consume annually?
answer

7.5 billion gallons
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Which type of medicine refers to therapies in which the health care practitioner considers the person’s physical, mental, emotional, and spiritual characteristics?
answer

holistic
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Which of the following would be a cultural challenge to medicine for Ethiopians and Eritreans?
answer

may blame sorcery for miscarriages
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Brain drain
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the immigration to the United States and other industrialized nations of skilled workers, professionals, and technicians who are desperately needed in their home countries
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Culture-bound syndrome
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a disease that cannot be understood without the specific social context
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Environmental justice
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a disease that cannot be understood without the specific social context
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Health
answer

a disease that cannot be understood without the specific social context
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Holistic medicine
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therapies in which the health care practitioner considers the person’s physical, mental, emotional, spiritual characteristics
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Human ecology
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an area of study that is concerned with the interrelationships between people and their environment
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Indicence
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the number of new cases of a specific disorder that occur within a given population during a stated period
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Infant mortality rate
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the number of deaths per year of infants under 1 year old per 1,000 live births in a given year
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McDonaldization
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the process through which the principles of fast-food restaurants are coming to dominate more and more sectors of society
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Morbidity rate
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the incidence of disease in a given population
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Mortality rate
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the incidence of death in a given population
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Prevalence
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the total number of cases of a specific disorder that exist at a given time
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Sickrole
answer

societal expectations about the attitudes and behavior of a person viewed as being ill
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Which of the following illustrates relative deprivation?
answer

middle management workers in a corporation who are discontented because they cannot afford the luxury cars or expensive homes that their bosses have
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False consciousness is defined as
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attitudes that do not reflect the objective position of workers
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Karl Marx suggested human society will move toward the final stage of a classless society through a socialist revolution.
answer

True
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Which sociological perspective views transnational migration as having increased the economic gulf between developed and developing nations?
answer

conflict theory
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The most all-encompassing type of collective behavior is/are
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social movements.
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Which of the following is an example of material culture?
answer

technology
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Which term is used by sociologists to refer to organized collective activities aimed at bringing about fundamental changes in existing society?
answer

social movements
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Consistent with Immanuel Wallerstein’s world system analysis, peripheral nations connecting to the Internet are required to depend on industrial giants such as North America and Europe to serve as their
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Internet hosts
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Young people who have grown up surfing the web seem to accept the existence of “cookies” and “spyware” they may pick up while surfing.
answer

True
question

Large families are no longer economically necessary, nor are they commonly endorsed by social norms, but certain religious faiths continue to extol large families and disapprove of using contraception to limit family size. This example illustrates
answer

culture lag.
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Which theory of social change holds that society is moving in a definite direction?
answer

evolutionary theory
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Which term refers to the conscious feeling of a negative discrepancy between legitimate expectations and present actualities?
answer

relative deprivation
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According to conflict theorists, those with vested interests in preventing social change will often include
answer

corporations
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Which statement about the industrial revolution is true?
answer

Some people were resistant to the technological and social changes associated with the industrial revolution.
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By 2010, almost _______ people were connected to the Internet
answer

2 billion
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Social change is defined as
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significant alteration over time in behavior patterns and culture, including norms and values
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Which sociological perspective argues that when changes occur in one part of a society, there must be adjustments in other parts, and if these adjustments do not occur, the society’s equilibrium may be threatened?
answer

functionalist perspective
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The Internet evolved from a computer system built by the U.S. Defense Department in
answer

1962
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Which term does Karl Marx use to describe the change that human society will move toward in the development of social change?
answer

socialist revolution
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During the late 1960s, hippies tried to remake the United States. They wanted to substitute peace, brotherhood and sisterhood, and love and cooperation for the characteristics of capitalist society. Conflict theory would suggest they were engaged in a (an)
answer

socialist revolution
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In Talcott Parsons’s equilibrium model, the incorporation of groups that were previously excluded because of their race, ethnicity, and social class is known as
answer

inclusion
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Which sociologist has noted that the functionalist perspective’s emphasis on stability and the conflict perspective’s focus on change reflect the contradictory nature of society?
answer

Ralf Dahrendorf
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Culture lag
answer

a period of maladjustment when the nonmaterial culture is still struggling to adapt to the new material conditions
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Equilbrium model
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the functionalist view that society tends toward a state of stability or balance
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Evolutionary theory
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a theory of social change that holds that society is moving in a definite direction
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Relative deprivation
answer

the conscious feeling of a negative discrepancy between legitimate expectations and present actualities
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Resource mobilization
answer

the ways in which a social movement utilizes such resources as money, political influence, access to the media, and personnel
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Social change
answer

significant alteration over time in behavior patterns and culture, including norms and values
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Social movement
answer

an organized collective activity to bring about or resist fundamental change in an existing group or society
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Technology
answer

cultural information about the ways in which the material resources of the environment may be used to satisfy human needs and desires
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Vested interests
answer

those people or groups who will suffer in the event of social change, and who have a stake in maintaining the status quo

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