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(Test 2) inorganic chemistry

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What is inorganic chemistry?
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the chemistry of the carbon atom
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What is a valence electron and how many does a normal carbon atom have?
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valence electrons are the electrons in the outermost shell. There are 4 in carbon.
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What is matter?
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anything with mass that occupies space
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What is the basic unit of matter?
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the atom is the basic unit of matter.
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What is an atom?
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the smallest naturally devisable structure
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What is the structure of an atom like?
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it has a nucleus with subatomic particles i.e. protons and neutrons and the nucleus has an orbiting cloud of extremely small subatomic particles called electrons
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What are subatomic particles?
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electrons, protons, and neutrons
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What are the defining characteristics of an electron?
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It is negatively charged, it’s mass is barely recordable, and it is much easier to carry than a proton (because it is much lighter and smaller like a pea versus a bowling ball)
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What are the defining characteristics of a proton?
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It is positively charged and it has a mass of 1 AMU (Atomic Mass Units). Protons can be pumped because they follow electrons. (MORE TO EDIT THIS LATER)
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What are the defining characteristics of a neutron?
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It has a neutral charge so it is neither positively or negatively charged, and it has an approximate mass of 1 AMU (Atomic Mass Unit) (it can also be measured in Daltons)
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What is important to remember about atoms and what does that have to do with the periodic table?
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Every atom has an equal number of protons and electrons so they are electorally neutral. Mendeleev created the periodic table based on the number of Protons in an element.
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Where does the atomic number of an element on the periodic table come from?
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it is based on the number of protons in each element
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What does it mean when elements are vertically aligned on the periodic table?
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the families are lined up vertically and elements in families have the same number of electrons in the outer most shell (same number of valence electrons). The valence electrons don’t give the elements characteristics but it does help their reactivity.
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What does it mean when elements are set up horizontally across the periodic table?
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from right to left the elements increase by 1 valence electron (and therefore one proton) but they have the same number of energy level
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What is chemical behavior/ how a chemical reacts based on?
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how a chemical reacts is because of the number of valence electrons
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How can you tell when two atoms are a part of the same element?
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When atoms with the same atomic number and the same properties the atoms are said to belong to the same element.
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What is an element?
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it is any substance that can’t be broken down to any other substance by ordinary chemical means.
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How do you determine the atomic mass of an element?
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The atomic mass is equal to the sum of the masses of the protons and neutrons
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What is important about the number of protons and neutrons that are naturally occurring on earth?
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all known atoms (on earth) contain 1-92 protons and up to 146 neutrons.
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What is interesting about the charges of protons and electrons?
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An electron has an equal but opposite charge of a proton.
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What are units that measure mass?
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AMU’s or Atomic Mass Units or, better units called Daltons (which measure the mass of Hydrogen atoms)
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How many daltons does it take to make a gram?
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it takes 602 million billion daltons to make 1 gram
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How to you write an element on the periodic table?
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When writing you include the Atomic symbol of an element (CAPITAL then lowercase if there is a second letter of not then just capital) you also include the atomic number and the atomic mass number.
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What is an example (using carbon) of how something is written on the periodic table?
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Carbon 12 is carbon 12 because it has an atomic mass of 12 (the number of proton mass plus neutron mass so 6 neutrons and 6 protons) and carbon’s atomic number is 6 ( the number protons there are)
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What is important about pumping protons in plants?
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chloroplasts convert solar energy and mitochondria convert energy from chemical bonds by pumping protons.
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What is an Isotope?
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It is a super unstable version of an element that has the same atomic number but a different mass.
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How do isotopes work?
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Isotopes are technically just a different version of an element because the atomic number is the same (that’s why it is considered the same element and the atomic number comes from the number of protons). The reason why the atomic mass is different is because even though it has the same number of protons it has a different number of neutrons than the “normal” element.
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What is bonding?
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how atoms interact with each other to form molecules
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What do valence electrons have to do with bonding?
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things bond with other things when the number of valence electrons add up to the total amount possible this way the bond is more stable
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What is the “ranking” of the outermost layer and the number of valence electrons that each can hold?
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the 1st ring and always the inner most ring can hold up to 2 electrons the next ring or the second ring can hold up to 8 electrons.
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What does “Ranking” have to do with bonds?
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oxygen has 4 electrons on its outermost layer but it can have up to 8 so it will try to bond with other molecules that have a total of 4 because 4 + 4 = 8.
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What is a covalent bond?
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“sharing” of valence electrons for both molecules outer shell to be completed (both are contributing to be stable)
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What does it mean for something to be polar?
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(TBD)
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What is an example of a polar molecule? And how does this substance turn into a gas?
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water is polar and the bond needs to be broken to form a gas.
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What does it mean when a molecule is polar or not polar?
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when things are oppositely charged on either side (and therefore can attract to itself and other molecules of that charge)
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What is a good example of a double bond?
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CO2 is a good example of a double bond
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What makes something a double bond versus a covalent bond?
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A double bond has two pairs of electrons that are shared instead of just one
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What does it mean for something to be a linear molecule?
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linear is when the connection is 180*
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What are ionic bonds?
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transferred electrons from one atom to another
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What happens to atoms after an ionic bond? Even though this happens why is it still considered the same element?
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the atoms are no longer “atoms” because they are no longer neutrally charged so the atoms become ions. It is still considered the element because the number of Protons stays the same
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What happens when an atom loses an electron?
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it lost one negative charge so it becomes a positively charged ion or a cation
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What happens when an atom gains an electron?
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it gained one negative charge so it becomes a negatively charged ion or an anion
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What happens when you mix ions in water?
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they do a “dance” around the water and they dissociate with each other (or separate from each other)
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What happens when you take the water away from an ionic bond that has been submerged?
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It makes a crystal because it forms back together again
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What is an example of weak hydrogen bonds?
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water and DNA
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What are some characteristics of weak hydrogen bonds?
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They are NOT ONLY polar (but they can be), and they are very hard to break so it is hard for water to turn to gas unless put under pressure. One individual bond by itself is actually very easy to break but a bunch of them together is extremely hard to break (that’s why water has a gas conversion at 100* Celsius)
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What are Vander Waals forces? How do they work?
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they are a force of attraction (like how Geckos can climb up walls). this force of attraction is caused by uneven distribution of charges in molecules. (they are usually found in proteins because a large chain and a long chain can become a 3D shape)
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How are Vander Waals forces different from weak hydrogen bonds?
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though they are both forces of attraction however weak hydrogen bonds are bonds based on attractions that are only between hydrogen (MOLECULES? ATOMS?)
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What are buffers
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Substances that resist change in PH
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What are some examples of natural buffers in the outdoors?
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in lakes in mountains the water looks clean but there are no fish because the PH of the water is too low because of acid rain and the lake/ pond ran out of natural buffer or the sodium carbonate in rocks (which helps keep a PH of 6.5)
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What are some examples of natural buffers in the human body?
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There are buffers in portions/ blood. (when the blood goes to the stomach it takes hydrogen away when it goes to the small intestine it gives hydrogen.) in order for blood to help maintain homeostasis it has to maintain a constant PH
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What are indicators?
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a substance that shows the presence of another substance by a color change ( a qualitative observation)
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What are some examples of indicators and what do they indicate?
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PH paper (indicates both acids and bases and help measure the levels of acidity or bases that a substance is), Red litmus paper (ACID OR BASE??????) Blue litmus paper (ACID OR BASE??????) and bromenthymal blue aka BTB (is an indicator for acids like carbon dioxide)
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Whatare chemical reactions and how do they work?
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(TBD)
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What are the 3 different types of mixtures?
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solutions, suspensions, and colloids
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What are solutions and how do they work?
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solutions are a homogenous (when the solute is evenly distributed in the solvent) mixture where molecules are small enough to be completely dissolved
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What happens when there is an over saturation of a solute?
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when the solute is over saturated it precipitates out because there isn’t enough solvent for it to dissolve into and also remain evenly distributed so it just doesn’t dissolve.
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What is a solvent?
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the substance that the solute dissolves in (water is the universal solvent)
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What is a solute?
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it is the substance that can dissolve in the solvent (it can be a solid, liquid, or gas)
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What are suspensions?
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heterogenous (not completely dissolved) mixture but particles are too large to dissolve, thus they settle out
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What are colloids and how do they work?
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colloids are homogenous (evenly distributed) mixture where particles are too large to dissolve but too small to settle out so they stay suspended. The way they stay up is called BROWN (still not sure of the suffix) in motion because Robert Brown saw the molecules vibrating (the electrons etc. are TBD)