Survey of US History Exam 1

Flashcard maker : Dennis Jennings
European Hegemony
The domination over others by Europe crusaders/colonizers in the colonial time period.
Dutch East India Company
A company founded by the Dutch in the early 17th century to establish and direct trade throughout Asia. Richer and more powerful than England’s company, they drove out the English and Established dominance over the region. It ended up going bankrupt and being bought out by the British
Colombian Exchange
The exchange of plants, animals, diseases, and technologies between the Americas and the rest of the world following Columbus’s voyages
Spanish Colonization in the Americas
God & Gold. The Spanish colonizers were after precious metals and the spreading of Catholicism. With the natives they were exploitative had social hierarchy and cultural assimilation.
Virginia Company
A joint-stock company: based in Virginia in 1607: founded to find gold and a water way to the Indies: confirmed all Englishmen that they would have the same life in the New World, as they had in England, with the same rights: 3 of their ships transported the people that would found Jamestown in 1607.
Tobacco
crop that was the economic savior of Virginia
Religious Conversation
1765 Stamp Act
colonial merchants purchase stamped paper for books, documents, licenses, playing cards, newspapers, internal tax to pay for British troops- taxes without their consent
Colonial Congress
In Oct. 1765, delegates from NINE COLONIES met in NEW YORK CITY. This Stamp Act Congress issued a Declaration of Rights and Grievances, which stated that Parliament lacked the power to impose taxes on the colonies because the colonist weren’t represented in Parliament. For the first time, separate colonies began to act as one.
Right to Representation
Intolerable Acts
in response to Boston Tea Party, 4 acts passed in 1774, Port of Boston closed, reduced power of assemblies in colonies, permitted royal officers to be tried elsewhere, provided for quartering of troop’s in barns and empty houses
Inalienable Rights
fundamental rights inherent to being human that every person therefore possesses that cannot be taken away by government or another entity. This phrase was used in the Virginia Declaration of Rights and the Declaration of Independence. Life, Liberty, and the Pursuit of Happiness.
Indentured Servitude
the system of temporary servitude, where young men and women bound themselves to masters for fixed terms of servitude (four to five years), in exchange for passage to America, food and shelter. This method of labor was one of the largest elements of colonial population in America.
Chattel Slavery
A system of bondage in which a slave has the legal status of property and so can be bought and sold like property.
Triangular Slave Trade
A practice, primarily during the eighteenth century, in which European ships transported slaves from Africa to Caribbean islands, molasses from the Caribbean to Europe, and trade goods from Europe to Africa.
Middle Passage
a voyage that brought enslaved Africans across the Atlantic Ocean to North America and the West Indies
1660 Collapse if Tobacco Industry
Obstructionism
1793 Fugitive Slave Act
Ensured that fugitive slaves were returned to their owners.
1820-1860 Cotton Boom
Bacon’s Rebellion
an uprising in 1676 in the Virginia Colony, led by Nathaniel Bacon. It was the first rebellion in the American colonies in which discontented frontiersmen took part; a similar uprising in Maryland occurred later that year. The uprising was a protest against the governor of Virginia, William Berkeley.
Three Fifths Clause
slave counted as 3/5 of a person for population in congress. Resolved the dispute between Southern delegates who argued that slaves should count toward a state’s representative seats and the Northern states who argued that counting slaves as members of the population would grant an unfair advantage to the Southern states in Congress.
Missouri Compromise
Allowed Missouri to enter the union as a slave state, Maine to enter the union as a free state, prohibited slavery north of latitude 36˚ 30′ within the Louisiana Territory (1820)
Compromise of 1850
An agreement over slavery by which California joined the Union as a free state and a strict fugitive slave law was passed
Reconstruction
…, the period after the Civil War in the United States when the southern states were reorganized and reintegrated into the Union
Redemption Period
…, 1876-1900, sharecropping, tenant farming, black codes, poll taxes, grandfather clause, white primary
Sharecropping
Common form of farming for freed slaves in the South; received a small plot of land, seed, fertilizer, tools from the landlord who decided what and how much should be planted; landlord usually took half of the harvest.
Emancipation proclamation
freeing of slaves, Issued by abraham lincoln on september 22, 1862 it declared that all slaves in the confederate states would be free
Dred Scott
A black slave, had lived with his master for 5 years in Illinois and Wisconsin Territory. Backed by interested abolitionists, he sued for freedom on the basis of his long residence on free soil. The ruling on the case was that He was a black slave and not a citizen, so he had no rights.
Poll Tax
a tax a person is required to pay before he or she is allowed to vote. Poll taxes were used in many southern states after the Reconstruction period to restrict African-American citizens’ right to vote.
Literacy Test
A test administered as a precondition for voting, often used to prevent African Americans from exercising their right to vote.
Grandfather Clause
Law that excused a voter from a literacy test if his father or grandfather had been eligible to vote on January 1, 1867. Another method used to halt Blacks from voting.
13th amendment
abolished slavery
14th amendment
This amendment declared that all persons born or naturalized in the United States were entitled equal rights regardless of their race, and that their rights were protected at both the state and national levels.
15th amendment
citizens cannot be denied the right to vote because of race, color, or precious condition of servitude
Sovereignty
government free from external control

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