Terrorism and Homeland Security 9th Edition Jonathan R. White

Flashcard maker : Lily Taylor
1978 Civil Service Reform Act
A federal law designed to prevent political interference with the decisions and actions of governmental organizations.
1985 hijacking of a TWS flight #847
The ________ by a group believed to have links to Hezbollah while it was enroute from Athens to Rome. The plane went to Beirut and then to Algeria, where terrorists tortured and murdered U.S. Navy diver Robert Dean Stethem, a passenger of the flight. The plane returned to Beirut, and passengers were dispersed throughout the city. Terrorists began releasing hostages as the incident continued. After Israel agreed to release 700 Shi’ite prisoners, the terrorists released the remaining hostages and escaped.
1993 World Trade Center bombing
A car bomb attack by a cell led by Ramzi Yourseff. The cell had links to the Egyptian Islamic Group
9/11 Commission
The bipartisan National Commission on Terrorist attacks upon the United States after September 11, 2001, to investigate the attacks.
9/11 Commission Implementation Act of 2007
A federal law requiring selected recommendations of the 9/11 Commission to be implemented. One of its provisions helped create regional fusion centers.
Abbas Musawi (1952-1992)
A leader of Hezbollah who was killed with his family in an Israeli attack in 1992
Abdel Aziz Rantisi (1947-2004)
One of the founders of Hamas along with Ahmed Yassi. He took over Hamas after Irsraeli gunships assassinated Yassin. He, in turn, was assassinated by the Israelis a month after taking charge.
Abdullah Azzam (1941-1989)
The Palestinian leader of Hizb ul Tahrir and the spiritual mentor of Osama bin Laden.
Abdullah Ocalan (b. 1948)
The leader of Kurdish Worker’s Party PKK. Ocalan was captured in 1999 and sentenced to death, but his sentence was commuted. He ordered the end of a suicide bombing campaign while in Turkish custody and called for peace between Turkey and the Kurds in 2006.
Abimael Guzman (b. 1934)
A philosophy professor who led the Shining Path from 1980 until 1980 until his arrest in 1992. Guzman is serving a life sentence in Peru.
Abu Bakr (circa 573-634)
Also known as Saddiq, the first caliph selected by the Islamic community (umma) after Mohammed’s death in 632. Sunnis believe ______ is the rightful heir to Mohammed’s leadership, and they regard him as the first of the Rishidun, or Rightly Guided caliphs. He led military expeditions that expanded Muslim influence to the north of Mecca.
Abu Bakr al Baghdadi (b. circa 1971)
An Iraqi Sunni who joined the resistance against the U.S. invasion of Iraq in 2003. He may have been a violent radical before the invasion. Regardless, after being held in prison by U.S. forces, he became a hardened radical. He emerged as a leader of AQI, but unlike Zarqawi, he was articulate and charismatic. He assumed control of the ISI in 2010, entered the Syrian civil war, and changed ISI to ISIS. Abu Mohamed al Adnani declared him caliph o fthe Islamic State in June 2014.
Abu Basir al Tartusi (b. 1953)
A Syrian jihadist scholar who fled Syria and began preaching and writing from East London in the 1980s. He has denounced many acts of terrorism but supports Jihadi Salafist ideology. ________ has been spotted with an armed group in Syria and supports Europeans who fight the Syrian government.
Abu Muhammed al Jawlani (b. ?)
Leader of Jabhat al Nusra. Little is known about ______ background. He is Syrian and left is homeland to fight against U.S. forces in Iraq. He was captured by these forces. After being released from prison, he met Baghdadi, joined ISI, and rose through the ranks. Baghdadi tried to absorb al Nusra in 2014, _______ broke with ISIS and swore allegiance to Zawahiri.
Abu Mohammed al Maqdisi (b. 1959)
A Palestinian scholar now living in Jordan. ________ is one of the most influential Jihadi Salafist scholars in the world today. Jailed and investigated many times, _______ has influenced many jihadists.
Abu Musab al Zarqawi (1966-2006)
A Jordanian criminal who converted to Jihadi Salafism after an extended trip to Afghanistan in 1989 and serving a sentence in a Jordanian prison from 1993 to 1999. He ended up back in Afghanistan and moved to Iraq after the U.S. invasion in 2003. He founded al Qaeda in Iraq, a group that became known for extreme violence. He was killed in an American bombing attack in 2006.
Abu Omar al Baghdai (?-2010)
The first leader of the Islamic State of Iraq who took command after Abu Musab al Zarqawi was killed in 2006. Little is known about his background, and U.S. military forces once believed he was a factious character. He was killed in an American strike in 2010.
Academic consensus definition
A complex definition by Alex Schmid. It combines common elements of the definitions used by leading scholars in the field of terrorism.
Actionable intelligence
Information that law enforcement agencies, military units, or other security forces can use to prevent an attack or operation.
Adam Gadahn (b. 1958)
The American spokesperson for al Qaeda. His non de guerre is Azzam the American.
African Cell
A French military unit stationed in Africa and France. It retains between 10,000 and 15,000 troops in various African countries and answers directly to the president of France.
African Union (AU)
An organization of 54 African states to promote peace, security, and economic development. Combined ___ military forces are sometimes deployed in troubled areas of Africa and employed as peacekeeepers.
Ahmed Yassin (1937-2004)
One of the founders and leaders of Hamas. ____ originally started the Palestinian Wing of the Muslim Brotherhood but merged it into Hamas during the first Intifada. He was killed in an Israeli targeted assassination.
AIDS pandemic
Occurred when great numbers of people contracted and were living with and dying from HIV/AIDS. in 2005, Africa had 25.8 million HIV positive adults and children. Africa has 11.5 percent of the world’s population but 64 percent of its AIDS cases. from 1982 to 2005, AIDS claimed 27.5 million African lives.
Al Aqsa Intifada
An uprising sparked by Ariel Sharon’s visit to the Temple Mount with a group of armed escorts in September 2000. The area is considered sacred to Jews, Christians, and Muslims. Muslims were incensed by the militant aspect of Sharon’s visit.
Alberto Fujimori (b. 1938)
President of Peru from 1990 to 2000. He fled to Japan in 2000 but was extradited to Peru in 2007. He was convicted of human rights violations and sentenced to prison.
Ali ibn Talib (circa 599-661), Also known as Ali ibn Abi Talib
The son of Mohammed’s uncle Abut Talib and married to Mohamed’s oldest daughter Fatima. Ali was Mohamed’s male heir because he had no surviving sons. The followers of Ali are known as Shi’ites. Most Shi’ites believe that Mohammed gave a sermon while perched on a saddle, naming Ali the heir to Islam. Differing types of Shi’ites accept authority from diverse lines of Ali’s heirs. Sunni Muslims believe Ali is the fourth and last Rightly Guided caliph. Both Sunnis and Shi’ites believe Ali Tried to return Islam to the purity of Mohammed’s leadership in Medina.
Alienation
Happens when an individual or group becomes lost in the dominant social world. A person or group of people is alienated when separated from the dominant values of society at large.
Al Jazeera
An international Arabic television network
Al Manar
Hezbollah’s television network
Al Shabaab (also known as the Harakat Shabaab al-Mujahedeen, the Youth, Mujahedeen Youth Movement, and Mujahedeen Al Shabaab Movement)
Formed as a militant wing of a federation of Islamic courts in Somalia in 2006. Its senior leadership is affiliated with al Qaeda.
Altruistic suicide
Occurs when individuals are willing to sacrifice their lives to benefit their primary reference group such as a family, military unit, ethnic group or country. It may involve going on suicide missions in combat, self-sacrifice without killing others, or self-sacrifice and killing others.
Alvaro Uribe (b. 1952)
President of Colombia from 2002 to 2010. He was known for this tough stance against FARC and other revolutionary movements.
American embassy takeover
During the Iranian hostae crisis, revolutionary students stormed the U.S. embassy in Tehran with the support of the Iranian government. They held 54 American hostages form November 1979 to January 1981.
Anarchists
Those in the nineteenth century who advocated the creation of cooperative societies without centralized governments. There were many forms of anarchy. In the popular understanding of the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, anarchists were seen as violent socialist revolutionaries. Today, antiglobalists calling themselves anarchists have little resemblance to their earlier counterparts.
Anders Breivik (b. 1979)
A violent right wing extremist who went on a one day killing spree in Norway in July 2011. He detonated a bomb in Oslo and went on a shooting spree at a Labor Party youth camp for political reason.
Anglo-Irish Peace Accord
An agreement signed in 1985 that was the beginning of a long-term attempt to stop terrorist violence in Northern Ireland by devising a system of political autonomy and by protecting the right of all citizens. Extremist Republicans rejected the accord because it did not unite Northern Ireland by devising a system of political autonomy and by protecting the rights of all citizens. Extremists Republicans rejected the accord because it did not unite Northern Ireland and the south. Unionists rejected it because it compromised with moderate Republicans.
Anglo-Israelism
The belief that the lost tribes of Israel settled in Western Europe. God’s ancient promises to the Hebrews became promises to the United Kingdom, according to this belief. Anglo-Israelism predated Christian Identity and is the basis for most Christian Identity beliefs.
Anwar al Awlaki (1971-2011)
An American born Muslim cleric who worked to build U.S. Muslim relations after 9/111. He became increasingly militant and called for attacks on America. He was arrested in Yemen in 2006 and released in 2007. In 2009, he swore allegiance to AQAP
Arab nationalism
The idea that eh Arabs could create a European style nation based on a common language and culture. The idea faded after the 1967 Six Day War.
Argentina in 1992 and 1994
In these years there were two bombings in Buenos Aires. Terrorist struck the Israeli embassy in 1992, killing 29 people, and the Jewish Community Center in 1994, killing 85 people. Imad Mugniya is suspected to have been behind the attacks.
Aryan Nations
An American antigovernment, anti-Semitic, white supremacist group founded by Richard Butler. Until it was closed by a suit from the Southern Poverty Law Center, the group sponsored the Christian Identity Church called the Church of Jesus Christ, Christian.
Asif Ali Zardari (B. 1955)
The husband of Benazir Bhutto, ________ inherited control of the Pakistan People’s Party after Bhutto’s assassination in December 2007. He was elected president in 2008.
Ayub Khan (1907-1974(
The second president of Pakistan from 1958 to 1974. ____ seized control of the government in 1958 and then staged elections. He was the first of Pakistan’s many military leaders.
Baathist
A member of the pan-national Arab Baath Party. ________s were secular socialists seeking to unite Arabs in a single socialist state.
Bacrims
Emerging Colombian drug gangs. A number of violent gangs started to appear after the paramilitary groups were demobilized in 2005. Their ranks include former paramilitary and drug cartel members.
Bacterial weapons
Enhanced forms of bacteria that may be countered by antibiotics
Badr
The site of a battle between the Muslims of Medina and the merchants of Mecca in 624. Mohamed was unsure whether he should resist the attacking Meccans but decided God would allow Muslims to defend their community. After victory, Mohammed said that ____ was the Lesser jihad. Greater Jihad, he said was seeking internal spiritual purity.
Balfour Declaration
A policy statement by the British government in November 1917 that promised a homeland for Jews in the geographical area of biblical Israel. Sir Arthur Balfour was the British foreign secretary.
Balochistan
The largest of four states in Pakistan. It is dominated by the Baloch tribe. Many Balochs are fighting a guerrilla war against Pakistan’s army in a dispute over profits from natural resources. The central government is creating a deepwater port and international trade center in Gwadar, Pakistan’s principal seaport, and displacing many Balochs.
Belfast Agreement
Also known as the Good Friday Agreement, an agreement signed in April 1996 that revamped criminal justice services, established shared government in Northern Ireland, called for the early release of prisoners involved in paramilitary organizations, and created the Commission on Human Rights and Equity. Its provisions led to the decommissioning of paramilitary organizations.
Ben Klassen (1918-1993)
The founder of the Creativity Movement
Beslan school
Was attacked by Chechen terrorists on the first day of school in September 2004 in North Ossetia. The scene was chaotic, and Russian forces were never able to establish a security perimeter. Although details remain unclear, the incident resulted in the murder of nearly 400 people, including more than 100 children.
Big Man
An anthropological term to describe an important person in a tribe or clan. ______ is sometimes used by political scientists to describe a dictator in a totalitarian government.
Bill of Rights
The first 10 amendments to the U.S. Constitution.
Black June
The rebel organization created by Abu Nidal in 1976. He changed the name to the Fatah Revolutionary Council after a rapprochement with Syria in 1981. Most analysts refer to this group simply as the Abu Nidal Organization.
Black M arket Peso Exchange
A method for converting illegal profits in U.S. currency to Colombian pesos in an effort to hide the illegal funds. Terrorists have frequently used the system, although they launder less money than organized crime or drug networks.
Black widows
Chechen female suicide bombers. In the Chechen language, they are known as Islamic martyrs.
Blind terrorism
Tactic used by the FLM. It included indiscriminant attacks against French outposts, which involved bombing, sabotage, and random assassination.
Bourgeois (Bourgeoise -plural)
The middle class, in Marxist terminology refers to tradespeople, merchants, artisans, and other non-peasants excluded from the upper classes in medieval Europe. Marx called the European democracies after the French Revolution _____ governments, and he advocated a democracy dominated by workers.
Brady bill
A law that limits gun ownership, for President Ronald Regan’s press secretary after he was disabled by a gunshot in a 1981 assassination attempt on Regan.
Branch Davidians
Followers of Vernon Wayne Howell, also known as David Koresh. They lived in a compound outside Waco, Texas.
Bruder Schweigen
German for “silent brothers,” the name used by two violent right-wing extremist groups. _______ and ________ Strike Force II. The late Robert Miles, leader of the Mountain Church of Jesus in Michigan, penned an article about the struggle for white supremacy, “When All of the Brothers Struggle.”
Bureaucracy
Governmental, private-sector, and nonprofit organizations. It assumes that people organize in a hierarchy to create an organization that will solve problems.
Bureau of Justice Assistance (BJA)
A division of the U.S. Department of Justice that assists state, local, and tribal law enforcement agencies.
Camp David Peace Accord
A peace treaty between Egypt and Israel brokered by the United Stated in 1979.
Capone discovery
A term used by James Adams to explain the Irish Republican Army’s entry into organized crime.
Carolos Marighella (1911-1969)
A Brazilian Communist legislator and revolutionary theorist. ____ popularized urban terrorism as a method for ending repression and eliminating U.S. domination of Latin America. He was killed in a police ambush in Sao Paulo in 1969.
Cell
The basic unit of a traditional terrorist organization. groups of ____s form columns. Members in different ____s seldom know one another. In more recent terrorist structures, ___ describes a tactical group dispatched by the network for selected operations.
Cesare Beccaria (1738 -1794)
One of the founders of the discipline of criminology. HIs work Of Crimes and Punishments (1764) is the classic Enlightenment study of the discipline.
Chain organizations
Temporary associations of diverse groups. Groups in a chain come together for a particular operation and disband after it is over.
Charles Taylor (b. 1948)
A warlord in the First War of the Liberian civil war and president of Liberia from 1997 to 2003.
Christian Identity
An American extremist religion proclaiming white supremacy. Adherents believe that white Protestants of Western European origin are the true descendants of the ancient Israelites. Believers contend that Jews were pawned by Satan and that nonwhites evolved from animals. According tot this belief, white men and women are the only people created in the image of God.
Civil defense
Citizens engaged in homeland security
Civil liberties
Individual rights granted to citizens under the U.S. Constitution.
COINTELPRO
An infamous FBI counterintelligence program started in 1956. Agents involved in ________violated constitutional limitations on domestic intelligence gathering, and the program came under congressional criticism in the early 1970s. The FBI’s abuse of power eventually resulted in restrictions on the FBI.
Colombo
The traditional capital of Sri Lanka and the country’s largest city, with a population of 5,648,000. The Sri Lankan government moved the capital to Sri Jayawardenapura Kotte, five miles away, in 1982. ______ remains the economic center of Sri Lanka.
Combined Joint Task Force, Horn of Africa (CJTF-HOA)
An American-led counterterrorist unit combining military, intelligence, and law enforcement assets of several nations in the Horn.
Committee of Public Safety
Assembled by Maximilien Robespierre (1758-1794) to conduct war against invading monarchal powers, it evolved into the executive body of France. The _______ initiated the Reign of Terror.
Communists
Socialists who believed in a strong centralized economy controlled by a strong central government. Their ideas were summarized in The Communist Manifesto, written by Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels in 1848
Communities Against Terrorism (CAT)
A law enforcement initiative that provides businesses with information about terrorist activities particular to each business or industry. Liaisons from local agencies contact businesses, provide information about the types of preincident activities employees might see in that type of business, and leave contact information.
Copycats
People who imitate other criminals after viewing, hearing, or reading a story about a crime. A copycat copies the targets and methods of another criminal.
Creativity
The deistic religion of the ______ movement. It claims that white people must struggle to defeat Jews and nonwhite races.
Criminal intelligence
Information gathered on the reasonable suspicion that a criminal activity is occurring or about to occur. It is collected by law enforcement agencies in the course of their preventive and investigative functions. It is shared on information networks such as the Regional Information Sharing System (RISS). Unlike national defense intelligence, ______________ applies only under criminal law. Agencies must suspect some violation of criminal law before they can collect intelligence.
Critical media consciousness
The public’s understanding of the media and the way stories are presented. A critically conscious audience would not simply accept a story presented in a news frame. It would look for the motives for telling the story, how the story affects social constructs and actions, and hidden details that could cause the story to be told in another way.
Cuban guerrilla war
A three-step process as described by Che Guevara: (1) Revolutionaries join the indigenous population to form guerrilla foco, as Guevara called them; (2) small forces form columns and control rural areas; and (3) columns unite for a conventional offensive to overthrow government.
Cultural Revolution
A violent movement in China from 1966 to 1976. Its main purpose was to rid China of its middle class and growing capitalist interests. The _______ ended upon the death of Mao Zedong.
Cyberterrorism
Occurs when computers are used to attack other networks or to conduct physical attacks on computer-controlled targets. The most frightening scenario involves an attack designed to create catastrophic failure in the economy or infrastructure.
David Galula (1919-1967)
French captain who fought in Algeria from 1956 to 1958. He returned to Paris to analyze the Algerian campaign and produced a critique of the strategy that was followed in the war. His work inspired the development of counterinsurgency doctrine in the U.S. military.
Defense in depth
Using social networks in national defense. It is based on Aruthur Cebrowski’s idea of operating at all levels of society.
Department of Homeland Security (DHS)
A federal agency created in 2003 by Congress from the Office of Homeland Security after the attacks of September 11, 2001.
Desert Shield
The name of the defensive phase of the international coalition, created by President George H.W. Bush after Iraq invaded Kuwait on August 2, 1990. Its aim was to stop further Iraqi attacks and to liberate Kuwait. It lasted until coalition forces could begin an offensive against Iraq in January 1991.
Desert Storm
The military code name for the January-February offensive in the 1991 Gulf War.
Domestic issues
A term used by Gonzalez-Perez to refer to groups within a country fighting to change the social or political structure of that nation.
Dzhokhar Tsarnaev (b. 1993) and Tamerlan Tsarnaev (1986-2013)
Dzhokhar was a naturalized American citizen
Law enforcement officers subsequently killed Tamerlan. Dzhokhar was wounded, taken into custody, convicted of murder, and sentenced to death.
Two brothers who were members of an immigrant family in Boston. ____________ was a naturalized American citizen. They believed the West was at war with their religion and decided to strike back by bombing the 2013 Boston Marathon. Law enforcement officers subsequently killed __________.
____________________ was wounded, taken into custody, convicted of murder, and sentenced to death.
E-Guardian
An FBI system to share information about possible terrorist threats
Embedded reporters
Reporters who are placed inside military unites during a combat operation.
Emergency response plans
Preparations by any agency to deal with natural, accidental, or human made disasters. They involve controlling the incident through an organized response and command system and assigning various organizations to supervise the restoration of social order.
Endemic terrorism
Terrorism that exists inside a political entity. For example, European colonialists created the nation of Rwanda by combining the lands of two tribes that literally hate each other. The two tribes fought to eliminate each other. This is endemic to political violence in Rwanda. The term was coined by J. Bowyer Bell.
Enemy combatants
A legal term used to describe nonstarte paramilitary captives from Afghanistan. The bush administration later applied the term to all jihadist terrorists. The Obama administration maintained detention centers after ordering the closing of Guantanamo shortly after President Obama took office in January 2009.
Enhanced interrogation
A process of using physical duress while questioning suspects. Supporters argue that such actions are necessary to gain information about future terrorism. Opponents argue that such actions constitute torture, thus violating human rights.
Enlightenment
an eighteenth-century intellectual movement that followed the Scientific Revolution. Also call the Age of Reason, the ________ was characterized by rational thought and the belief that all activities could be explained.
Eric Rudolph (b. 1966)
A right-wing extremist known for bombing the Atlanta Olympics, a gay night club, and an abortion clinic. Rudolph hid from authorities and became a survivalist hero. He was arrested in 2003 and received five lift sentences in 2005.
Ernesto “Che” Guevara (1928 – 1967)
Fidel Castro’s assistant and guerrilla warfare theorist. Guevara advocated guerrilla revolutions throughout Latin America after success in the Cuban Revolution. He was killed in Bolivia in 1967 while trying to form a guerrilla army.
Eschatology (pronounced es-ka-TAW-low-gee)
A Greek word used to indicate the theological end of time. In Judaism and Christianity, it refers to God bringing creation to an end. In some Shi’ite Islamic sects and among Christians who interpret biblical eschatological literature literally, believers contend that Jesus will return to lead a final battle against evil. Other major religions also have end0time theology.
Estates General
As assembly in prerevolutionary France consisting of all but the lowest class. The ___________ had not been called since 1614, but Louis XVI assembled them in 1789 in response to demands from the Assembly of Notables, who had been called to address the financial problems of France. Radical elements in the _______ revolted, and the disruption led the French Revolution.
Expropriation
A term used by Carlos Marighella to refer to armed robbery.
Failed state
An area outside a government’s control. ________________s operate under differing warlords, criminal groups, or competing governments.
Far enemy
A jihadist term referring to non-Islamic powers or countries outside the realm of Islam
Fedayeen
Warriors who sacrifice themselves. The terms was used differently in Arab history; the modern term is used to describe the secular warriors of Fatah
Federal Law Enforcement Training Center (FLETC)
A law enforcement training academy for federal agencies. Operating in Glencoe, Georgia, ____ trains agents and police officers for agencies that do not operate their own academy.
Field contacts
Information recorded from contacts during patrol operations or investigations. Police officers come into contact with many people during the course of routine patrol or investigations. They frequently encounter suspicious people or circumstances without enough evidence to make an arrest. ______________ refer to recorded information about such encounters.
Field training officers
Experienced senior patrol officers who ride with police academy graduates. They are responsible for on-the-job training. They mentor and evaluate new recruits.
Fifth Amendment
Ensures protection against arbitrary arrest, being tried more than once for the same crime, and self-incrimination. It also guarantees due process
Financial Action Task Force on Money Laundering (FATF)
A resolution passed by the United Nations in 1990 and strengthened from 2001 to 2006. It urged member states to adopt measures to hamper money laundering and terrorist financing. It contained 40 recommendations. Nine special recommendations were added to focus specifically on terrorist financing.
First Amendment
Guarantees the rights to speech, assembly, religion, press, and petitioning the government.
FISA courts
Review federal requests for electronic evidence gathering and search warrants without public review.
Force multiplier
A method of increasing striking power without increasing the number of combat troops in a military unit. Terrorist have four ___________: (1) technology to enhance weapons or attacks on technological facilities, (2) transnational support, (3) media coverage, and (4) religious fanaticism.
Force protection
Refers to security operations by military forces engaged in securing bases, ports, other areas of operations, and personnel, Military personnel frequently cooperate with local law enforcement and other civil forces when engaged in _______.
Forensic accounting
An investigative tool used to track money used in illegal activities. It can be used in any crime involving the exchange, storage, or conversion of fiscal resources.
Fourteenth Amendment
Guarantees that a person cannot be deprived of freedom or property by the government unless the government follows all the procedures demanded for legal prosecution.
Fourteen Words
Racist words coined by David Lane, a member of The Order: “We must secure the existence of our people and a future for white children.”
Fourth Amendment
Particularly applicable to law enforcement and homeland security, it limits government search and seizure, including the elements of arrest.
Francisco Franco (1892-1975)
Leader of the nationalist forces during the Spanish Civil War and the fascist dictator of Spain from 1939 to 1975.
Freedom of Information (FOI) Act
A law ensuring access to governmental records
Free State
The name given to the newly formed Republic of Ireland after Irish independence.
Free-wheeling fundamentalists
White supremacists or Christian patriots who either selectively use Bible passages or create their own religion to further the patriot agenda.
Fusion centers
Operations set up to fuse information from multiple sources, analyze the data, turn it into usable intelligence, and distribute intelligence to agencies needing the information.
Globalization
A common global economic network that would ideally unite the world through production and international trade. Proponents believe it will create wealth. Critics believe it creates corporate wealth and increases distance between the rich and poor.
Goal displacement
Occurs when process is favored over accomplishments. Process should be reasonable and efficient. Too much focus on the process, however, interferes with completion of job tasks.
Golden Temple
The most sacred shrine of Sikhism. Its official name is the Temple of god.
Government Management Reform Act of 1994
A federal law designed to prevent political interference in the management of federal governmental organizations and to increase the efficiency of management.
Group think
Refers to a bureaucratic process in which members of a group work together to solve a problem; however, innovation and deviant ideas are discouraged as the group tries to seek consensus about a conclusion. Powerful members of the group may quash alternative voices. Intelligence groups tend to resist making any risky conclusion lest they jeopardize their individual careers. Peer pressure creates an atmosphere in which every individual comes to the same conclusion.
Gulf States
Small Arab kingdoms bordering the Persian Gulf. They include Bahrain, Qatar, the United Arab Emirates, and Oman
Habib Akdas (birdate unknown) Also known as Abu Anas al Turki
The founder of al Queda in Turkey. ____ left Turkey to fight in Iraq after the American invasion. He was killed in a U.S. air strike in 2004.
Hapsburgs
The ruling family of Austria (1282-1918), the Austro-Hungarian empire (1437-1918), and the Holy Roman Empire (1282-1806). Another branch of the family ruled in Spain (1516-1700). Reference here is to the Austrian royal family
Haqqani network
The Haqqani family is …….
A family in the tribal area Pakistan that has relations with several militant groups and the ISI. The _________ family is involved in organized crime, legitimate businesses, the ISI, and terrorist groups. It is the major power broker in the tribal region.
Hassan al Banna (1906-1949)
The founder of the Muslim Brotherhood. He was murdered by agents of the Egyptian government.
Hassan al Turabi (b. 1932)
A Sudanese intellectual and Islamic scholar. He served in the Sundanese government during the time Osama bin Laden was in exile in Sudan.
Hassan Nasrallah (b. 1960)
The secretary general of Hezbollah. He took over the leadership of Hezbolah after Abbas Musawi’s death in 1992. ____ is a lively speaker and charismatic leader.
Hawala system
A system of exchanging money based on trust relationships between money dealers. A chit, or promissory note, is exchanged between two Hawaladars, and it is as valuable as cash or other traded commodities because the trust between the two parties guarantees its value.
High-Intensity Drug Trafficking Area (HIDTA)
Specialized RICs in regions experiencing a high level of drug trafficking and drug-related crimes. They evolved from RICs and were the direct predecessor to fusion centers. Some _____s simply expanded to become full fusion centers.
Highly enriched uranium (HEU)
A process that increases the proportion of a radioactive isotope in uranium (U-235), making it suitable for industrial use. It can also be used to make nuclear weapons. Nuclear weapons are made from either ______ or plutonium.
Hohenzollerns
The ruling family of Brandenburg and Prussia that ruled a united Germany from 1871 to 1914.
Homeland Security Act of 2002
A federal law created in 2002 and amended in following years. It established the Department of Homeland Security and reorganized the presidential cabinet. DHS’s primary antiterrorism mission is to prevent attacks and respond to them when they occur.
Human rights
The basic entitlements and protections that should be given to every person.
Hussein ibn Ali (626-680)
Mohammed’s grandson and Ali’s second son. He was martyred at Karbala in 680. The majority of Shi’ites believe that ____ is the Third Iman, after Iman Ali and Imam Hasan, Ali’s oldest son.
Ibn al Khattab (1969-2002) Also known as Emir Khattab or the Black Wahhabi
A Saudi international jihadist who went to fight in Chechnya. He tried to move the Chechen revolt from a nationalistic platform to a philosophy or religious militancy. He was killed by the Russian secret service in 2002.
Ibrahim al Asiri (b. 1982)
Son of Saudi Arabian career military officer and AQAP’s master bomb maker. He is known for perfecting chemical bombs and was behind several regional and international attempted murders.
Imad Mugniyah (1962-2008)
The leader of the international branch of Hezbollah. He has been implicated in many attacks, including the 1983 U.S. marine and French paratrooper bombings. He is also believed to have been behind bombings of the U.S. embassy in Beirut and two bombings of Israeli targets in Argentina. He was assassinated in Damascus in February 2008.
Independent Monitoring Commission (IMC)
A commission created in 2004 to investigate paramilitary actions and alleged governmental abuses during the Irish peace process.
Infotainment telesector
A sarcastic term to describe cable news networks. It refers to news organizations that produce stories to entertain their audiences under the guise of presenting objective information.
Integration
Occurs when illegally gained money is presented into the formal economic system as if it were the result of a legal activity.
Intelligence-led policing
A managerial model that focuses on the collection and analysis of information. After analysis, law enforcement resources are deployed to prevent and disrupt crime and to target specific crimes and offenders. _______ is an alternative to using criminal intelligence to support investigations and other forms of reactive policing.
Intelligence product
The output of information analysis. Information is analyzed and turned into intelligence. This product is distributed to users.
International focus
Gonzalez-Perez uses the term ______ to refer to terrorist groups operating in multiple countries.
Inter-Service Intelligence (ISI)
The Pakistani domestic and foreign intelligence service, created by the British in 1948. Supporters claim that it centralizes Pakistan’s intelligence. Critics maintain that it operates like an independent state and supports terrorist groups.
Intrifada
The first spontaneous uprising against Israel, lasting form 1987 to 1993. It began with youths throwing rocks and creating civil disorder. Some of the violence became more organized. Man people sided with religious organizations, abandoning the secular PLO during the Intifada.
Iranian Revolution
The 1979 religious revolution that toppled Mohammed Pahlavi, the shah of Iran, and transformed Iran into an Islamic republic ruled by Shi’ite religious scholars.
Iran-Iraq War
A war fought after Iraq invaded Iran over a border dispute in 1980. Many experts predicted an Iraqi victory, but the Iranians stopped the Iraqi army. The war produced an eight-year stalemate and more than a million casualties. The countries signed an armistice in 1988.
Islamic Courts Uniton (ICU)
A confederation of tribes and clans seeking to end violence and bring Islamic law to Somalia. It is opposed by several neighboring countries and internal warlords. Some people feel that it is a jihadist organization, but others see it as a grouping of clans with several different interpretations of Islamic law.
Izz el Din al Qassam Brigades
The military wing of Hamas, named after the Arab revolutionary leader Sheik ________ (1882-1935), who led a revolt against British rule.
James W. von Brunn (1920-2010)
An American white supremacist and anti-Semite. He entered the Holocaust Museum on June 10, 2009, and began shooting. He killed a security officer before he was wounded and subdued. He died in federal custody while awaiting trial.
Jammu and Kashmir
Kashmir is artificially
A mountainous region in northern India claimed by both India and Pakistan. It has been the site of heavy fighting during fighting during three wars between India and Pakistan in 1947-1948, 1971, and 1999. _________ is artificially divided by a line of control (LOC), with Pakistani forces t the north and Indian forces t the south. India and Pakistan made strides toward peach after 2003, but many observers believe that the ISI supports jihadist operations I the area.
Janet Napolitano (b. 1957)
The third secretary of homeland security, President Obama appointed her while she was serving her second term of governor in Arizona.
John Walker Lindh (b. 1957)
An American captured while fighting for the Taliban in 2001 and sentenced to 20 years in prison.
Joseph Stalin (8178-1953)
The dictator who succeeded Vladimir Lenin. _____ solidified Communist control of Russia through a secret police organization. He purged the government of suspected opponents in the 1930s, killing thousands of people.
Juan Manuel Santos
Became president of Colombia in August 2010. He narrowly won a second term in 2014, edging out a conservative candidate who opposed talks wit the FARC.
Khalid Meshal (b. 1956)
One of the “outside” leaders of Hamas, in Damascus, Syria, ________ became the political leader of Hamas in 2004. After the 2006 election, he continued to lead from exile.
King Gyanendra (b. 1947)
King of Nepal from 2001 to 2008. After the attack and murder of several members of the royal family, ______ became King of Nepal in 2001. He took complete power in 2005 to fight the Maoist rebellion. In the spring of 2006, he was forced to return power to parliament, and he was removed from power in 2008.
King Hussein (1935-1999)
King of Jordan. __________ drove the PLO from Jordan in September 1970. After his death, his son Abdullah assumed the throne.
Knight Riders
The first terrorists of the Ku Klux Klan. Donning hoods and riding at night, they sought to keep newly freed slaves from participating in government and society.
Know-Nothings
Different groups of American nationalists in the early nineteenth century who championed native-born whites over immigrants.
Layering
Concealing the source of illegal income in confusing, sometimes multiple financial actions
Law Enforcement Equipment Acquisition Working Group (LEEWG)
A task force created by a presidential directive in January 2015. The president charged the _______ with gathering information on the types of federally supplied military equipment police agencies had acquired and the procedures for obtaining these items. The task force also was to make recommendations for future policies. The ______ was co-chaired by the attorney general, secretary of defense, and secretary of homeland security. It resulted in a presidential ban on distributing some types of equipment.
Leila Khalid (b. 1944)
Was a member of the Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine. In 1969, she was part of a team that hijacked four aircraft that were destroyed after the passengers and crews disembarked. Arrested in 1970 after another attempted hijacking, she was later released as part of a prisoner exchange.
Leon Trotsky (1879-1940)
A Russian revolutionary who led foreign affairs of Stalin’s government and later because the commander of the Red Army. He espoused terrorism as a means for spreading White revolution. He was thrown out of the Communist Pty for opposing Stalin and was assassinated by Communist agents in Mexico City in 1940.
Liberian civil war
Two episodes of conflict involving rebel armies and militias as well as neighboring countries. The First War (1989-2003) ended when a rebel army brought Charles Taylor to Monrovia, the capital. The Second War (1999-2003) toppled Charles Taylor from power. Both wars were characterized by village massacres and conscription of child soldiers.
Liberians United for Reconciliation and Democracy (LURD)
A revolutionary movement founded in 1999 in western Africa. _______ was instrumental in driving Charles Taylor from power in 2003.
Longitudinal studies
In the social sciences, studies that involve examinations of the same subjects over long periods of time.
Lord’s Resistance Army (LRA)
Ugandan guerrilla force opposing the government since 1987. The _____ has conscripted thousands of children, forcing them into its ranks or mutilating and killing them. Dropping all pretense of political activity, it roams through Uganda, southern Sudan, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, and the Central Africa Republic. Its primary tactics are mass murder, mass rape, theft, and enslavement of children. Uganda has referred the ______ to the International Criminal Court.
Made for TV dramas
Refers to news stories that will keep viewers’ attention. H.H.A. Cooper was among the first analysts to recognize the drama that terrorism presented for television.
Madrassas
Islamic religious schools
Mahmud Abbas (b. 1935)
The president of the Palestinian authority since 2005, a founding member of Fatah, and an executive in the PLO
Majilis council
Some Islamic countries refer to their legislative body as a majilis
The Islamic name given to a religious council that advises a government or a leader. Some Islamic countries refer to their legislative body as a ____________.
Mandate of Palestine
The British _______ was in effect from 1920 to 1948. Created by the League of Nations, the mandate gave the United Kingdom the right to extend its influence in an area roughly equivalent to modern Jordan, Israel, and the Palestinian Authority.
Margherita Cagol (1945-1975) Also known as Mara Cagol
The wife of Renato Curcio and a member of the Red Brigades. She was killed in a shout-out with Italian police a few weeks after freeing her husband from prison.
Mark Sykes (1879-1919)
The Sykes-Picot Agreement divided
A British diplomat who signed a secret agreement with Francois Georges-Picot in May 1916. The ___________ Agreement divided the Middle East into spheres of French, British, and Russian influence.
Marwan Barghouti (b. 1969)
A leader of Fatah and alleged leader of the al Aqsa Martyrs Brigades. A Brigades statement in 2002 claimed that _______ was their leader. He rose to prominence during the al Aqsa Intifada, but he is currently being held in an Israeli prison.
Max Weber (1864-1920)
One of the major figures of modern sociological methods, he studied the organization of human endeavors. _________ believed that social organizations could be organized for rational purposes designed to accomplish objectives.
Meaning
The subjective interpretation people give to events or physical objects. Meanings are developed by individuals and groups, and different meanings can be attributed to the same event or physical object because the definitions are always influenced by interpretation. Social scientists in this tradition believe that meanings cause actions
Meaning framework
The definitional boundaries for a particular social meaning. Individuals and groups create boundaries around their experiences and perceptions, and they define issues within them. _____ are the social boundaries surrounding those definitions. Juergensmeyer sees the clash between modern values and traditional culture as one of the reasons for terrorism. religious terrorists look at the modern world and reject it. This world is evil in the meaning framework of religious terrorists, and they refuse to accept the boundaries of the secular modern work.
Militarization
Responding to social problems with military solutions. In law enforcement, _____ is usually characterized by martial law.
Military-industrial complex
A term coined by President Dwight D. Eisenhower (1890-1969) to describe the relationship between American military forces and private industry.
Military tribunals
Venue for military courts to try combatants outside the civilian court system. Trials take place in front of a board of military officers operating under military law.
Militia movement
A political movement started in the early 1980s., possibly spawned from survivalism. Militias maintain that the Second Amendment gives them the right to arm themselves and form paramilitary organizations apart from governmental control and military authority.
Mission creep
Occurs when too many secondary tasks are added to an organizational unit. Too many jobs divert a unit from its primary mission.
Mogadishu
The capital of Somalia. U.S. troops moved into ________ during Operation Restore Hope from December 9, 1992, until May 4, 1993, when the United Nations took over operations. American forces were involved in a major battle in October 1993 involving a downed U.S. army helicopter.
Mohammed Ali Jinnah (1876-1948)
The leader of the Muslim League and the founder of modern Pakistan. He served as governor general until his death in 1948.
Mohammed Fneish (age unknown)
A Hezbollah politician and minister of energy I the Lebanese prime minister’s cabinet.
Mohammed ibn Abdul Wahhab (1703-1792) also known Abdul Wahhab
A religious reformer who wanted to purge Islam of anything beyond the traditions accepted by Mohammed and the four Rightly Guided caliphs. He conducted campaigns against Sufis, Shi’ites, and Muslims who made pilgrimages or who invoked the name of saints.
Mohammed Reza Pahlavi (1919-1980)
Shah of Iran from 1941 to 1979. The shah led a rigorous program of modernization that turned Iran into a regional power. He left the throne and accepted exile as a result of the 1979 Iranian Revolution.
Mokhtar Belmokhtar (b. 1972)
An Algerian jihadist and organized crime figure. _____ fought in the Soviet-Afghan War and the Algerian civil war. He joined the Salafi Call for Preaching and Combat and later AQIM. He later broke with AQIM. He is also known for criminal activity.
Moorish Nation
An African American group that does not recognize the validity of the U.S. government.
Moscow theatre (Theatrical Center, Dubrovka, Moscow, 2002).
The site of a Chechen attack where approximately 40 terrorists took 850 hostages. Russian forces stormed the theater of the third day of the siege, killing 39 terrorists and at least 129 hostages.
Mossad
The Israeli intelligence agency, formed in 1951. It is responsible for gathering foreign intelligence.
Mullah Omar (b. 1959)
The leader of the Taliban. After the collapse of the Taliban government in 2001, _____ went into hiding.
Mumbai attack
The LeT launched several attacks in Mumbai, India, in November 2008. Terrorists killed dozens of people and took several hostages. The attacks paralyzed the city for several days.
Muqtada al Sadr (b. 1974)
An Iraqi ayatollah. _____ leads the Shi’ite militia known as the Mahdi Army.
Musa Abu Marzuq (b. 1951)
The “outside” leader of Hamas. He is thought to be in Damascus, Syria. He is believed to have controlled the Holy Land Foundation.
Muslim Brotherhood
An organization founded by Jassan al Banna, designed to recapture the spirit and religious purity of the period of Mohammed and the four Rightly Guided caliphs. The ______ seeks to create a single Muslim nation through education and religious reform. A militant wing founded by Sayyid Qutb sought the same objective through violence. Hamas, a group that defines itself as the Palestinian branch of the ________, has rejected the multinational approach in favor of creating a Muslim Palestine.
Najibullah Zazi (b. 1985)
A 1999 immigrant to the united States, _____ was born in Afghanistan and raised in Pakistan. He was arrested in 2009 for planning suicide attacks in New York City and pleased guilty to charges of terrorism in 2010.
Narcoterrorism
A controversial term that links drugs to terrorism in one of two ways: Either drug profits are used to fiancé terrorism or drug gangs use terrorism to control production and distribution networks.
Nasir al Wuhayshi (d. 2015)
The spiritual leader of AQAP and a former aide to Osama bin Laden. _____ escaped from a Yemeni prison in 2006 to form AQY. In 2009, he joined his groups with dissidents in Saudi Arabia to form AQAP.
Nathan Bedford Forrest (1821-1877)
A famed and gifted Confederate cavalry commander who founded the Ku Klux Klan in Pulaski, Tennessee. _____ tried to disband the KKK when he saw the violent path that it was taking.
National Alliance
The white supremacist organization found by the late William Pierce and headquartered in Hillsboro, West Virginia.
National Convention
Elected in 1792, it broke from the Estates General and called for a constitutional assembly in France. The White Convention served as the major legislative body of France until it was replaced by the Directory in 1795.
National Counterterrorism Center (NCTC)
An organization designed to filter information from the intelligence process, synthesize counterterrorist information, and share it with appropriate organizations.
National Criminal Intelligence Sharing Plan
A 2005 set of recommendations designed to overcome barriers to sharing criminal intelligence. The plan contains recommended actions, oversight of operations, and standards for protecting privacy and individual rights. It suggests minimum standards for establishing and managing intelligence operations within police agencies.
National Intelligence University
An in-service initiative standardizing training for the entire intelligence community
National Liberation Movement
The Tupamaros’ official name
National security intelligence
A system of agencies and networks that gather information about threats to the country. Any threat or potential threat is examined under the auspices of national defense intelligence. Unlike criminal intelligence, people and agencies gathering defense information do not need to suspect any criminal activity. The FBI is empowered t gather defense intelligence.
National Security Letter (NSL)
A mandatory request from the FBI for public and private records. The recipient is not allowed to discuss the contents of an _____ outside FBI interviews.
Nationwide SAR Initiative (NSI)
A federal program designed to develop common antiterrorism intelligence reporting procedures among state, local, and tribal law enforcement agencies. SAR is an acronym for suspicious activity report.
Near enemy
A jihadist term referring to forms of Muslim governments and Islamic law (sharia) that do not embrace the narrow-minded philosophy of Sayyid Qutb.
Netwar
One network fighting another network
Networks
Organizations of groups, supplies, weapons, and any structure that supports an operation. Much like a traffic system or the World Wide Web, ________ do not have central leadership, and they operate under a variety of rules.
New economy of terrorism
A term used by Loretta napoleoni to describe the evolution of terrorist financing from the beginning strategies of the Cold War to the present. Economic support and antiterrorist policies interact to form the new economy.
New media
any virtual network that allows communication. It includes blogs, multiple Internet postings, and any social network.
New World Order
A phrase used by President George H. W. Bush to describe the world after the fall of the Soviet Union. Conspiracy theorists use the phrase to describe what they believe to be Jewish attempts to gain control of the international monetary system and subsequently, to take over the U.S. government.
Nidal Malik Hasan (b. 1970)
A former American soldier of Palestinian descent. ___ was an army psychiatrist who apparently became self-radicalized and embraced militant Islam. he went on a shooting spree at Fort Hood, Texas, on November 5, 2009, killing 13 people and wounding almost three dozen others. He was wounded, arrested, charged with several counts of murder, and sentenced to death.
Nodes
In counterterrorist or netwar discussions, the points in a system where critical components are stored or transferred. The importance of a ____ is determined by its relationship to the network.
No-go areas
Geographical areas that the duly empowered government cannot control(this is an informal term). Security forces cannot routinely patrol these places
Nordic Christianity
A religion that incorporates the ancient Norse gods in a hierarchy under the Christian triune deity. It is similar to Odinism, but it does not completely abandon Christianity.
North-West Frontier Province (NWFP)
One of four Pakistani states, inhabited primarily by ethnic Pashtuns. Several areas of the _____ are controlled by tribes, and jihadists operate in the area. Peshawar, ____’s capital, served as a base for organizing several mujahedeen groups in the Soviet-Afghan War.
Nuclear black market
The system where nuclear material and weapons are allegedly exchanged. When the Soviet Union collapsed, it was difficult to account for all the nuclear weapons that were in the control of military officials and the newly independent states. people feared that these weapons would be sold to terrorists. Similar fears exist for Pakistan’s nuclear bombs and nuclear development programs in North Korea and Iran.
NYPD Intelligence
After the 9/11 attacks, the New York City Police Department created a new intelligence operation to assess domestic and international threats to the city. Its first administrator was a former executive from the CIA. The NYPD sends officers overseas to gather information and asses terrorist threats.
Omar Hammami (b. 1984)
An American leader of Al Shabab; uses the name Abu Mansoor al-Amriki
Ottoman Empire
A Turkish empire that lasted for 600 years, until 1924. The empire spanned south-eastern Europe, North Africa, and southwest Asia. It reached its zenith in the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries.
Panga
A heavy-bladed machete used in agricultural work. It was the weapon favored by people who took the Mau Mau oath.
Partner capacity
As used by Robert Gates, Secretary of Defense 2006-2011, the ability of U.S. military forces to form alliances with security forces and civilian governments inside states threatened with destabilization
Peace dividend
A term used during President William Clinton’s administration (1992-2000) to describe reducing defense spending at the end of the Cold War.
People power revolution
A mass Philippine protest movement that toppled Ferdinand Marcos in 1986. Marcos ruled as dictator after being elected as president in 1965 and declaring martial law in 1972. When Gloria Macapagal-Arroya assumed the presidency in January 2001, a position that she held until 2010, her government proclaimed a second __________.
Pervez Musharraf (b. 1943)
The president of Pakistan (2001-2008). A career army officer, ______ took power in a 1999 military cop and declared himself president in 2001. After 9/11, he sought closer relations with the United states while trying to mollify sources of domestic religious strife.
Philosophy of the bomb
a phrase used by anarchists around 1848 It means that social order can be changed only through violent upheaval. Bombs were the first technological force multiplier.
Placement
Refers to placing illegal monetary profits in the legitimate financial system.
Plan Colombia
A joint effort by the United States and Colombia to reduce violence and illegal drugs. It began in 1999.
Police Service of Northern Ireland (PSNI)
The police force created in November 2001 to replace the Royal Ulster Constabulary.
Postmodern
A term that describes the belief that modernism has ended; that is, some events are inexplicable, and some organizations and actions are naturally and socially chaotic and defy explanation. A ______ news frame leaves the consumer thinking there are many possible conclusions.
Preincident indicators
The criminal and social actions of individuals and groups before a terrorist attack.
Process orientation
Occurs when one pays more attention to the manner of achieving organizational goals than actually achieving them. Process is important when it focuses on ethical and legal requirements. _____ goes beyond legal and moral norms, and it becomes dysfunctional when an organization’s goal is conceived as maintaining procedures.
Profiling
A practical criminological process designed to identify the behavioral attributes of certain types of criminals.
Proteus USA
A project designed to identify future threats to national security by assembling panels of experts in various fields that might impact national defense. It was developed by the U.S. Army War College and the National Intelligence University.
Protocols of Zion
A forged document written in czarist Russia explaining an alleged Jewish plot to control the world, It was popularized in the United Stated by Henry Ford. It is frequently cited by the patriot and white supremacy movements. Jihadists also use it as evidence against Jews.
Provisionals
The nickname for members of the Provisional Irish Republican Army. they are also known as Provos. The name applies to several different Republican paramilitary terrorist groups.
Pyramid
An illustration of the way terrorists organize themselves into hierarchies. It is an analogy showing a large base of support culminating n a small group of terrorists at the top.
Qasim al Raymi (b. 1978)
Became the leader of AQAP in June 2015. He escaped from a Yemeni prison 2006 and formed AQY in 2007 wit fellow escapee Nasir al Wuhayshi. They merged AQY with Saudi dissidents in 2009 to form AQAP.
Quadrennial Homeland Security Review (QHSR)
Result of a requirement that the secretary of the DHS conduct a review of the department’s operations every four years. According to the first report, the Homeland Security Act of 2002, as amended, requires the secretary to “delineate and update, as appropriate, the national homeland security strategy,” and to “outline and prioritize the full range of the critical homeland security mission areas of the Nation” (DHS, 2010).
Radical terrorism
a dominant group using violence and to intimidate a radical minority. tactics include lynching, murder beatings and other forms of violence against a minority group. for example, the ku klux klan historically has practiced radical terrorism.
USA PATRIOT Act
The ________, first enacted in 2001, enhanced the gathering and sharing of intelligence. It was renewed in 2005, 2006, and 2011. Controversial provisions dealing with roving wiretaps, lone wolf surveillance, and mega-data dragnets expired in 2015.
USA FREEDOM Act
The _______________ was passed shortly after the PATRIOT Act’s controversial provisions expired. It restored many law enforcement powers but placed them under greater FISA scrutiny. It also forbade future dragnet mega-data searches.
The Constitution protects civil liberties ….
Governmental powers …….
……….. under the Constitution.
The _________ protects civil liberties and regulates the legal system. __________ powers are separated so that no one branch gains excessive power. All legislation and executive actions related to terrorism are limited under the __________.
The First Amendment protects assembly and free speech. The Fourth Amendment applies to unreasonable search and seizure.
The Fifth Amendment protects suspects from making statements against themselves.
The Sixth Amendment guarantees the right to trial and protects defendants from double jeopardy.
The Bill of Rights directly applies to law enforcement actions. The ______Amendment protects assembly and free speech. The _______ Amendment applies to unreasonable search and seizure. The ______ Amendment protects suspects from making statements against themselves. The ______ Amendment guarantees the right to trial and protects defendants from double jeopardy.
executive branch powers
An increase in _______ branch powers make criminal justice more effective, but it threatens civil liberties.
court
Recent ____ decisions have emphasized the importance of (1) balanced power among the branches of government and (2) maintenance of civil rights. Despite the recent increase of executive power, the ______s still have the right to review national security laws.
Law enforcement
____________ agencies acquire military equipment in a number of ways. They obtain it by purchasing equipment with federal funds through grants and receiving direct donations from DOD and GSA surpluses. According to a presidential executive order, agencies need to justify their need for many combat items and use them properly.
NTOA
Studies indicate that tactical units are frequently used in drug enforcement efforts. The causes officers to take on the appearance of military units, and critics say this creates a warrior mentality among officers. To avoid problems, the _________ suggests stringent selection criteria, training, and guidelines for deployment.
Information sharing
________ is necessary for effective homeland security. It starts and completes the intelligence cycle. Future successes in homeland security depend on better __________.

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