Summer Reading American colonies by Alan Taylor
– low hills
– long growing season
– fertile soil
-In Britain, the King repeatedly granted territory to an individual or a small group, rather than to a chartered company. The men who received these, called proprietors, or sometimes “Lords Proprietors”, were invested not only with property under private law but also with gubernatorial authority to administer it with extraordinary control.
-The method was most notably used during the early colonization along the Atlantic coasts of North America and the Caribbean by Great Britain. Most were run under a colonial charter agreement, which is reviewed by the ruling Monarch. A good example is the Province of Pennsylvania, granted to William Penn.
-This type of indirect rule eventually fell out of favor as the English Sovereigns sought to concentrate their power and authority, and the colonies were converted to crown colonies, i.e. governed by officials appointed by the King.DUTCH: Religious tolerance, not a republic.
PENNSYLVANIA: Quaker, a form of Protestant.
QUAKERS: were farmers, didn’t like wealth and were hard workers.
NEW JERSEY = poor
PENNSYLVANIA = livestock & grain (sent to West Indies)
-B/c the Dutch compete w/ English trade in the West Indies, the British pass navigation acts: English colonies can only ship to England w/ English ships.
-England conquers New Netherlands
-large rivers, muddy
-perfect conditions for rice
-lots of labor needed for plantations => African slaves brought in
-Lots of disease partly b/c of mosquitoes
-Wealthy planters ruled
-Carolina elite did not like the Lords Proprietors and saw them as meddlesome
-Carolina elite wanted direct rule to assure military protection in case Africans revolted => Crown takes control
1st: timber, livestock
2nd: tar rice & indigo
Georgia: hemp, flax, mulberry, grapes
not appealing to England for imports (has little of value there)
New Englands products are sent to the West Indies instead
Royal charter = Massachusetts Bay Company becomes self-governing colony
1st Republic: Puritan men elected governor, deputy governor & legislature
Mostly “middling people”
More equality, opportunity & education b/c the gap between rich and poor was smaller
Equal Land distribution
VIRTUALLY INDEPENDENT FROM ENGLAND
Came from all ranks of English Society
Puritans flee from England b/c they don’t want Catholics, just Protestants
NO RELIGIOUS TOLERANCE
They developed a culture that was entrepreneurial and very pious in Anglo-America
Fanatics: Salem witch trials, punish sinners & dissidents, many death penalties
Puritans: stable families => Stable Society
LITTLE & BIG COMMONWEALTHS
No slaves b/c they rely on their family for labor
There was an economic depression when people stopped coming after the Great Migration ended
-No cash crops
-traded with the West Indies
-*** New England freedom depended on West Indian slavery***
England tries to discourage New England trade by forcing New England to only trade w/ England using English ships.
New England does not like England
England does not like New England
Most were unfree
Hostile relations with Native Americans
work became synonymous with slavery
fear of slave revolts
White solidarity = more rights
Race determines social status
Originally was not that racist but it eventually developed to be so
-brackish wells (salt poisoning)
close to trade, trade networks/ harbors, rivers
woods, lumber, trees
IDEAL FOR TOBACCO
Longer growing season
Tobacco = wealth
planters, elites, governors,
Local gov’t held trials & collected taxes, also maintained & infrastructure, militia
2. Provincial Gov’t
3. Parish vestry
4. families/little commonwealths
they manipulate the law
-religious toleration (did it to attract colonists)
Chesapeake – Anglican
Church of England, therefore recieved funding and taxes
2nd = discovered TOBACCO, increase in indentured servants + they give away land for free! Whoohoo!
Their economy fluctuated with their exports of Tobacco (S x D)
Larger class distinction betw. rich & poor
There was much controversy between the Old Lights & NEw Lights
also radicals vs. moderates
RADICALS: experimental religion
A belief in the need for personal conversion (or being “born again”)
Actively expressing and sharing the gospel
A high regard for biblical authority, especially Biblical inerrancy
An emphasis on teachings that proclaim the death and resurrection of Jesus.
The Fundamental Orders were adopted by the Connecticut Colony council on January 14, 1638/39 OS (January 24, 1639 NS). The orders describe the government set up by the Connecticut River towns, setting its structure and powers.
It has the features of a written constitution, and is considered by some as the first written Constitution in the Western tradition, and thus earned Connecticut its nickname of The Constitution State. John Fiske, a Connecticut historian, was the first to claim that the Fundamental Orders were the first written Constitution, a claim disputed by some modern historians. The orders were transcribed into the official colony records by the colony’s secretary Thomas Welles. It was a Constitution for the colonial government of Hartford and was similar to the government Massachusetts had set up. However, this Order gave men more voting rights and opened up more men to be able to run for office positions.
– Carolinas: slave rebellions resulted in their owners putting up more restrictions and punishments
-White elites distracted the common whites from rebelling by uniting whites racially
ex. Whites fight together against the Indians
-began consuming a lot of English products
-tobacco was a staple crop that replaced an import, which improved England’s balance of trade
Mercantilism ^ ?
worked hard to support themselves – Puritan work ethic
nearly universal education & public worship
eventually whites were united racially b/c of elites’ fear of a slave revolt- needed to oppress slaves and take away their freedom
Slave revolts took away more priviledges + punishments
blacks could not vote, sometimes were not allowed to own property
whites had economic, social and political opportunities, Blacks did not.