Test 2 – Chemistry Flashcard

Polyatomic Anions
Hydroxide
OH?
Polyatomic Anions
Carbonte
CO2 ?3
Polyatomic Anions
Nitrate
NO ?3
Polyatomic Anions
Sulfate
SO2 ?4
Polyatomic Anions
Phosphate
PO3 ?4
Ferric Ion
Fe +3
Ferrous ion
Fe +2
Cupric Ion
Cu +2
Cuprous Ion
Cu +1
Stannic ion
Sn +4
Stannous ion
Sn +2
What is the most abundant mineral in your body?
Calcium
Metals usually occur as positively charged ions called cations.
True
Nonmetal atoms usually occur as negatively charged ions called anions.
True
What are the most important cations in your body?
Sodium
Potassium
The addition of salt to water _____ the water’s freezing point.
Lowers
Define: Salt
ionic compounds in which the anion is neither oxide nor hydroxide
What corner of the periodic table has the strongest electromagnetivity?
Top right corner
Most but not all salts dissolve in water to form ions
True
Define: Electrolytes
salts which dissolve in water to form ions are called electrolytes
Give an example of an electrolyte
NaCl
LiNO3
Ca(NO3(2
Is sugar an electrolyte?
No
Placing an electrolyte in water ____ the freezing point of water but it ____ raises the boiling point of water
lowers
raises
Why is calcium important in the body?
It is prominent in bones and teeth
blood clotting
muscle contraction
transmission of nerve impulses
Selected Anions
iodide
I-
Selected anions
fluoride
F-
Selected anions
nitrate
NO3 –
Selected anions
phosphate
PO4 -3
About how many known compounds are there? How many of those are organic compounds?
15 million
12 million
Define: organic compound
the main element is carbon (lots of H, too)
Define: catenator
the ability of the atoms of an element to form bonds with themselves
Carbon is the best catenator on the periodic table
True
Does C form strong covalent bonds?
Yes
Identify the subfamilies of hydrocarbons
Alkanes
Cycloalkanes
Alkenes
Alkynes
Aromatics
What is the general formula for aklanes?
C m H 2m+2
What bonds will you find in alkanes?
c-to-c single bonds or c-to-h single bonds
Methane
CH4
Ethane
C2H6
Propane
C3H8
Butane
C4H10
Pentane
C5H12
Hexane
C6H14
Heptane
C7H16
Octane
C8H18
Nonane
C9H20
Decane
C10H22
List the first ten unbranched chain alkanes
Methane
Ethane
Propane
Butane
Pentane
Hexane
Heptane
Octane
Nonane
Decane
What is the main component of natural gas?
methane
What is propane used for?
heating fuel, gas grills, gas fireplaces
What is butane used for?
Bic lighters
Solid unbranched alkanes are…
waxy, water-repellent compounds which are naturally found on plant surfaces, like leaves, and prevent water loss
In line-angle formulas, the ends of line segments, and the intersection of two line segments, represent carbon atoms.
True
Define: structural isomers
they have the same molecular formula but different structural formulas
CFC’s are the products of alkane halogenation reactions.
True
Define: cycloalkanes
hydrocarbons with the general formula CmH2m in which some or all of the carbon atoms form rings
Define: alkenes
Hydrocarbons which contain one or more carbon-to-carbon double bonds. Alkenes with only one double bond have the general formula CmH2m.
Simplest alkene is C2H4 (ethene; ethylene)
it is the most important organic chemical compound
Define: Alkyne
Hydrocarbons which contain at least one carbon-to-carbon triple bond. Alkynes having only one triple bond have the general formula CmH2m-2
Alkynes are unsaturated
true
Define: aromatics
Hydrocarbons that have alternating double and single bonds.
What is the most common aromatic?
Benzene
What are the fossil fuels? (3)
Coal
Petroleum (Crude Oil)
Natural Gas
Identify the formula for coal:
C135H96O9NS
Grades of coal from lowest carbon to highest carbon:
peat
lignite (brown coal)
bituminous coal (soft coal)
anthracite
The ____ the carbon content, the more energy released when the coal is burned.
Higher
Major sources of coal (countries):
North America, Russia, Middle East
Define: petroleum
A complex liquid mixture containing mostly hydrocarbons.
Define: fractional distillation
Because it is a liquid mixture, various “fractions” of petroleum can be separated from each other based on boiling point.

Distillation is the process by which the components of a liquid mixture are separated from each other based on differing boiling points. As the mixture is heated, the low-boiling components turn to gas first, then the medium-boiling components, then the high-boiling components.

Define: cracking
Cracking is a chemical process by which molecules with longer carbon chains are broken into smaller ones suitable for gasoline.
Premature ignition and knocking
Unbranched alkanes and cycloalkanes tend to ignite prematurely and just from compression – they don’t wait for a spark. Leads to poor fuel efficiency.
Which has better combustion properties?
Branched-chain alkanes
Define: reforming
Converting unbranched chain hydrocarbons to branched-chain hydrocarbons.
Define: octane number
a measure of the ability of a gasoline to generate power without engine knocking
Define: allotropes
Different forms of the same element in the same physical state.
Define: phase diagram
A phase diagram is a graph which shows the stable forms of a substance at various combinations of temperature and pressure.

Pressure is plotted on the y-axis and temperature is on the x-axis.

Define: nanotechnology
The development of tiny, molecular machines
Define: polymers
substances with the same (or similar) structural units repeating again and again, long chains being formed; the structural units are called monomers
Examples of natural polymers:
DNA
Proteins
Chitin
Wool
Silk
Chewing gum
Rubber
Define: proteins
polymers consisting of small compounds called amino acids joined together in long chains
Define: copolymer
A polymer consisting of two or more different monomers
Define: condensation polymer
A polymer in which the monomers are joined together via removal of a small molecule
Polycarbonates are an important type of condensation copolymer. What are they like and what are they used for?
These are tough, clear-as-glass, polymers used in bullet-proof windows, lab safety glasses, and baby bottles.
Define: addition polymers
Polymers formed by many monomers adding together – without the loss of any atoms – to form a long chain.
A very important addition polymer is polyethylene.
Two hydrocarbons with a double bond; 4 hydrogens

It is used in food wrap, artificial knees, and bullet-proof vests

Another addition polymer is polyvinyl chloride (PVC.)
2 Carbons double bonded together, 3 H, 1 Cl

PVC has many uses; plasticizers are added to PVC to make it flexible

Polystyrene is a very important addition polymer
Used in CD cases, plastic utensils, plastic razors, Styrofoam, cups, etc
Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) is an important addition polymer
2 Carbons double bonded together with 4 F molecules

PTFE is highly chemical resistant and water repelling. It ahs a very low coefficient of friction. Used as teflon and on bullets.

Polyisoprene is natural rubber.
It stretches but it doesn’t snap back to the natural position. That means it needs to be vulcanized.
Define: PAH
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Naphthalene is a PAH. They enter the environment from a number of combustion sources.
VSEPR Type
AX4
Tetrahedral
VSEPR Type
AX3E
Trigonal pyramidal
VSEPR Type
AX2E2
Bent
VSEPR Type
AX3
Trigonal planar

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