Tech Chapter 7

Flashcard maker : Lily Taylor
The Windows 7 editions are:
1. Windows 7 Starter has the most limited features and is intended to be used on net books or in developing nations. It comes only in the 32-bit version.
2. Windows 7 Home Basic has limited features and is available only in underdeveloped countries.
3. Windows 7 Home Premium is similar to Windows 7 Home Basic, but includes additional features.
4. Windows 7 Professional is intended for business users.
5. Windows 7 Enterprise includes additional features over Windows 7 Professional. The edition does not include Windows DVD Maker. Multiple site licenses are available.
6. Windows 7 Ultimate includes every Windows 7 feature.
You cannot purchase multiple licenses with this edition.
Windows can be purchased as the less expensive OEM version or the more expensive retail version. The OEM version costs less but can only be installed on a new PC for resale.
Contains the 32-bit DVD and 64-bit DVD. You can also purchase and download Windows 7 from the Microsoft online store. This DVD can be used to perform a clean installation or an upgrade. You cannot use an OEM discuss for an upgrade installation.
A 64-bit installation of Windows generally performs better than a 32-bit installation if you have enough RAM. They can support 64-bit applications.
All processors (CPUs) used in personal computers today are hybrid processors and can handle a 32-bit or 64-bit OS. However, the Intel Itanium and Xeon processors used in high-end workstations and servers are true 64-bit processors and require a 64-bit OS.
Each edition of Windows 7 can be purchased using 32-bit or 64-bit code, except the Starter edition uses 32-bit code.
A 32-bit OS cannot address as much memory as a 64-bit OS. A 64-bit OS performs better and requires more memory than a 32-bit OS.
Before purchasing Windows, make sure your system meets the minimum hardware requirements and all the hardware and applications will work under the OS.
A 64-bit OS requires 64-bit drivers.
The simplest way to find out if a system can be upgraded to Windows 7 is to download, install, and run the Windows 7 Upgrade Advisor.
Microsoft also offers the Windows 7 Compatibility Center. You can search under both software and hardware to find out if they are compatible with Windows 7.
A chip on a motherboard contains BIOS used to start the computer, hold motherboard settings, and run essential devices.
The chip retains power from a nearby coin battery when the computer is turned off.
The motherboard BIOS provides three main functions:
1. The system BIOS (basic input/output system) contains instructions for running essential hardware devices before an operating system is started.
2. The startup BIOS starts the computer and finds a boot device (hard drive, CD drive, or USB flash drive) that contains an operating system.
3. The setup BIOS is used to change motherboard settings.
Device drivers are small programs stored on the hard drive that tell the computer how to communicate with a specific hardware device such as a printer, network card, or scanner.
A device driver is written to work for a specific OS, such as Windows 7 or Vista.
Be sure you have Windows 7 device drivers for all your critical devices such as your network card or motherboard. If you are not sure if your devices will work with Windows 7, one solution is to set up a dual boot.
A dual boot, also called a multiboot, allows you to install the new OS without disturbing the old one so you can boot to either OS. If they work under the new OS, you can delete the old one. If they don’t work, you can still boot to the old OS and use it.
Windows can be installed from the setup DVD,
From files downloaded from the Internet, from a hidden partition on the hard drive (called a factory recovery partition), or in a virtual machine.
When the computer does not have a DVD drive:
1. Download Windows 7 from the Microsoft Web site.
2. Use an external DVD drive.
3. Copy the installation files to a USB flash drive.
4. Use a DVD drive on another computer on the network.
If you have a notebook computer or a brand-name computer, such as a Dell, IBM, or Gateway, and you need to reinstall Windows,
Follow the recovery procedures given by the computer manufacturer.
A hard drive is divided into one or more partitions, and the hard drive on a brand-name computer is likely to have a hidden recovery partition that contains a recovery utility and installation files.
To access the utilities on the hidden partition, press a key during startup to start the recovery.
Sometimes a manufacturer puts a utility in this hidden partition that can be used to create recovery discs.
However, the discs must have already been created if they are to be there to help you in the event the entire hard drive fails. You might also be able to purchase these CDs or DVDs on the notebook manufacturer’s Web site.
In general, it’s best to not upgrade an OS on a notebook unless you want to use some feature the new OS offers.
For notebooks, follow the general rule, “If it ain’t broke, don’t fix it.” It’s very important you have a Windows 7 driver for your network port available without having to depend on the network or Internet to get one after Windows 7 is installed.
Another type of Windows installation is when you install Windows in a virtual computer. A virtual computer or virtual machine (VM) is software that stimulates the hardware of a physical computer.
Using this software, you can install and run multiple operating systems at the same time on a PC. Be aware that virtual machine programs require a lot of memory and might slow down your system.
Windows XP Mode is a Windows XP installation that runs under Virtual PC, and can be installed on a Windows 7 Professional, Enterprise, or Ultimate computer.
To start this virtual machine and install an OS in it, first insert the operating system setup disc in the DVD drive. Then double-click the VM in Explorer. The VM boots up, finds the DVD, and starts the OS installation.
Windows can be installed as an in-place upgrade,
A clean installation, or in a dual boot environment with another OS.
You can perform a clean install, overwriting the existing operating system and applications.
In the Windows 7 setup program, a clean install is called a custom installation. The main advantage of a clean install is that problems with the old OS are not carried forward and you get a fresh start.
An in-place upgrade is a Windows installation that is launched from the Windows desktop and the installation carries forward user settings and installed applications from the old OS to the new one.
A Windows OS is already in place before you begin the new installation. An in-place upgrade is faster than a clean install and is appropriate if the system is generally healthy and does not have problems. There is no upgrade path from Windows XP and versions of Vista to Windows 7.
You can install Windows in a second partition on the hard drive and create a dual-boot situation with the other OS.
Windows 7/Vista/XP all require that they be the only operating system installed on a partition. So to set up a dual boot, you’ll need at least two partitions on the hard drive or a second hard drive.
A 64-bit version of Windows can only be upgraded to a 64-bit OS. A 32-bit OS can only be upgraded to a 32-bit OS. If you want to install a 64-bit version of Windows on a computer that already has a 32-bit OS installed, you must perform a clean install.
You can only upgrade Windows Vista to Windows 7 after Vista Service Pack 1 or later has been installed in Vista.
A hard drive contains one or more partitions or volumes.
Normally, Windows is installed on the C: volume in the C:Windows folder.
When a partition is formatted with a file system and assigned a drive letter (such as drive C:), it is called a volume.
A file system is the overall structure an OS uses to name, store, and organize files on a volume, and Windows is always installed on a volume that uses the NFTS file system.
For a clean install or dual boot, you can decide to not use all the available space on the drive for the Windows partition. Here are reasons to not use all the available space:
1. You plan to install more than one OS on the hard drive, creating a dual-boot system: For example, you might want to install Windows 7 on one partition and leave room for another partition where you intend to later install Windows 8. (When setting up a dual boot, always install the older OS first.)
2. Some people prefer to use more than one partition or volume to organize data on their hard drives:
For example, you might want to install Windows and all your applications on one partition and your data on another. Having your data on a separate partition makes backing up easier.
Windows supports two types of user accounts.
An administrator account has more rights than a standard account.
Windows supports two types of accounts, standard accounts and administrator accounts.
These accounts are local accounts, meaning they are only recognized by the local computer.
Every Windows computer has two local administrator accounts:
1. During the Windows 7 installation, you are given the opportunity to enter an account name and password to a local user account that is assigned administrator privileges. This account is enabled by default.
2. A built-in administrator account is created by default. The built-in administrator account is named Administrator, does not have a password, and is disabled by default.
Three ways Windows supports accessing resources on a network are to use a Windows homegroup, workgroup, or domain.
A homegroup and workgroup are examples of a peer-to-peer (P2P) network, which is a network that is managed by each computer without centralized control. They form a logical group of computers and users that share resources, where administration, resources, and security on a workstation are controlled by that workstation.
The connecting lines describe the logical connections between computers and not the physical connections.
In network terminology, the arrangement of physical connections between computers is called the physical topology. The logical way the computers connect on a network is called the logical topology.
In a Windows workgroup, each computer maintains a list of users and their rights on that particular PC.
The computer allows a user on the network to access local resources based on these rights she has been given.
In a homegroup, each computer shares files, folders, libraries, and printers with other computers in the homegroup.
A homegroup provides less security than a workgroup because any user of any computer in the homegroup can access homegroup resources.
During the Windows installation, if you set the network location to a home network, you are given the opportunity to create or join a homegroup.
If the homegroup already exists on the network, you will need the homegroup password to join. Windows 7 Starter and Home Basic can join a homegroup, but they cannot create one.
A Windows domain is a logical group of networked computers that share a centralized directory database of user account information and security for the entire group of computers.
A Windows domain is a type of client/server network where security on each PC or other device is controlled by a centralized database on a domain controller.
Windows Server controls a network using the directory database called Active Directory.
Each user on the network must have his own domain-level account called a global account, global username or network ID, which is kept in Active Directory and assigned by the network or system administrator.
If your computer is part of a domain,
When Windows starts up, press Ctrl+Alt+Del to display a log on screen, and then enter your network ID and password.
A Windows computer can use a homegroup, workgroup, or domain configuration to join a network. Using a workgroup or homegroup, each computer on the network is responsible for sharing its resources with other computers on the network.
In a domain, the domain controller manages network resources. Windows Home editions cannot join a domain. Windows Starter and Home Basic can join a homegroup but cannot create one.
You might need to know how the IP address is assigned.
An IP address uniquely identifies a computer on the network. It might be assigned dynamically (IP address is assigned by a server each time it connects to the network) or statically (IP address is permanently assigned to the workstation).
Final checklist:
1. Minimum or recommended hardware requirement
2. Windows device drivers
3. Product key
4. Network
5. Upgrade or clean install
6. Dual boot
7. Backed up
For new installations, look for the product key written on the cover of the Windows setup DVD or affixed to the back of the Windows documentation booklet.
If you are reinstalling Windows on an existing system, look for the product key displayed in the System window. Click Start, right-click Computer, and select Properties from the shortcut menu.
If your current installation of Windows is corrupted,
You might be able to repair the installation rather than reinstalling Windows.
Steps to performing a Windows 7 in-place upgrade:
1. Close any open applications.
2. Insert the Windows 7 DVD in the DVD drive. Begin the Windows 7 installation from the AutoPlay box. If it does not appear, enter this command in the Search box: D:setup.exe, substituting the drive letter for your DVD drive for D.
3. The opening menu appears. If you have not yet performed the Windows 7 Upgrade Advisor process, you can do so now by clicking Check compatibility online. To proceed with the installation, click Install now.
If your computer refuses to read from the DVD, verify that your optical drive is a DVD drive. Perhaps it is only a CD drive.
4. On the next screen, you can choose to allow the setup program to download updates for the installation.
If you have Internet access, click Go online to get the latest updates for installation (recommended). Setup will download the updates. When using this option, you’ll need to stay connected to the Internet throughout the installation.
5. On the next screen, accept the license agreement and click Next.
6. On the next screen, select the type of installation you want, either Upgrade or Custom (advanced). The Upgrade option is only available when an existing version of Windows Vista or 7 is running. The Custom installation is a clean install. Select Upgrade.
7. Setup will check for any compatibility issues.
An error message requires that you end the installation and resolve the problem. A warning message allows you to click Next to continue with the installation.
8. The installation is now free to move forward. The PC might reboot several times.
At the end of this process, a screen appears asking you for the product key. Enter the product key and click Next.
The check box Automatically activate Windows when I’m online.
Normally, you would leave this option checked so that Windows 7 activates immediately. However, if you are practicing installing Windows 7 and intend to install it several times using the same DVD, you might choose to uncheck this box and not enter the product key during the installation.
9. On the following screen, you are asked how you want to handle Windows updates. Unless your company has a different policy, click Use recommended settings.
10. On the next screen, verify the time and date settings are correct and click Next.
11. On the next screen, select the network location. Network Discovery is turned off and you cannot join a homegroup or domain. This option is the most secure.
12. If you selected Home network in the previous step, the screen appears when a homegroup already exists and allows you to configure your homegroup settings. If you don’t want to use a homegroup, click Skip to continue.
To know what password has been assigned to an existing homegroup, go to a computer on the network that belongs to this homegroup. Open Control Panel and click Choose homegroup and sharing options under the Network and Internet group. On the next screen, click View or print the homegroup password.
13. Near the end of the installation, Windows Update downloads and installs updates and the system restarts.
Finally, a log on screen appears. Log in with your user account and password. The Windows 7 desktop loads and the installation is complete.

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