Test #2 CH. 6 7 8 & 9 – Flashcards

Unlock all answers in this set

Unlock answers
question
Old St. Peter's
answer
**Early Christian** Rome, 318-322 -Would become a model for future churches -The first cathedral church and basilica founded by Constantine in Rome to honor the martyred St. Peter (first high priest of the Christians) -Considered the most significant of the Early Christian basilicas. -It was torn down in the early 16th century in order to build a new structure -St. Peter was buried under an apse (tomb)
question
S. Costanza
answer
**Early Christian** Rome, 350 -Mausoleum and chapel -Built for Constantine's two daughters, Constantia and Helena -Put "direct physical emphasis on the person or place to be honored" -It has a circular ringed design and domed ceiling -It was built of brick-faced concrete -Incorporated many mosaics, vault mosaics, and mosaics of ambulatorys into it's structure -Held a sarcophegus inside for the orthodox baptistry -Twelve corinthian columns, create twelve arches that hold up the dome which has twelve windows. (This could be a reference to the twelve apostles) -The key part of this design is the ambulatory -The Apses, Central Dome, and Ambulatory give prime examples of early Christian art and architecture.
question
Mausoleum of Galla Placidia
answer
**Early Christian** Ravenna, Italy, 425, -Coantained Galla Placida's (patron of the arts) sarcophegus -Used the arch form for decorative purposes -The maseuleum was made up of domes, barrel vaults, and glass mosaics. -Ravenna becomes an artistically important place of worship and burial. -Laid out in a cruciform floor plan, with a central dome on pendentives and barrel vaults over the four transepts. -The exterior of the dome is enclosed in a square tower -The interior is covered with Byzantine mosaics allowing light to glisten through
question
Cathedral
answer
The principal Christian church building that hosts a bishop. Literally translates to "throne of bishop" -The building of cathedrals often symbolize both struggle and ingenuity -The inside of a cathedral is often embellished.
question
Nave
answer
The long central part of a church, extending from the entrance to the altar, with aisles along the sides; A long hall.
question
Side Aisle
answer
One of the smaller aisles running parallel to the nave of a church and separated from it by a colonnade.
question
Apse
answer
A domed or vaulted recess (projection), usually semicircular, in the wall of a Roman basilica or at the east end of a church. **St. Peter was buried under and apse (similar to a tomb)
question
Clerestory
answer
-The windowed part of a building that rises above the roofs of the other parts. -In Roman basilicas and medieval churches, the windows that form the nave's uppermost level below the vaults. -A row of windows in the upper part of a wall
question
Nave Arcade
answer
The series of arches supported by piers seperating the nave from the side aisles
question
Mosaic
answer
Art consisting of a design made of small pieces of colored stone or glass. Aesthetically pleasing way of allowing light into structures
question
Baptistry
answer
A building used for baptism (an act, experience, or ordeal by which one is purified, sanctified, initiated, or named)
question
Mausoleum
answer
A large burial chamber, usually above ground
question
Ambulatory
answer
The passage (walkway) around the apse in a basilican church or around the central space in a central-plan church
question
Transept
answer
The part of a church with an axis that crosses the nave at a right angle. It helps form the cross floor plan
question
Crossing
answer
The space in a cruciform church formed by the intersection of the nave and the transept
question
Atrium
answer
Central area in a building, used for baptism
question
Narthex
answer
A portico (porch) generally colonnaded or arcaded that precedes the nave
question
Early Christian
answer
**4th-early 6th centuries** -The emergence and growth of Christianity in the Roman Empire coincided with the decline of Roman political strenth and the increased threats of Barbarian invasions -This period of time sought an art and architecture which gave emphasis to the inner person, the spirit, or the soul. -Represented a fusuon of ideas and religious practices that came from the Jews, the Greeks, the Egyptians, the Persians, and the Romans.
question
Sant'Apollinare in Classe
answer
**Byzantine** Ravenna, Italy, 532-549 -Bell tower -Open rafters -clerestory windows -No Seating -Central space was for the procession -Ambulatory was for everyone else -Apse had thin marble for windows -Image of Sant' Apollinare in heaven is above the apse -At this time, the average person wasn't exposed to images, the only images seen were in church
question
Hagia Sophia
answer
**Major Structure** **Byzantine** Constantinople (Istanbul, Turkey), 532-537 -By Anthemius of Tralles and Isidorus of Miletus -Most famous example of Byzantine architecture, -It was ruined by rioters -It was rebuilt by Justinian -Became a mosque in 1453 AD -Used today as a museum -4 minarets -Has a central dome braced by half domes and buttresses on the North and South -Pendentives in dome )triangular section of a sphere that supports dome's rim -2 Narthexes (arcaded porch) -Groin vaulting in the larger narthex -Main door was used only for the emperor -Corinthian Variations in the nave -Side aisles have groin vaults -The blue mosque was influenced by the Hagia Sophia -Hagia Sophia=Holy Sophia **cathedral of Holy Wisdom
question
St. Vitale
answer
***Byzantine** Ravenna, Italy 538-548/Users/owner2/Desktop/plan-labeled.gif -Basilica -Octagonal plan -Central dome space -Built under direction of Justinian to show his power -Roman elements: the dome, shape of doorways, and stepped towers -Byzantine elements: polygonal apse, capitals, and narrow bricks. -Has a longer apse than most churches -Known for its Byzantine mosaics
question
S. Marco
answer
**Byzantine** Venice, Italy rebuilt starting in 1063 -Nave -Mosaic -Marble -Domes -Pendentives
question
Pendentive
answer
A construction shaped like a triangle that transitions the space between square walls and the base of a round dome
question
Gallery
answer
a covered corridor (especially one extending along the wall of a building and supported with arches or columns)
question
Half-dome
answer
a dome 'split', used in niches and alongside other domes with pendentives. used in byzantine and later, roman architecture.
question
Buttress
answer
a support or prop
question
Latin Cross Plan
answer
a cross-shaped building plan, incorporating one longer stem (nave) and three arms of equal length. The common form for a Christian church.
question
Centralized Plan
answer
A plan that is basically radially symetrical (like a circle or a square or a snowflake) usually with a central dome, an ambulatory, pendentives, and lunettes
question
Longitudinal Plan
answer
any structure designed with a rectangular shape; the nave is longer than the transept, and in which parts are symmetrical against an axis; ex: basilica
question
Greek Cross Plan
answer
Church plan with a square central mass and four arms of equal length (Byzantine)
question
Dome of Rock
answer
**Islamic Art** Jerusalem 687-691 -1st major work of Islamic architecture -resting on a plateau that is sacred for all 3 religions -Dome with ambulatories around it -Corinthian capitals -No images of gods, animals, or humans on any mosques -Just decorations -Muhammad was lifted into Heaven here -Central part of the dome is a rock -Barrel vault for entrance -Prayer niche (Qibla) that orients you toward Mecca -Pointed arches on the apse
question
Masjid-I-Shah
answer
**Islamic Art** Isfahan, Iran, 1611-1630 -Has courtyard -Half dome entrance -Blue tile outside dome which is symbolic of heaven** -Minbar (platform for leader of prayer) next to the Mihrab -Has bazaar (marketplace) -Shan mosque
question
Taj Mahal
answer
**Major Structure** **Islamic Art** Agra, India, 1631-1647 -Shah Jehan built this tomb for his wife who died (her name is Mumtaz Mahal) -Has 4 minarets -Gateway is red sandstone -White marble makes it look like its glowing -Sarcophagus is in the middle of the room -Tomb is located below the sarcophagus -The last passage of the Koran is around the entranceway -Two identical guest houses in mosque is on either side
question
Mosque of Suleyman the Magnificent
answer
**Islamic Art** Istanbul, Turkey 1550-1557 -Built by Sinan (contempt architect who built the mosque) -4 minarets, multiple domes(5)/half domes -Flying buttress to support largest dome -Courtyard, prayer hall, mausoleum
question
Great Mosque Cordoba
answer
**Islamic Art** Spain, 785 with later extensions 833-988 -Courtyard in front -Great hall with columns -It has a Mihrab and Qibla -Minaret at mosque -Arches were used in a decorative way -Alternating colors in voussoirs -Scalloped arches -Use of classical columns -Horseshoe arches
question
Muhammad
answer
the Arab prophet who established islam in Mecca and then Medina -He heard voices telling him to create new religion and created the 5 pillars 1. Recognize 1 god 2. Haj-Trip to mecca 3. Charity to the poor 4. Praying 5 times a day 5. Ramadan (fasting)
question
Koran
answer
the sacred writings of Islam revealed by God to the prophet Muhammad during his life at Mecca and Medina
question
Mosque
answer
(Islam) a Muslim place of worship Usually has a gateway to courtyard (fountain, bath or pool for ritual washing) also has a great hall with columns that supper the roof
question
Qibla
answer
Wall that faces Mecca that has a focus called the Mihrab
question
Mihrab
answer
Focal point that directs one to Mecca
question
Minaret
answer
slender tower with balconies, calls people to prayer
question
Horseshoe Arch
answer
An arch of more than a half circle which is typical in Islamic architecture
question
Minbar
answer
in a mosque, the pulpit on which the imam (leader of prayer) stands
question
Sinan
answer
Greatest of all Ottoman architects; built 81 mosques including Suleymaniye Mosque in Istanbul
question
Palatine Chapel
answer
**Carolingian** Aachen (Germany) 792-805 -Odo was the Architect -Chapel survives -People gathered in atrium -Centralized plan -Octagon shaped chapel -Groin vault in ambulatory -Clerestory windows
question
Plan of St. Gall
answer
**Carolingian** Gal 817 -Self sufficient community -Gardens, stables, winery, hospital -surrounds church -Some people were their to heal while others just worked for the church -Sent to an abbot but was never built in Switzerland
question
Cloister
answer
a courtyard with covered walks
question
Westwerk
answer
Western towers of a carolingian church
question
Speyer Cathedral
answer
**Romanesque** Speyer (Germany) 1030-1061 -Has long nave -Towers flank the apse -Layout reflects St. Peter's -Groin vaults were built later for the nave -Clerestory windows above nave arcade
question
St Foy
answer
**Romanesque** Conques, France -Abbey Church -Vertical elements (towers) easily seen from distant views -Entrance on West side -Apse on East side -Ambulatory around the apse -East end was controlled by the clergy -West end was controlled by the town -Radiating chapels off of ambulatory -Barrel vaults over the nave and stone to protect nave if wooden roof is on fire -Theme was standard (last judgement at the West entrance) showing the good people on the left, and the bad (in hell) on the right
question
Saint Etienne
answer
**Romanesque** Caen, France 1068-1120 -Abbey of the men -Two towers -New system where ribs were used on inner section of the barrel vaults, allowing clerestory windows -Rib vaults allow less scaffolding -Webbing of stones is then placed in between rib vaults -Not a pilgrimage church
question
S. Miniato Al Monte
answer
**Romanesque** Florence, Italy 1062-1090 -On plateau -not a cathedral -focus was on the west end -no transepts -nave and side aisles -open rafters -half dome over apse -Entrance with white marble and black stone
question
Abbey S. Denis
answer
**Gothic** France. 1137-1144 -First gothic church**where gothic style began -Abbot Suger was the Abbot of St. Denis -in shape of a cross plan -flying buttresses allow higher structures -Pointed arch -Abstract stained glass allowed for more light to shine through -God's presence meant "light" -light, open, lots of windows -Buttress helped prevent damage from -St Denis was decapitated and walked 13 miles holding his head until he collapse -They built a monastery where he collapsed -They also built a fountain where he washed off his bloody head -Rose window representing Mary
Get an explanation on any task
Get unstuck with the help of our AI assistant in seconds
New