Survey of the prevalence of, and attitudes towards, academic cheating Essay
Structure of thesis
Chapter 1- This chapter provides the reader with background item of the topic. Statement of the job is stated along with aims of research and the benefits of the research.
Chapter 2 – This chapter provides the reader with information such as theory, definition and statistics obtained from other research in relation to the points in the questionnaire.
Chapter 3 – In chapter 3, the justification are provided for method chosen that is questionnaire. The sample is described along with other processs such as administrating questionnaires while detecting moralss research and response rate. A elaborate description of the questionnaires is besides given.
Chapter 4 –Analysis and happening chapter trial the information collected and see if informations meet hypothesis. The statistical informations are besides contrast with other writers.
Chapter 5 – This chapter focal point on the recommendation and decision.
Research methodological analysis, is defined as “the scientific discipline of analyzing how research is carried out” ( Rajasekar and al n.d, p.5 ) . In this research, a questionnaire study is used to analyze contextual factors such as equal behaviors, punishment, institutional policies and perceptual experience. This chapter warrant the usage of a questionnaire for this research, it besides explain the manner informations is collected and analysed.
Primary informations is the aggregation of new informations for a specific research. Primary information is obtained from the study.While secondary informations is bing information collected for other research ( Borrington and Stimpson,2002 ) .. Refering secondary informations, it is collected from magazine, Newspaper, cyberspace, books and academic diary obtained from Emerald, Jstor and SSRN. The usage of both informations is considered after sing advantages and disadvantages.
Quantitative Research & A ; Qualitative Research
This research focal point chiefly on quantitative informations and no qualitative information is included at any point.Limitation of quantitative research is that quantitative does non assist “to understand significance, belief and experiences” ( Wisker,2014 ) .
“A written set of inquiries that are given that are given to people in order to roll up facts and sentiments about something “Merriam-Webster. In the field of academic cheating, most researches used self-reported questionnaires ( Nazir and Aslam,2010 ) . In some instances, questionnaire is besides complemented with focal point group to roll up qualitative informations ( Lim and See, 2001 ) . Other writers like Rehman and Waheed ( 2013 ) use personal interview which were taken with images of respondents, they justify their usage of interview to obtain elaborate information.
A questionnaire is appropriate in this survey after judging advantages and disadvantages below:
Advantages( Learning Technology Dissemination Initiative, 2000 and evalued Toolkit,2006 ):
- A questionnaire encourage response for sensitive issues because it protect user`s individuality.
- It is dependable method, since the same inquiries is answered by different people.
- Planing and construing informations is quicker.
- Many respondents can be reached.
- Questionnaires are cost effectual.
- It is simple and speedy manner for respondent to reply inquiries.
- Simple to administer to respondents.
- Respondents may reply superficially.
- Students are afraid to supply their true sentiment, fearing being penalised.
- May confused respondents if questionnaire is ill designed and incorrect diction is used
Proper sequence is followed in this research ; this allows to clear misinterpretation of single inquiry. Clear relation of one inquiry with another is put on accent like how answering happen punishment is followed by consciousness of punishment. The easiest and general inquiry are put at the beginning like gender and the particular and inquiry that bear the features of seting strain on the memory of the respondent and inquiry of personal characters ( Kothari, n.d ) .The last subdivision trades with answering frequence in prosecuting in dishonest behavior.
This questionnaire contains entirely closed ended inquiry, the respondent has to take from a list of replies. Closed ended is less clip devouring for respondent and it besides eliminates the hazards of irrelevant replies ( John and Richardson, n.d ) .We make usage of three signifier of inquiry:
- Dichotomous Question
- Likert scale Question
- Multiple Choice Question
This peculiar subdivision collects information about the person.
This subdivision is based on McCabe and Trevino, 1993. This subdivision concerns the contextual factors such as equal behavior and coverage, punishments and institutional policies. The consciousness for punishments by the University of Mauritius consists of dichotomous inquiry which can be answered by “yes” or “No” . The list of punishments is obtained from chapter 5 & A ; 8 and a papers available online named “introduction.”
This subdivision tries to happen the perceptual experience of pupils. Questions 3.3 – frequence is a Likert graduated table of five point which gathers the information about the type of academic dishonest Acts of the Apostless and the figure of clip the pupils do acquire affect in these act. Question 3.2 ask the pupils about the Acts of the Apostless severity Question 3.1 asked the pupils about the appropriate punishments harmonizing to the pupils, they should give to each Acts of the Apostless. The dishonesty Acts of the Apostless are based on Lim and See ( 2001 ) , Ravoski and Levy ( 2006 ) and Belford and Geraghty ( 1999 ) . The questionnaire is based on Nazir and Aslam 2010.
In order for the questionnaire to be effectual and guarantee proper quality of response. A pilot testing is advisable to happen any defects in the questionnaires which can be amended ( Kothari, n.d ) .Before administrating the questionnaire to the pupils, pilot testing is performed, taking to remotion of confounding diction. Through this exercising, the clip continuance for finishing the questionnaire is about 10 proceedingss. A transcript of the study can be read in Appendix Section.
Description of population and Sample
A sample is defined as a subset of population which is a entire group of people or entities from whom information is required ( Wiid and Diggines, ) . Sampling method consist of two classs trying methods chance and non-probability sampling.
The sample consists of Accounting Students at UOM that involves both portion clip and full clip. Base on premise, a full clip category has an norm of 40 pupils while portion clip category has an mean 20 pupils, with the exclusion of accounting flat 4 part-time which has 8 pupils. The entire population is about 428 pupils.
Sample size is calculated through an on-line reckoner with an false assurance interval of 5 % and a assurance degree of 95 % . This gives a sample of 200 pupils. The tabular array below show the figure of respondents targeted and the figure obtained. Harmonizing to Roscoe 1975, a sample should be between 30 and 500 ( cited in Guidelines for Criterion-related Validation Studies,2010 ) , taking this in consideration the sum of 167 pupils out of 200 satisfy Roscoe`s regulation.
|Classs||Number of respondents||
|Bsc Accounting child Finance twelvemonth 3 + Bsc Accounting minor Management twelvemonth 3+ Bsc Accounting Minor Business Informatics +Bsc Accounting minor finance degree 4 ( portion clip )||128||67||52.3 %|
|Bsc Accounting child Finance twelvemonth 2 + Bsc Accounting minor Management twelvemonth 2+ Bsc Accounting Minor Business Informatics twelvemonth 2||120||46||38 %|
Bsc Accounting child Finance twelvemonth 1 + Bsc Accounting minor Management twelvemonth 1+ Bsc Accounting Minor Business Information sciences
|Bsc Accounting child Finance Year 1 + Bsc Accounting child Finance Year 3 ( portion clip )||40||0||0 %|
The questionnaires are distributed to the pupils present before the category start and no attempt has been made to reach absentees. I remain with the respondents to help them with any hard diction or confusion. The twelvemonth 3 and twelvemonth 1 batch shows unwillingness to finish questionnaires therefore response rate is 0 % . Year 2 portion clip category pupils did non organize portion of the respondent since I was unable to reach them. The aggregation for informations take one hebdomad, the above tabular array provides more item on the figure of questionnaires send to each degree and their response rate. The column questionnaires collected excludes questionnaires that were uncompleted and the refusal from the respondents.
Before administering the questionnaires, research moralss ( Smith, 2003 ) are respected, such as allowing the respondents know they are non obliged to take part. The intent of the research is besides briefly explained.Although the screen missive states that confidentiality of information is maintained, pupils are reassured once more anterior finishing the study.
“ A hypothesis can be defined as a probationary account of the research job, a possible result of the research or an educated conjecture about the research outcome” Sarantakos, 1993 ( cited Prasad and al, 2001 )
Features of hypothesis ( kothari,2004 ) :
- It should be clear and precise.
- It should be specific.
- It should be easy to understand.
- It should be traveling in line with bing research.
- It should be supported by empirical grounds.
- It should demo relationship between variables.
- It should be tested within sensible clip.
- It should be testable.
- H1 – Academic dishonesty will be lower among female than male pupils.
- H2- Academic dishonesty will be lower among first twelvemonth
- H3- Academic cheating will be reciprocally related to peer behavior
- H4 – Academic cheating will be reciprocally related to peer coverage
- H5- Academic cheating will be reciprocally related to institutional policies
- H6- Academic cheating will be reciprocally related with punishments
- H7- pupils will prosecute in least serious act more often
- H8- Active Acts of the Apostless will be more serious than inactive Acts of the Apostless, tests based act will be more serious than active based Acts of the Apostless and in category will be more serious than active.
- H 9 – pupils will propose the lowest punishments for the least serious act
- H10-Low consciousness of punishments among pupils
Method for informations analysis
SPSS is package that transforms informations that user input into statistics that the users want ( Social scientific discipline calculating co-ops, 2011 ) .SPSS is the preferable analysis package compared to Excel.
Advantages of SPSS ( Knotts and Steube,2010 ) :
- SPSS is good explained and illustrated on diverse media
- Friendly graphical user interfaces which allow statistical modus operandis
- SPSS is really expensive
Restriction of Survey:
The research is done merely on accounting pupils at the University, When a survey is done on one university, it prevent generalisation of consequence ( Mustapha and Sing Saw,2012 ) . Students in other third establishment in Mauritius could be considered. holding merely accounting pupils as sample limit the utility of the research for university.
This research is besides done at one period of clip, Davis and Welton ( 1991 ) propose that a longitudinal survey should be done on pupils by buttocks a group of first twelvemonth pupils and so follows them throughout their survey. All these restriction arises because of costs incurred to roll up informations. Besides clip is a restraint as I am a full clip pupil.
Social Desirability might impact response of our questionnaires. We did non include a Social Desirability graduated table in this research ; this could take our informations non to reflect the true as the respondents might wish to demo a positive image.
Not much informations about cheating at third degree within the local context or any adulterous statistics at the University Itself / other establishment is available ; statistics are merely about secondary pupils which are provided from the Mauritius Examination Syndicate. The lone information, we found was the university Policies and punishments and audit study from Tertiary Education Commission which appraise the system at the University.
The following chapter will take the informations collected to supply an in-depth analysis utilizing SPSS, that is informations will be represented visually through charts and Numberss along with reading.
Chapter 5 Analysis and determination
SPSS version 16 is used in this research to pull strings the information collected. SPSS offers besides many statistical maps and allows a It offers characteristics such as specifying variable, in this research the variable in the Likert is given a codification for illustration 5 to procedure. SPSS is besides better suited for treating big informations, compared to distribute sheet. The end product such as graph and statistics are separated from the informations input ( University of Illinois Library, 2012 ) . This chapter shows how the informations are transformed into meaningful statistics along with their reading.
This pie chart shows the per centum of male and female respondents from the 167 questionnaires collected. The per centum of female is 55.5 % while male respondent in our sample is 55.5 % .
Most of the respondents come from 3rd twelvemonth ( 35.9 % ) and first twelvemonth ( 32.3 % ) , this is due to high response rate.Second twelvemonth represent merely 27.5 due to low response rate. Year four has merely 7 respondents which shows 4.2 % on the saloon chart.
From the saloon chart, there are fewer respondents from Part clip pupils ( 4.2 % ) compared to full clip ( 95.8 % ) this is due to unwillingness from pupils of twelvemonth 3 and twelvemonth 1 portion clip pupils to finish the questionnaires. Second twelvemonth portion clip pupils were unable to be contacted due to the fact that their category agenda remained unknown.
Dependability for likert scale- To prove dependability for likert graduated table, I use the cronbach alpha
( once/Twice ) %
( 3-5 times ) %
( more than five times ) %
|Always %||Meanss||Standard Deviation|
|Transcript without beginnings||28.1||31.7||21.6||7.2||11.4||2.42||1.282|
|Aid on prep||25.7||32.9||21||12||8.4||2.44||1.230|
|Receive aid on prep||25.1||35.9||18||13.2||7.8||2.43||1.219|
|Supplying aid to a friend on single assignment||19.2||41.9||22.2||7.8||9||2.46||1.155|
|Asking a friend to assist on single assignment||24.6||40.1||18||6||11.4||2.40||1.242|
|Unfair means to entree test stuffs||74.3||12.6||7.8||6||4.8||1.011||2.325|
|Allowed person to rip off off exam reply||59.9||20.4||10.8||6.0||3||1.72||1.069|
|Use concealed notes||79.6||9.6||6.6||3.6||0.6||1.36||0.808|
|Not lending to fair part in undertaking||69.5||16.2||8.4||3||3||1.54||0.980|
|Liing to widen deadline||79.6||7.8||7.2||3.6||1.8||1.40||0.906|
|Use smartphone to see notes during test||82||8.4||7.2||1.2||1.2||1.31||0.760|
|Submit another pupil undertaking as your ain||80.8||10.8||5.4||0.6||2.4||1.33||0.810|
|Transcript from another pupils without pupils cognizing||68.9||19.2||6||3.6||2.4||1.51||0.937|
Table 2 – Punishment
|Acts||No punishment %||Fine %||Fail in capable %||Suspension %||Ejection %||Mean||Standard Deviation|
|Transcript without beginnings||56.3||25.7||15||2.4||0.6||1.65||0.864|
|Aid on prep||80.8||12||5.4||0||1.8||1.30||0.732|
|Receive aid on prep||80.2||12.6||4.2||2.4||0.6||1.31||0.717|
|Supplying aid to a friend on single assignment||80.8||12.0||4.2||1.8||1.2||1.31||0.742|
|Asking a friend to assist on single assignment||75.4||12||7.2||4.2||1.2||1.44||0.889|
|Unfair means to entree test stuffs||12||32.3||30.5||18||7.2||2.76||1.104|
|Allowed person to rip off off exam reply||13.8||37.3||29.9||15||4.2||2.59||1.037|
|Use concealed notes||9||18.6||38.3||24.6||9.6||3.07||1.084|
|Not lending to fair part in undertaking||37.1||21.6||29.9||9.0||2.4||2.18||1.105|
|Liing to widen deadline||21.6||37.1||18.6||17.4||5.4||2.48||1.166|
|Use smartphone to see notes during test||5.4||17.4||30.5||30.5||15.2||3.35||1.108|
|Submit another pupil undertaking as your ain||6.6||22.2||26.9||31.7||12.6||3.22||1.125|
|Transcript from another pupils without pupils cognizing||17.4||24.6||30.5||14.4||13.2||2.81||1.259|
Table 3 – Severity of the Acts of the Apostless
|Acts||Most Severe %||Very terrible %||Moderate severe %||Less terrible %||Least terrible %||Mean||Standard Deviation|
|Transcript without beginnings||7.2||21.6||41.3||18||12||3.06||1.079|
|Aid on prep||5.4||10.8||26.3||35.3||22.2||3.58||1.110|
|Receive aid on prep||2.4||12.0||31.1||29.3||25.1||3.63||1.061|
|Supplying aid to a friend on single assignment||4.2||9.6||22.2||32.9||31.1||3.77||1.118|
|Asking a friend to assist on single assignment||2.4||11.4||19.2||36.5||20.5||3.81||1.068|
|Unfair means to entree test stuffs||30.5||38.9||18.0||9.0||3.6||2.16||1.072|
|Allowed person to rip off off exam reply||31.1||36.5||18||10.2||4.2||2.20||1.115|
|Use concealed notes||45.5||35.3||11.4||5.4||2.4||1.84||0.990|
|Not lending to fair part in undertaking||31.7||27.5||22.8||13.2||4.8||2.32||1.188|
|Liing to widen deadline||28.1||28.7||26.3||12.6||4.2||2.36||1.142|
|Use smartphone to see notes during test||53.3||28.1||12||5.4||1.2||1.73||0.953|
|Submit another pupil undertaking as your ain||54.5||26.3||11.4||6.0||1.8||1.74||1.000|
|Transcript from another pupils without pupils cognizing||37.7||29.3||24.6||6.6||1.8||2.05||1.025|