Test 1 Chp 4 Essay

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1. Digital Savvy consumers are leading edge digital users who are early adopters and diffusers of information related to technology in terms of ____ A. Internet usage. B. technology ownership. C. cell phone usage. D. a and b. E. all of the above.
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E. all of the above.
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2. Which of the following describes a population in terms of its size, distribution, and structure? A. geographics B. psychographics C. demographics D. censographics E. behaviorgraphics
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C. demographics
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3. Harriett wants to describe the population of a new market in which her firm wishes to enter. She wants to describe the population in terms of its size, distribution, and structure. Which of the following should she use? A. psychographics B. behaviorgraphics C. censographics D. demographics E. geographics
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D. demographics
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4. Age, gender, education, occupation, and income are examples of _____ variables. A. demographic B. holographic C. geographic D. psychographic E. censographics
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A. demographic
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5. What is the approximate population of the United States today? A. 100 million B. 249 million C. 316 million D. 350 million E. 498 million
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C. 316 million
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6. Which of the following is NOT a reason why the population of the United States has grown steadily since 1960? A. longer life expectancies B. increasing birth rate for most of the period between 1960 and today C. immigration D. baby boomers moving through child-bearing years E. all of the above are reasons why the population of the United States has grown
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B. increasing birth rate for most of the period between 1960 and today
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7. Which of the following is true regarding the size and distribution of the population of the United States? A. The population of the United States is approximately 250 million today. B. The population has grown steadily since 1960 due birth rates that have always been on the increase. C. The growth has not been even throughout the United States. D. Midwest states, such as Michigan and Illinois, are expected to grow dramatically in the next ten years. E. The population of the United States has continued to decrease since 1960.
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C. The growth has not been even throughout the United States.
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8. Which of the following is the most widely applied single cue we use to initially evaluate and define individuals we meet? A. age B. income C. occupation D. gender E. education
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C. occupation
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9. Which of the following is strongly associated with occupation? A. income B. education C. age D. a and b E. a, b, and c
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D. a and b
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10. Approximately what percentage of the U.S. population has a high school degree? A. 25% B. 40% C. 50% D. 75% E. 87%
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E. 87%
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11. Approximately what percentage of the U.S. population has completed college? A. 30% B. 43% C. 50% D. 75% E. 87%
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A. 30%
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12. Juan is interested in knowing occupational influences on purchases of satellite radio systems. Which of the following occupations are most likely to purchase this type of product? A. wholesale and retail trade B. professional, scientific and technical C. mining and construction D. a and c E. all of the above
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B. professional, scientific and technical
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13. Which of the following statements regarding education is FALSE? A. Education is increasingly critical for a “family wage” job. B. Traditional high-paying manufacturing jobs that required relatively little education are rapidly disappearing. C. Education clearly drives income in today’s economy. D. Education does not influence how one thinks, makes decisions, and relates to others. E. Education has a strong influence on one’s tastes and preferences.
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D. Education does not influence how one thinks, makes decisions, and relates to others.
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14. A household’s purchasing power is a function of which of the following? A. income and accumulated wealth B. age and gender C. income and education D. occupation and income E. social class and education
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A. income and accumulated wealth
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15. Approximately what percent of American adults is functionally illiterate? A. 20% B. 43% C. 5% D. 10% E. 30%
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A. 20%
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16. Taittinger is a famous champagne maker in France. Part of this company’s market research of U.S. consumers looked at education levels of champagne consumers. What education level is the likely consumer of champagne to have attained? A. did not graduate high school B. graduated high school C. attended college D. graduated college E. none of the above
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D. graduated college
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17. What is the movement called in which companies have expanded opportunities for less affluent consumers to afford luxury? A. mass to class B. class to mass C. more to all D. one for all E. all for one
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B. class to mass
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18. An estimate by the consumer of how much money he or she has available to spend on nonessentials is known as _____. A. objective discretionary income (ODI) B. adjusted gross income (AGI) C. adjusted discretionary income (ADI) D. subjective discretionary income (SDI) E. subjective gross income (SGI)
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D. subjective discretionary income (SDI)
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19. The Martins’ household income is $123,000 per year. However, this family estimates that they have $45,000 available to spend on nonessentials such as vacations and entertainment. The $45,000 represents the Martins’ _____. A. objective discretionary income (ODI) B. adjusted gross income (AGI) C. adjusted discretionary income (ADI) D. subjective discretionary income (SDI) E. subjective gross income (SGI)
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D. subjective discretionary income (SDI)
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20. Which of the following statements regarding age is true? A. Proper age positioning is critical for many products. B. Age affects a consumer’s self-concept and lifestyle. C. Our age shapes the media we use. D. Analyzing age cohort groups or generations often provides more meaningful segments and marketing strategies than merely looking at census age groups. E. all of the above
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E. all of the above
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21. Which age category is expected to experience the largest percentage increase between 2010 and 2020? A. 69
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D. 60-69
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22. Procter & Gamble is a major consumer packaged goods manufacturer. Which age category provides the greatest opportunity for P&G in terms of growth between 2010 and 2020? A. 69
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D. 60-69
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23. One’s perceived age, a part of one’s self-concept, is known as _____. A. felt age B. real age C. cognitive age D. perceptual age E. chronological age
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C. cognitive age
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24. Gertrude is 93 years old, but she perceives herself to be about 65 years old. Sixty-five is Gertrude’s _____ age. A. felt age B. real age C. cognitive age D. perceptual age E. chronological age
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C. cognitive age
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25. Which of the following variables is associated with cognitive age? A. health B. education C. income D. social support E. all of the above
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E. all of the above
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26. Sam is a healthy 75 year old man. He is a retired attorney, has a substantial retirement income, and is a member of several social groups that travel, help others, and encourage life-long learning. Which of the following is most likely true about Sam? A. Sam’s cognitive age is less than 75. B. Sam’s cognitive age is 75. C. Sam’s cognitive age is greater than 75. D. Sam’s cognitive age is 50. E. Sam’s cognitive age is 85.
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A. Sam’s cognitive age is less than 75.
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27. A(n) _____ is a group of persons who have experienced a common social, political, historical, and economic environment. A. census age group B. age cohort C. cognitive group D. chronological group E. demographic group
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B. age cohort
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28. _____ is the process of describing and explaining the attitudes, values, and behaviors of an age group as well as predicting its future attitudes, values, and behaviors. A. Census analysis B. Demographic analysis C. Generation analysis D. Cognitive analysis E. Cohort analysis
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E. Cohort analysis
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29. Maria is analyzing the baby boom generation by describing and explaining its attitudes, values, and behaviors as well as predicting its future attitudes, values, and behaviors. Maria is conducting a _____ analysis. A. cohort B. generational C. demographic D. census E. cognitive
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A. cohort
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30. _____ deals with the mature market and is based on the theory that people change their outlook on life when they experience major life events such as becoming a grandparent, retiring, losing a spouse, or developing chronic health conditions. A. Demographics B. Gerontographics C. Cognitive psychology D. Cohort analysis E. Generational analysis
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B. Gerontographics
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31. Individuals born before 1930 belong to which generation? A. pre-Depression generation B. Depression generation C. baby boom generation D. Generation X E. Generation Y
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A. pre-Depression generation
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32. Harold was born in 1923. He entered young adulthood during World War II, and served in the Navy during that war. He has witnessed radical social, economic, and technological change in his lifetime. To which generation does he belong? A. pre-Depression generation B. Depression generation C. baby boom generation D. Generation X E. Generation Y
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A. pre-Depression generation
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33. Consumers 55 years of age and over constitute the _____ market. A. baby boom B. mature C. generational D. gerontological E. aging
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B. mature
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34. Elsie and her two sisters are all in their mid- to late-sixties. They are part of the _____ market. A. Generation X B. mature C. generational D. gerontological E. aging
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B. mature
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35. Which generation is NOT part of the mature market? A. pre-Depression B. Depression C. Generation X D. baby boom E. all of the above are part of the mature market
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C. Generation X
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36. Which of the following is a segmentation approach to the mature market that incorporates aging processes and life events related to the physical health and mental outlook of older consumers? A. Gerontographics B. Cognitive psychology C. Demographics D. Ageographics E. Censographics
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A. Gerontographics
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37. Which cohort was born between 1930 and 1945? A. pre-Depression generation B. Depression generation C. baby boom generation D. Generation X E. Generation Y
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B. Depression generation
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38. Xavier was born in 1940. He was too young to remember World War II, and he matured during the prosperous years of the 1950s and early 1960s. His favorite singer was, and still is, Elvis Presley. To which generation does he belong? A. pre-Depression generation B. Depression generation C. baby boom generation D. Generation X E. Generation Y
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B. Depression generation
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39. Which generation “invented” rock and roll and grew up with music and television as important parts of their lives? A. pre-Depression generation B. Depression generation C. baby boom generation D. Generation X E. Generation Y
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B. Depression generation
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40. Which of the following is a segment of mature consumers? A. Healthy Indulgers B. Ailing Outgoers C. Healthy Hermits D. Frail Recluses E. all of the above
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E. all of the above
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41. Which segment of mature consumers is physically and mentally healthy and is thus active, independent, and out to enjoy life? A. Healthy Indulgers B. Ailing Indulgers C. Ailing Outgoers D. Frail Recluses E. Healthy Hermits
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A. Healthy Indulgers
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42. _____ have experienced health problems which limit their physical activities, but their positive outlook means they remain active within physical constraints. A. Healthy Hermits B. Ailing Indulgers C. Ailing Outgoers D. Frail Recluses E. Healthy Recluses
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C. Ailing Outgoers
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43. People in this group retain their physical health, but life events (i.e., death of a spouse) have reduced their self-concept and they become withdrawn. A. Healthy Indulgers B. Ailing Outgoers C. Healthy Hermits D. Frail Recluses E. Ailing Indulgers
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C. Healthy Hermits
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44. This segment of mature consumers has accepted their old-age status and has adjusted their lifestyles to reflect reduced physical capabilities and social roles. A. Healthy Indulger B. Ailing Outgoer C. Healthy Hermit D. Frail Recluse E. Ailing Hermit
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D. Frail Recluse
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45. Which of the following is true regarding the baby boom market? A. Boomers are tech savvy. B. Boomers are empty nesters who are downsizing. C. Boomers are retiring early and wealthy. D. Boomers have the same values and outlook. E. Boomers are self-centered.
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A. Boomers are tech savvy.
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46. The largest, most diverse generational segment is A. Generation X. B. Generation Y. C. Generation Z. D. baby boomers. E. tweens.
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D. baby boomers.
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47. Which boomer segment, identified by Focalyst, is highly connected with friends and community, which may explain their positive outlook? A. yesterday B. today C. tomorrow D. futurists E. optimists
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C. tomorrow
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48. Which generation refers to those individuals born during the dramatic increase of births (i.e., almost 80 million baby births) between the end of World War II and 1964? A. pre-Depression generation B. Depression generation C. baby boom generation D. Generation X E. Generation Y
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C. baby boom generation
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49. John was born in 1955, and he has only known prosperity in his lifetime. He remembers when President Kennedy was assassinated, primarily because his family purchased their first color television not long after that event. While he remembers the Vietnam War, he was too young to be drafted. To which generation does he belong? A. pre-Depression generation B. Depression generation C. baby boom generation D. Generation X E. Generation Y
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C. baby boom generation
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50. Which generation is considered to be more self-centered, individualistic, economically optimistic, skeptical, suspicious of authority, and focused on the present than other generations? A. pre-Depression generation B. Depression generation C. baby boom generation D. Generation X E. Generation Y
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C. baby boom generation
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51. Robert and his wife, Jan, were both born in the 1950s. The last of their three children will graduate from college soon, which is leaving them with increased discretionary income and time. To which generation do Robert and Jan belong? A. pre-Depression generation B. Depression generation C. baby boom generation D. Generation Z E. Generation Y
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C. baby boom generation
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52. Which of the following is a reason why more baby boomers continue to work longer than previous generations? A. necessary due to a low income of some baby boomers B. necessary due to a poor pension plan C. due to changes in Social Security increasing the age at which full benefits can be drawn D. increased desire to stay active in interesting and rewarding careers E. all of the above
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E. all of the above
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53. Which generation was born between 1965 and 1976? A. Generation Z B. Depression generation C. baby boom generation D. Generation X E. Generation Y
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D. Generation X
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54. Nick was born in 1972. As long as he can remember, his mother worked outside the home. When he was 12, his parents divorced, which was hard on him, but the same thing happened to several of his friends. When both of his parents remarried, his view of a family changed to include all of his step-sisters and brothers. To which generation does he belong? A. Generation Z B. Depression generation C. baby boom generation D. Generation X E. Generation Y
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D. Generation X
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55. Which generation is both cynical and sophisticated about products, ads, and shopping? A. Generation Y B. Generation X C. baby boom D. echo boom E. boomerang
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B. Generation X
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56. Which generation was the first to gain a very broad view of a family, which may include parents, siblings, stepparents, half-siblings, close friends, live-in lovers, and others? A. Depression generation B. baby boom generation C. Generation X D. Generation Y E. Millennials
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C. Generation X
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57. Roger is an adult who has moved back in with his parents. He doesn’t believe in sacrificing time, energy, and relations to the extent he sees older workers do for the sake of career or economic advancement. He has a master’s degree but does not want to work for a large corporation. To which generation does Roger most likely belong? A. pre-Depression generation B. Depression generation C. baby boom generation D. Generation X E. Generation Y
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D. Generation X
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58. Individuals born between 1977 and 1994 belong to which generation? A. baby boom B. Generation X C. Generation Y D. Generation Z E. Millennial generation
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C. Generation Y
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59. Amie was born in 1991. Her mother is a college professor, and her father is an attorney. She’s not sure what she wants to do when she grows up, but she knows she will go to college and embark on a career of her own. She was amazed when her grandmother told her that women really couldn’t do that when she was young. If a woman did work, choices were usually limited to becoming a teacher, a secretary, or a nurse. Her grandmother told her that she was a secretary, but after she started having children, she left the workforce and stayed home to raise her children, which was common for most women at that time. That concept was totally foreign to Amie. To which generation does she belong? A. baby boom B. Generation X C. Generation Y D. Generation Z E. Millennial generation
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C. Generation Y
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60. The children of the original baby boomers are known as _____. A. the baby bust generation B. Generation X C. Generation Y D. Generation Z E. the Millennial generation
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C. Generation Y
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61. Generation Y is sometimes referred to as the _____. A. baby bust generation B. echo boom C. boomerangs D. baby boomlet E. step-boomers
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B. echo boom
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62. Placing ads in videogames is known as _____. A. video advertising B. integrated advertising C. advergaming D. message integration E. entertainment integration
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C. advergaming
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63. The newest generation born after 1994 is referred to as _____. A. the baby boom generation B. Generation X C. Generation Y D. Generation Z E. Tweens
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D. Generation Z
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64. Erin is 12 years old. Which label is appropriate for Erin? A. little kid B. big kid C. Generation X D. Generation Z E. young adult
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D. Generation Z
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65. Stephanie is 17 and belongs to the high school drill team. One of her best friends is Bobby, the team manager who is openly gay. Which label is appropriate for Stephanie? A. Tween B. Generation Z C. Generation X D. young adult E. gay friendly teen
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B. Generation Z
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66. Late adolescents and early teens are known as _________. A. little kids B. big kids C. tweens D. Generation X E. young adults
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C. tweens
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67. One’s position relative to others on one or more dimensions valued by society is known as one’s _____. A. societal rank B. social status C. social standing D. social sphere E. social realm
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A. societal rank
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68. A hierarchical division of a society into relatively distinct and homogeneous groups with respect to attitudes, values, and lifestyles is known as a _____. A. social stratum B. social class system C. caste system D. social continuum E. societal ranking
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B. social class system
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69. The more consistent an individual is on all status dimensions, the greater the degree of _____ for the individual. A. status maturity B. status permanence C. status inflexibility D. status crystallization E. status flexibility
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D. status crystallization
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70. Carl is a physician earning $300,000 per year. Using the Coleman-Rainwater system, identify the social class to which Carl belongs A. upper-upper B. lower-upper C. upper-middle D. middle E. working
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C. upper-middle
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71. Which term describes consumers’ purchase and use of automobiles, homes, yachts, clothes, and so forth primarily to demonstrate their great wealth? A. conspicuous consumption B. outrageous consumption C. obnoxious consumption D. nouveaux consumption E. “blue blood” consumption
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A. conspicuous consumption
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72. Nouveaux riches are most commonly associated with the _____. A. upper-middle class B. middle class C. lower-upper class D. upper-upper class E. none of the above
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C. lower-upper class
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73. The upper-middle class achieve their social position primarily _____. A. through their unusually high incomes B. by their occupation and career orientation C. through inherited position D. through their children’s accomplishments E. none of the above
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B. by their occupation and career orientation
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74. Which social class consists of skilled and semiskilled factory, service, and sales workers? A. upper-middle B. middle class C. working class D. upper-lower class E. lower-lower class
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C. working class
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75. Which social class consists of office workers, school teachers, lower level managers, plumbers, and factory supervisors? A. upper-middle B. working class C. lower class D. middle class E. lower-lower class
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D. middle class
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76. Buzz is a self-employed construction worker. He is proud of his ability to do “real work” and sees himself as the often-unappreciated backbone of America. He dislikes the upper-middle class and prefers products and stores positioned toward his social-class level. Which term best describes Buzz? A. working-class stiff B. “blue blood” class C. white collar worker D. working-class aristocrat E. no-collar worker
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D. working-class aristocrat
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77. Which social class consists of individuals who are poorly educated, have very low incomes, and work as unskilled laborers? A. lower-lower class B. upper-lower class C. working class D. lower-middle class E. middle class
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B. upper-lower class
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78. Earl did not complete high school and works as a janitor at two jobs. His income is very low, and he does not possess any skills to help him get a better paying job. Which social class best describes Earl? A. lower-lower class B. upper-lower class C. working class D. lower-middle class E. middle class
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B. upper-lower class
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79. Which social class has low incomes and minimal education, may be unemployed for long periods of time, and is the major recipient of government support and services provided by non-profit organizations? A. lower-lower class B. upper-lower class C. working class D. lower-middle class E. middle class
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A. lower-lower class
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80. What two basic approaches are used to measure social status? A. primary and secondary measures B. single-item and multi-item indexes C. position and status measures D. income and occupation indexes E. income and education measures
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B. single-item and multi-item indexes
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81. Which of the following is NOT a common single-item index of social class? A. education B. occupation C. income D. age E. all of the above are common single-item indexes of social class
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D. age
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82. In the Hollingshead Index of Social Position, which is true? A. occupation is given a higher weight than education B. occupation is given the same weight as education C. income is given a higher weight than occupation D. occupation is given a lower weight than education E. income is given a lower weight than education
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A. occupation is given a higher weight than education

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